2. Laboratory Method
• A method where a student experiences
and actual use of equipment or materials
as he/she resolves problems and
develops concepts, skills and values.
• Used to designate a teaching procedure that
uses experimentation with apparatus and
materials to discover or verify facts and to study
• Defined as a teaching procedure dealing with
firsthand experiences regarding materials or
facts obtained from investigation or
4. Aims (by John Walton - 1996)
• To give firsthand experience in the laboratory
which may increase student interest
• To provide student participation in original
• To develop skill in the use of laboratory
equipments and instruments
• Experimental- aims to train students in
problem solving with incidental acquisition of
information and motor skill.
Emphasizes discovery, original procedure,
analysis and solution to problems
• Observational- the acquisition of facts is the
dominant aim of method.
Facts are acquired through activities such as
a visit on a museum, exhibits, and art
galleries, watching demonstrations, listening
to lecture, viewing films and going on field
• Introductory Step. Includes the determination
of the work to be done. The teacher should
motivate the work at this stage.
• Work period. No matter what they are
working on, the students will gain experience
in scientific procedure, handling raw material,
and using tool.
• Culminating activities. Decide on how to
present results of their individual work.
Example: reporting, illustrating, exhibiting
• It is interesting and joyful for the learner. He
likes to do something with his two hands.
• It is based on the two sound psychological
principles namely, ”Proceed from concrete to
abstract” and “Learn by doing”.
• The learner acquires a clear understanding of
the subject. He finds or discovers facts with his
• It provides great scope for independent work
and individual development. It helps in the
growth of self-reliance.
• It inculcates the spirit of cooperation and
exchange of ideas when the students are
required to perform laboratory work in groups.
• A successful experiment is a source of joy and
encouragement to the learner.
• Shyness of hands is removed, as the learner
has to handle apparatus and material.
• The application of mathematics becomes
increasingly evident to the learner. Thus the
subject becomes functional and meaningful to
• Some topics of mathematics are best
understood through this method.
9. Drawbacks of Laboratory Method
• The Method is very expensive. Every school
cannot afford to spend a large amount on
• Laboratory work is not typical mathematical
work; and hence this method, if exclusively
used, does not give any training to the learner
in the true mathematical thinking.
• It acquaints the students with facts and not
• All the topics of mathematics cannot exclusively
be taught by this method.
10. Drawbacks of Laboratory Method
• It needs thorough planning and supervision,
otherwise students may just play with
instruments without deriving any substantial
gain. Since the teacher will be required to pay
individual attention, it may not be practicable in
• It is an exceedingly laborious and slow method.
• It is not at all easy to make the students
discover mathematical facts experimentally,
especially in lower classes.
11. Drawbacks of Laboratory Method
• It may sometimes degenerate into a kind of
manual training only.
• The tendency of cooking up results or copying
may develop among them, as it is not easy to
12. Healthy Balance
• We can never assume that one single
method can be the best way to present
Mathematics. Nothing is perfect. So as
future teachers, it is all in our hands
when and how to present Math!