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Learning-> is the most basic of all
human experience. Includes Intellectual,
Emotional, and Physical Learning
Three areas of Learning
• Subjective Principles – concerned with “what” the
learner brings to the learning situation .
• Self-concept – new experience are learned more
effectively if they agree with or enhance our self-concept.
If a new experience is painful and insulting, we t6end to
reject or to forget it even if its acceptance would help us
to become better person.
• Past experience – to learn more effectively, a
person should be aware of the influence of his
limited and selective personal experience and to
maintain an open and flexible attitude
• Intelligence – the confidence, creativity ,leadership ,
and desire to achieve could be help learning to be
• Motivation – when a learner is really interested and
involved he will learn better.
• Emotion – when we are enthusiastic, we tend to learn
better. Fearful situations impair learning ability. Mild
stress or anxiety may help learning by making the
learning more alert.
Objective Principles of learning - deal with
factors relevant to learning situations that includes :
• People differ in their rate of learning.
• Forgetting is more rapid then learning.
• Review is essential to retain what has been learned.
• Learning is more effective when followed by appropriate rewards.
• Habits are better formed when the sequence of continuous,
intermittent, and variable reward schedules are followed.
• When the preceding schedules are followed, the behavior can
• Generalization permits the learning of large amounts of
• Discrimination permits appropriate usage of information learned
Special Learning Techniques – use to increase
learning efficiency that includes :
• Massed & distributed learning
• Over learning
• Planning the sequence of learning
• Learning by feedback
• Integrative learning
• Experiential approach to learning
Planning the Sequence of Learning
In general, when there is a large amount of
information to be learned, such as complex directions, it is best to
distribute the total learning time into separate periods.
• Distributed practice – learning section by section is a better
technique than trying to give all the things to be learned at the same
• Massed practice – learning to solve a problem or learning an
entire sequence at one time with no rest or interruptions.
Learning by Feedback
Persons learn better when they are informed as to
the correctness or incorrectness of their responses. This
process is called feedback. Knowledge of results helps
them to learn faster because full information is available
and the task is become more interesting. There is much
evidence that people learn better when they are
constantly informed as to how they are doing and shown
ways to improve.
- Is a learning theory describing a movement toward
integrated lessons helping students make connections across
- Learning by wholes tends to be better
than learning by parts.
- Fostering students' abilities to
integrate learning--over time, across
courses, and between academic,
personal, and community life--is one of
the most important goals and
challenges of higher education.
I HEAR AND I FORGET
I SEE AND I REMEMBER
I DO AND I UNDERSTAND.
-Ancient Chinese Proverb
How do we decide which
mode of experiential
learning will work best?
5 Factors used in Experiential
Learning must be current
Learning must be Eclectic
Learning must be inclusive
learning must deal with the Essential, not
structures and forms
Learning must be Dynamic
Learning must be Current
- new ways of doing things are
constantly being introduced
Learning must be Eclectic
- With the current trend to merge the different disciplines
or to use the interdisciplinary approach, there is not one
subject matter that can claim that it is the most important
Learning must be Inclusive
- There is on-going search for new knowledge, hence, all
the disciplines must contribute to the discovery of new
and more important techniques
Learning must deal with the Essential, not Structures and
- Experiential education focuses on-the spot data and
analysis, planning action and evaluation are done on here-and
Learning must be Dynamic
- to be dynamic one is always growing and alive, hence,
learning is an on-going process.
- careful planning and control is however necessary for
He states that
addresses behavior, not
attitude; it deals with action,
not concepts. It is a process
philosophy. Its principal
thesis is that learning is only
learning when it results in
some new behavior.”
Recalling & Learning
Recall is a very important factor in learning.
There are several ways of recalling.
i. Self-recitation while the material is being learned.
- recall is helped by recalling during practice.
ii. Overlearning helps the learner to have a better
memory since he can recall more efficiently
iii. Periodic review helps to cut down the effects of
iv. Following a logical pattern makes us remember the
Guidelines for Curriculum Development
Based on the principles and on what have been discussed
in the previous pages, curriculum developers must
bear in mind the following guidelines in making a
1) A good curriculum must encourage inquiry and
2.) A good curriculum must be democratic with regard
3.) A good curriculum must accept individual differences
Guidelines for curriculum development
4.) A good curriculum must take into consideration
scientific and scholarly techniques and findings.
5.) A good curriculum must minimize memorizing and
6.) A good curriculum must take into consideration the
potential for achievement through either the
individual learner or the group.
7.) A good curriculum must employ teacher resources in
a multi-dimensional role