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Curriculum development and management of learning

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Curriculum development and management of learning.... group 3 report

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Curriculum development and management of learning

  1. 1. Curriculum Development And Management of Learning
  2. 2. Learning-> is the most basic of all human experience. Includes Intellectual, Emotional, and Physical Learning .
  3. 3. Three areas of Learning Principles: Subjective Principles Self-concept Past experience
  4. 4. • Subjective Principles – concerned with “what” the learner brings to the learning situation . • Self-concept – new experience are learned more effectively if they agree with or enhance our self-concept. If a new experience is painful and insulting, we t6end to reject or to forget it even if its acceptance would help us to become better person.
  5. 5. • Past experience – to learn more effectively, a person should be aware of the influence of his limited and selective personal experience and to maintain an open and flexible attitude
  6. 6. • Intelligence – the confidence, creativity ,leadership , and desire to achieve could be help learning to be effective. • Motivation – when a learner is really interested and involved he will learn better. • Emotion – when we are enthusiastic, we tend to learn better. Fearful situations impair learning ability. Mild stress or anxiety may help learning by making the learning more alert.
  7. 7. Objective Principles of learning - deal with factors relevant to learning situations that includes : • People differ in their rate of learning. • Forgetting is more rapid then learning. • Review is essential to retain what has been learned. • Learning is more effective when followed by appropriate rewards. • Habits are better formed when the sequence of continuous, intermittent, and variable reward schedules are followed. • When the preceding schedules are followed, the behavior can become self-rewarding. • Generalization permits the learning of large amounts of information. • Discrimination permits appropriate usage of information learned through generalization.
  8. 8. Special Learning Techniques – use to increase learning efficiency that includes : • Massed & distributed learning • Feedback • Over learning
  9. 9. Techniques of Management of Learning
  10. 10. • Planning the sequence of learning • Learning by feedback • Integrative learning • Experiential approach to learning
  11. 11. Planning the Sequence of Learning In general, when there is a large amount of information to be learned, such as complex directions, it is best to distribute the total learning time into separate periods. • Distributed practice – learning section by section is a better technique than trying to give all the things to be learned at the same time. • Massed practice – learning to solve a problem or learning an entire sequence at one time with no rest or interruptions.
  12. 12. Learning by Feedback Persons learn better when they are informed as to the correctness or incorrectness of their responses. This process is called feedback. Knowledge of results helps them to learn faster because full information is available and the task is become more interesting. There is much evidence that people learn better when they are constantly informed as to how they are doing and shown ways to improve.
  13. 13. Integrative Learning
  14. 14. What is Integrative Learning?
  15. 15. Integrative Learning - Is a learning theory describing a movement toward integrated lessons helping students make connections across curricula. - Learning by wholes tends to be better than learning by parts.
  16. 16. Integrative Learning - Fostering students' abilities to integrate learning--over time, across courses, and between academic, personal, and community life--is one of the most important goals and challenges of higher education.
  17. 17. I HEAR AND I FORGET I SEE AND I REMEMBER I DO AND I UNDERSTAND. -Ancient Chinese Proverb
  18. 18. Experiential Approach To Learning
  19. 19. What is Experiential Approach To Learning ?
  20. 20. Experiential Approach To Learning - Is the process of making meaning from direct experience. “Learning from experience“. - Focuses on the learning process for the individual.
  21. 21. The Experiential Learning Model
  22. 22. How do we decide which mode of experiential learning will work best?
  23. 23. 5 Factors used in Experiential Education Learning must be current Learning must be Eclectic Learning must be inclusive  learning must deal with the Essential, not structures and forms Learning must be Dynamic
  24. 24. Learning must be Current - new ways of doing things are constantly being introduced
  25. 25.  Learning must be Eclectic - With the current trend to merge the different disciplines or to use the interdisciplinary approach, there is not one subject matter that can claim that it is the most important of all  Learning must be Inclusive - There is on-going search for new knowledge, hence, all the disciplines must contribute to the discovery of new and more important techniques
  26. 26.  Learning must deal with the Essential, not Structures and Forms - Experiential education focuses on-the spot data and analysis, planning action and evaluation are done on here-and now.  Learning must be Dynamic - to be dynamic one is always growing and alive, hence, learning is an on-going process. - careful planning and control is however necessary for efficient learning.
  27. 27. DOW (1971) He states that “experiential education addresses behavior, not attitude; it deals with action, not concepts. It is a process philosophy. Its principal thesis is that learning is only learning when it results in some new behavior.”
  28. 28. Recalling & Learning Recall is a very important factor in learning. There are several ways of recalling. i. Self-recitation while the material is being learned. - recall is helped by recalling during practice. ii. Overlearning helps the learner to have a better memory since he can recall more efficiently overlearned materials.
  29. 29. iii. Periodic review helps to cut down the effects of forgetting iv. Following a logical pattern makes us remember the materials better
  30. 30. Guidelines for Curriculum Development Based on the principles and on what have been discussed in the previous pages, curriculum developers must bear in mind the following guidelines in making a curriculum: 1) A good curriculum must encourage inquiry and creativity 2.) A good curriculum must be democratic with regard to procedures 3.) A good curriculum must accept individual differences
  31. 31. Guidelines for curriculum development 4.) A good curriculum must take into consideration scientific and scholarly techniques and findings. 5.) A good curriculum must minimize memorizing and maximize discovery. 6.) A good curriculum must take into consideration the potential for achievement through either the individual learner or the group. 7.) A good curriculum must employ teacher resources in a multi-dimensional role

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