Industrial and organizational psychology 1

24 de Sep de 2014

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Industrial and organizational psychology 1

  2. LET US ANALYZE THE TYPICAL DAY OF AN EMPLOYEE: ACTIVITY HOURS Morning (prepare, eat meals, take a bath, etc) 1-2 (4 am) Commute to work 2-3 Work 9 (9 am - 6 pm) Commute going home 2-4 (9 pm) Sleep 6 Other (eat, watch, and prepare to sleep) 1
  3. What is IO Psychology? •IO Psychology, an area of psychology that studies human behavior in work settings(Riggio, 2008). •Industrial/organizational psychology is a branch of psychology that applies the principles of psychology to the workplace. The purpose of I/O psychology is “to enhance the dignity and performance of human beings, and the organizations they work in, by advancing the science and knowledge of human behavior” (Rucci, 2008 cited in Aamodt, 2010).
  4. What is IO Psychology? •“I/O psychologists recognize the interdependence of individuals, organizations, and society, and they recognize the impact of factors such as increasing government influences, growing consumer awareness, skill shortages, and the changing nature of the workforce. I/O psychologists facilitate responses to issues and problems involving people at work by serving as advisors and catalysts for business, industry, labor, public, academic, community, and health organizations.” (SIOP)
  5. MAJOR GOALS IN IO PSYCHOLOGY •To increase the productivity and well- being of employees, there are two approaches to how this can be accomplished. •The industrial approach (the “I” in I/O psychology) focuses on determining the competencies needed to perform a job, staffing the organization with employees who have those competencies, and increasing those competencies through training.
  6. MAJOR GOALS IN IO PSYCHOLOGY •The organizational approach (the “O” in I/O psychology) creates an organizational structure and culture that will motivate employees to perform well, give them with the necessary information to do their jobs, and provide working conditions that are safe and result in an enjoyable and satisfying work environment.
  7. CORE COMPETENCIES SOURCE: retrieved as of May 2016
  8. MAJOR FIELDS IN IO PSYCHOLOGY • Personnel psychology study and practice in such areas as analyzing jobs, recruiting applicants, selecting employees, determining salary levels, training employees, and evaluating employee performance. • Organizational psychology are concerned with the issues of leadership, job satisfaction, employee motivation, organizational communication, conflict management, organizational change, and group processes within an organization.
  9. MAJOR FIELDS IN IO PSYCHOLOGY • Human factors concentrate on workplace design, human-machine interaction, ergonomics, and physical fatigue and stress. These psychologists frequently work with engineers and other technical professionals to make the workplace safer and more efficient.
  11. Brief History • Walter Dill Scott- The Theory of Advertising (1903) • Walter Dill Scott- Increasing Human Efficiency in Business (1911) • Hugo Munsterberg- Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) • Prior to WWI- “economic psychology,” “business psychology,” and “employment psychology” • WWI- IO psychologists made an impact • Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth- improve productivity and reduce fatigue • Frederick Taylor- Scientific Management Theory • Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies – Electrical Plant in Illinois (1935)
  12. GOALS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH •Describe. Attempts to satisfy the 1st goal by describing production levels in a company, rates of absenteeism and turnover, and the number and type of interactions between supervisors and workers for arriving at a more accurate picture of the organization under study. •Explain. It is achieved when the IO psychologist attempts discover why certain work behaviors occur.
  13. GOALS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH • Predict. It is addressed when a researcher attempts to use scores from certain psychological tests to predict which employee would be the best candidate for a management position, or when a researcher uses a theory of motivation to predict how employees respond to diff. incentive programs. • Control. When the researcher or IO psychology alter behavior to get the desired outcomes.
  14. WHAT IS RESEARCH? • Research is a scientific investigation to a particular topic. It must gather data, analyze, and interpret findings. A good research contains good attributes: 1. Based on the works of others, 2. It can be replicated, 3. It can be generalized to other settings, 4. Based on logical rationale link to theory, 5. Doable, 6. Generates new questions, 7. Apolitical.
  15. WHY CONDUCT RESEARCH? •It helps us answer our questions. •It helps us critically listen and analyze information to make more intelligent decisions.
  16. STEPS IN RESEARCH PROCESS •Formulation of the problem or issue •Generation of hypothesis • Selecting the research design •Collection of data •Analysis of research data • Interpretation of research results
  17. Research Methods to be Used • Relationship Between Variables Correlational Method, two different variables ae observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them. • The Experimental method Manipulation. The researcher manipulates one variable by changing its value from one level to another. A second variable is observed (measured) to determine whether the manipulation causes changes to occur. Control. The researcher must exercise control over the research situation to ensure that other, extraneous variables do not influence the relationship being examined.
  18. • Quasi-Experiment It is a design involves selecting groups, upon which a variable is tested, without any random pre-selection processes (Ex. Noise in the workplace). • Archival Research It involves using previously collected data or records to answer a research question (Ex. Determine good performers from poor performers). • Survey It involves asking people about their opinion on some topic. Research Methods to be Used
  19. From: True positives – Hits; see the presence False positives – ‘false alarms’ ; identify presence of actual absence False negatives – Misses; fails to see the target True negative – Correct rejection; correctly see the absence of target
  20. Source:
  21. ETHICAL DILEMMAS •TYPE A, high level of uncertainty as to what is right or what is wrong, there appears no best solutions, and presence of both positive and negative consequences to a decision. Ex. Animal use and drugs •TYPE B, it is known as “rationalizing dilemma.” The difference between right and wrong is much clearer than in TYPE A.
  22. ERRORS • SDT, hits - ‘true positives’ = see / correct target • False alarms – ‘false positives’ = identify presence of actual absence • Misses – false negatives = fails to see the target • Correct rejection – true negative = correctly see the absence of target
  23. SAMPLE APPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH • The implications of job realistic preview (jrp) to applicants during interview. • Relationship of job satisfaction and absenteeism. • Connection between employee participation in organizational decision making and levels of job satisfaction. • Structured interview vs. Unstructured interview
  24. IO PSYCHOLOGY TODAY & IN THE FUTURE •First Trend: The changing nature of work •Second Trend: Expanding focus on human resources •Third Trend: Increasing diversity in workforce •Fourth Trend: Increasing globalization in business
  26. Industrial Psych • Introduction to IO/Brief History • Differentiate the various functions involved in Human Resource Management • Job Analysis • Planning and Recruitment • Discuss the major considerations and principles of employee selection • Apply the major principles in performance evaluation • Describe the process and principles in employee training and development • Legal Issues • Apply the major theories of motivation in designing and administering rewards • Job Satisfaction • Team Dynamics • Leadership • Organizational Development • Stress Management • 100 Items Test (Good for 1 ½ - 2 hrs) • Rationale Organizational Psych
  27. References: • Riggio, R.E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed). Pearson: USA. • Aamodt, M.G. (2010). Industrial/organizational psychology (6th ed).Cengage Learning: USA. • son02commentaryWC.pdf retrieved as of May 2016

Notas del editor

  1. Walter Dill Scott wrote The Theory of Advertising, in which psychology was first applied to business WWI-made an impact because of Army Alpha and Beta recruits Hawthorne – studying illumination on employees’ work patterns, the researchers found that the social and psychological effects of monitoring employees had a greater impact on their work than did their physical environment. This highlighted the importance of applying psychological science to the workplace and brought about an emergence in the interest of organizational psychological concepts like motivation and human relations.
  2. COMMON SENSE IS OFTEN WRONG Changing your answer in board examination as an example. Contrary to the belief, 33 studies conducted and proved that majority of the time, answers will be changed from wrong to right.
  3. Surveys can be conducted by mail, personal interviews, phone, fax, email, Internet, or magazines. The method chosen depends on such factors as s ample size, budget, amount of time available to conduct the study, and need for a r epresentative sample.