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What is Intelligence?• According to Sternberg and Sternberg,intelligence is the capacity to learn fromexperience, using metacognitive processes toenhance learning, and the ability to adapt to thesurrounding environment (Sternberg &Sternberg, 2012).• There are many different people that havecontributed to this field of study including Carroll,Gardner, and Sternberg(Sternberg & Sternberg,2012).(Sternberg &Sternberg, 2012)
Important Contributorstowards intelligence• Carroll- Three-stratum model• Gardner- Multiple Intelligence model• Sternberg- The triarchic theory of intelligence(Sternberg &Sternberg, 2012)
Carroll• Carroll proposed a model of intelligence thatfocused on three basic areas including:-Stratum I: Narrow, specific abilities-Stratum 2: Broad abilities-Stratum 3: Single intelligenceThis is the most widely known/accepted model ofintelligence. This model is a hierarchy of cognitiveabilities.(Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012)
Three-Stratum Model of Intelligence• Stratum I:-This stratum includes many skills that are moredefined and specific including skills such as spelling.• Stratum II:-This stratum focuses on a more broadrange of intelligence including short/longterm memory, fluid intelligence (speed and accuracy),and crystallized intelligence (abundance of knowledge).• Stratum III:-This stratum is at the top of the hierarchy and is mostcommonly seen as g. This strata is general intelligence.(Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012)
Gardner• Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligencesinstead of just a singular intelligence. The multipleintelligence theory proposed eight different types ofintelligence including:-Linguistic-Logical/Mathematical-Musical-Bodily-kinesthetic-Interpersonal-Intrapersonal-Naturalistic-Spatial("Howard Gardners Multiple," Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences)(Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012)
Linguistic IntelligenceWhat is linguistic intelligence?• The ability to communicate thoughts and ideaswell, speak and write language or new languages.Careers most associated with linguistic intelligenceinclude:-Writers-Poets-Communications("Theories of intelligence," )
Logical-Mathematical IntelligenceLogical-Mathematical Intelligence is:• The ability to perform and solve complexmathematical problems. Also, the ability toengage in logical arguments/conversations.Careers most associated with Logical-Mathematical Intelligence include:-Mathematicians-Math teachers("Theories of intelligence," )
Musical IntelligenceMusical Intelligence is:• The ability to learn how to read and writemusic and play an instrument well.Careers most associated with MusicalIntelligence include:-Composer-Musician("Theories of intelligence," )
Bodily-kinesthetic IntelligenceWhat is Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence?• The ability to use the body to perform differenttasks in a fluid motion. The ability to run, jump,and dance fluently and with rhythm.Careers most associated with bodily-kinestheticintelligence include:-Dancers-Athletes("Theories of intelligence," )
Interpersonal IntelligenceInterpersonal Intelligence is:• The ability to connect with others on an emotional level.The ability to assess a situation and understand andsense how others are feeling, as well as how to handlean emotional situation.Careers most associated with interpersonal intelligenceinclude-Teachers-Psychiatrist/Psychologist-Counselors("Theories of intelligence," )
Intrapersonal IntelligenceWhat is Intrapersonal Intelligence?• Intrapersonal intelligence is knowing yourselfinside and out. This is the ability to know yourown strengths and weaknesses.Careers most associated with intrapersonalintelligence include:-Entrepreneur("Theories of intelligence," )
Naturalistic IntelligenceNaturalistic intelligence is:• The ability to work with biology and work withand around natural settings.Careers most associated with naturalisticintelligence include:-Naturalists-Biologists("Theories of intelligence," )
Spatial IntelligenceWhat is spatial intelligence?• The ability to visually perceive items such asreading a map or arranging items to make themfit into a predetermined space.Careers most associated with spatial intelligenceinclude:-Navigator-Artist("Theories of intelligence," )
Objections to Gardner’s IntelligenceTheory• There are some psychologists that disagreewith this theory because this view focuses onmodularity. Modularity theorists believe thatthese intelligences can be located in specificareas of the brain but such findings have notbeen proved with empirical data. Scientistsalso question the flexibility of an idea ofmultiple intelligences because of narrow longterm memory.(Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012)
Sternberg• Whereas Gardner focused on specific andseparate areas of intelligence, Sternberg focuseson how all of these intelligence factors worktogether. People do better when matched for atask in their strongest area of intelligence.Sternberg was more focused on improving overallperformance of all three factors.• The Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence refersto the analytic, creative, and practical aspects ofintelligence.(Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012)
Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence• Creative abilities: The ability togenerate/invent new ideas• Analytic abilities: The ability to analyze aproblem or situation as well as compare• Practical abilities: The ability to applytechniques to situations and persuade others(Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012)
IntelligenceThere are many psychologists that have studiedthe realm of intelligence, and the topic is everchanging. Thanks to Carroll, Gardner, andSternberg there are three distinct ways tomeasure intelligence including the Three-Stratum Theory, The Multiple IntelligenceTheory, and the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence.
Works Cited• Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences [Web Photo]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=NaRU7Mxg7otCoM&tbnid=0dnpt-qtWbqKeM:&ved=0CAQQjB0&url=http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.martin/home&ei=oAu1UfbZJOPk0gHd6YDQAw&bvm=bv.47534661,d.dmQ&psig=AFQjCNFYHoIrjC999H1dxlLaKA4M8kjuPg&ust=1370905660960885• Sternberg, R., & Sternberg, K. (2012). Cognitive psychology. (6th ed., pp. 17-21).Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.• Theories of intelligence. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://otec.uoregon.edu/intelligence.htm