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ERGONOMICS - Hearing (auditory sense)

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Hearing as an auditory sense.

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ERGONOMICS - Hearing (auditory sense)

  1. 1. HEARING
  2. 2. Acoustics The science and technology of sound, including its production, transmission, and effects
  3. 3. • Transmit desired sounds reliably and pleasantly to the hearer • Satisfactory to the human regarding noise • Minimizes sound-related annoyance and stress • Minimizes disruptions of speech • Prevents hearing loss Acoustical design goal
  4. 4. Psycho-Acoustics Describe how we perceive sound in relation to their physical properties (pitch, timbre, loudness, noise and speech comprehension)
  5. 5. SOUND Any vibration (passage of zones of compression and rarefaction through the air or any other physical medium) that stimulates an auditory sensation.
  6. 6. Ear Anatomy and Hearing
  7. 7. HOW DO WE HEAR?
  8. 8. The human HEARING range
  9. 9. can rarely hear frequencies above 12 kHz ADULT can hear tones of about 16 Hz to 20 kHz YOUNG
  10. 10. RANGES OF ADULT HUMAN HEARING
  11. 11. SoundPressure Level 𝑆𝑃𝐿 = log(𝑃2 𝑃₀−2 ) or 𝑆𝑃𝐿 = 20 log10( 𝑃𝑃₀−1) Where: Pₒ = the threshold of the hearing P = root-mean-square (rms) sound pressure for the existing sound
  12. 12. SOUND INTENSITYLEVELS
  13. 13. Airborne sound travels through the ear canal and excites the eardrums and the structures behind it Pathwaysof Sound
  14. 14. Fox (1983) distinguished between two different kinds of music: background and industrial. Human Responses to Music
  15. 15. Sound that is unwanted, objectionable, annoying, or unacceptable to a person, which is often but not always loud NOISE
  16. 16. Noise can create negative emotions, feelings of surprise, frustration, anger, and fear HUMAN RESPONSE TO NOISE
  17. 17. The damage is probably due to an overstimulation of cell metabolism, leading to oxygen depletion and destruction, or to exceeding the elastic capacities of the physical structures. Results of damage to the cochlear cilia, the organs of Corti at the basilar membrane in the inner ear, or the nerves leading to the CNS. Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS) and Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) PhysiologicalEffects ofSound
  18. 18. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NOISE
  19. 19. A permanent hearing impairment resulting from prolonged exposure to high levels of noise Noise-induced Hearing Loss (NIHL))
  20. 20. As noise becomes more intense, we become more aroused and our performance of certain tasks can improve. Beyond a certain level of intensity, however, task performance degrades. EFFECTS OF NOISE
  21. 21. EFFECTS OF NOISE ON HUMANPERFORMANCE
  22. 22. Three Strategies to PREVENT NIHL
  23. 23. HEARING PROTECTION DEVICES An earplug is a device worn in the external ear canal which is commonly made from vinyl, silicone, elastomer formulations, cotton and wax, spun glass wool, and slow- recovery closed-cell foam
  • MarzieSadeghian

    Feb. 4, 2020
  • sati_ne

    Aug. 10, 2018
  • cryptos08

    Oct. 29, 2017

Hearing as an auditory sense.

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