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Supporting student learning with lecture capture

A critical introduction to lecture capture and how it, as a learning technology, may be embedded to support student learning. Invited talk to the School of Physical and Geographic Sciences, Keele University, 9 June 2016.

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Supporting student learning with lecture capture

  1. 1. Photo: Supporting student learning with lecture capture Matt Cornock E-Learning Advisor, University of York @mattcornock Talk for SPGS, Keele University, 9 June 2016
  2. 2. To begin… What one key question, concern or idea do you have about lecture capture? Replay Lecture Capture
  3. 3. How does lecture capture improve student learning? Replay Lecture Capture
  4. 4. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Typical survey responses ‘It would have been nice to have recordings of lectures.’ ‘It would also be extremely helpful for revision to be able to listen to the lecture several weeks later.’ ‘Class capture video replays are very useful.‘ ‘sometimes notes alone are not enough to explain key concepts.’ Source: Institutional TEL survey; Cornock & Walker (2014) We need to go beyond ‘nice to have’. Provision of new technology should be informed by an understanding of its impact.
  5. 5. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture The research ‘out there’ Understand the course content (Soong et al. 2006) Revision (Copely 2007) Supplement note-taking (Leadbeater et al. 2013) Control pace of learning (Cooke et al. 2012) Attainment (Wiese & Newton 2013; Williams et al. 2016) Attendance (Gorissen et al. 2012; Wiilliams et al. 2016) There are many studies, but there is a risk that generalised statements are made from very specific cases: specific types of learning and module content, specific contexts, students surveyed at specific points in time.
  6. 6. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture When captures are viewed 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Au1 Au3 Au5 Au7 Au9 XmasVac XmasVac Sp1 Sp3 Sp5 Sp7 Sp9 EasterVac EasterVac Su1 Su3 Su5 Su7 Su9 SummerVac SummerVac SummerVac SummerVac SummerVac SummerVac SummerVac NumberofViews Academic Week Number of Views per Week Views 2013-14 Views 2014-15 Many examples of research focus on the revision period, or impact on attainment. However, there is use of lecture capture by students throughout term too.
  7. 7. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture The research ‘out there’ (Owston et al. 2011) Behaviours No Yes I followed discussions more closely. 55 45 I participated in more discussions. 82 18 I asked more questions during the lecture. 91 9 I paid less attention to the lecture. 95 5 It made no difference to me. 74 26 I focused more on understanding the lecture and less on note-taking. 49 51 Owston et al suggest there may also be impacts in the face-to-face lecture space.
  8. 8. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Research questions Are lecture captures valued as learning resources? What motivates students’ use of lecture captures? Is in-class and private study behaviour changed by lecture capture provision?
  9. 9. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture So… What do you want your students to do in your lectures?
  10. 10. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “There’s just like a battle in my mind… ‘should I write this slide down, should I just leave it, should I listen to the lecturer’ …that kind of wastes time, so then I’ve already missed what the lecturer said” [K, interview] During the live lecture, whether a desirable behaviour or not, students may be feeling the pressure to capture everything.
  11. 11. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “I like star a lecture slide to know to go back to it in the lecture recording" [I, interview] “I find that I can spend more time paying attention to what they are actually saying and actually the broader argument that they are trying to make, rather than worrying about all the technicalities” [C, interview] Students, with knowledge a capture is taking place, can plan to use the lecture content within their private study.
  12. 12. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture I think diagrams really help with understanding concepts that the lecturers are trying to explain… I looked and saw the graph and I was like ‘that’s so obvious’ [J, interview] There are also learning strengths from how visual and auditory elements assist explanation.
  13. 13. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture In-class learning behaviour may change
  14. 14. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Individualised note-making Topping up Fresh set Distilled The lecture recording is drawn upon in different ways through the creation of notes, with no single approach being typical and approaches changing depending on module and place in the programme.
  15. 15. [C, diary]Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Refining notes is more than just handwriting, it’s shown to be about linking ideas also.
  16. 16. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Students place an immense value on their own notes
  17. 17. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture "Mainly choose, obviously the lecture recording and the handout over the textbook a lot of the time, because that is the information that a lecture wants you to know, that they’ve specifically picked that out for you to know." [I, interview] It may be suggested students adopt a strategic or ‘surface’ approach to learning content for assessment. This could be due to a lack of expectation setting as to the purpose of the lecture.
  18. 18. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “Like I have never had a point where I have been like, no I think you are wrong. Because I think clearly like they know what they are talking about, I hope.” [B, interview] Deferral to the lecturer’s knowledge may be down to inexperience, rather than laziness or strategic approaches.
  19. 19. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “My mum always says once you’ve listened to it three times… like it’s in there for life" [J, interview] Pre-university study behaviours may need to be challenged.
  20. 20. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “I’m like ‘that is absolutely fascinating’ I’ve actually gone away and like done some more research and looked at some more papers based on stuff they talked about in the lecture” [J, interview] Students value lecturers’ expertise, and captures help those inspired to go the next step.
  21. 21. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “we are learning technically like a new language because you don’t use the same words in science as you do in everyday life” [L, interview] Captures also support language, in this case academic language rather than a second language was new to the student.
  22. 22. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “There’ll be a process of like four steps or something but then there might be one that there’s an extra level of detail that you knew that they come to later in the lecture… you can relisten and put it back into the bigger picture” [L, interview] Students may be making connections and adding depth to their understanding.
  23. 23. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “Wanted to make sure I fully understood the theory she was explaining” [B, diary] They want to do well, particularly when there is a commitment to fully understanding the subject.
  24. 24. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture "I will spend two hours, two and a bit on a one hour lecture because I stop it, take lots of notes, re-listen to bits, Google a word that they referenced that I didn’t know what that meant or I’ve forgotten" [H, interview] Students still attend, because it is more efficient to do so. They may think watching the capture is a suitable replacement, but after experiencing this they may find it challenging to keep up.
  25. 25. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Learning with lecture captures Structured study Subsequent activity ‘Deeper’ learning Self-evaluation Making connections
  26. 26. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture "It makes you feel quite independent because you can make the decision that you’re not going to that lecture because you are too tired or you’ve had too much to do that day… last term I missed three whole days of uni because I had interviews for my placement for next year" [L, interview] Even within the curriculum there may be competing demands on time, lectures may not be the priority.
  27. 27. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “I’m doing a lot of things, because I didn’t know about these things before I came here. I want to explore. I want to try these things and I just realise its importance in terms of like your future career.” [G, interview] Students are also conscious of careers, trying to find space for work or other experiences.
  28. 28. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture "My absolute favourite lecturer… I’ve fallen asleep in all three of her lectures… it’s no reflection on them, it’s just really a struggle" [J, interview, health issues] We also need to recognise that some students may have hidden reasons why the captures are essential to their needs.
  29. 29. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Students are prioritising within their own contexts
  30. 30. How does lecture capture affect my teaching? Replay Lecture Capture
  31. 31. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture For capture or For the live event? Always teach for the live event, not the capture. However, you can use larger mouse pointers, avoid just using sticks/laser pens, describe the part of the diagram/slide you are talking about, repeat questions from the audience.
  32. 32. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “Students now listen more in lectures, rather than focus on scribbling every word down… This means I can try other activities in the lectures, rather than just conveying the necessary information.” [Lecturer] If lecture sessions become less about delivery of content and more about engaging with students, that will enable more effective learning.
  33. 33. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture “I tend to review my lecture recordings when preparing the same session the next year... It helps me refresh my memory, identify and reflect on problems with the previous approach and plan potential improvements.” [Lecturer] Captures can be used for your own development as a professional, and also to support colleagues team-teaching modules.
  34. 34. Replay Lecture Capture Positioning lecture capture Edited/Reshot Lectures Adapted from: Young. C. and Moes, S. (2013) Figure 8: The REC:all framework. How to move beyond lecture capture: Pedagogy Guide. REC:all. Media & Learning Association. Available at Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating Lecture Capture Knowledge/ information with discussion Activity using video clips Live webinar or video conference Student-generated video LearnerIndependence Higher Order Learning By understanding how captures are included within independent study, they can be positioned further up orders of learning.
  35. 35. Question What do you think are the strengths of lecture capture for your students? Replay Lecture Capture
  36. 36. Replay Lecture Capture Photo: Students will utilise captures in ways that suit their study approach
  37. 37. How can we better support student learning? Replay Lecture Capture
  38. 38. Photo: Replay Lecture Capture Regular use for greater learning “students with relatively high experience in video lectures find them more useful” Giannakos et al. 2015 Students using lecture recordings as a designed-in alternative
  39. 39. If you have been to the lecture and then you watch the recording you still have the knowledge, memory of the experience, what happened in the lecture and where the lecturer was pointing, how they presented… “ Study suggestions and quotes from University of York students who participated in our research project in 2015. Replay Lecture Capture
  40. 40. I’ll go over lectures on different skills before I go to practical and try and make sure that I understand the principles. Preparation for practical tasks Replay Lecture Capture attend the lecture watch recording undertake practical note theoretical basis for practical task focus on specific sections relevant to practical task apply from lecture principles utilise during write-up appraise method and concept; re- watch capture to aid understanding
  41. 41. mind map first for the structure and then I would do a Quizlet; if I find I still don’t understand something I would make a document of explanations. Self-checking understanding of concepts Replay Lecture Capture attend the lecture structure notes revision quiz note the key points and consider what you don’t understand highlight fundamental concepts and structure notes into chunks for creating self-check quiz use an online quiz-maker (e.g. Quizlet) or flash- cards to check understanding; use in- lecture questions as prompts re-watch lecture capture use recording to check answers, clarifying concepts you can’t answer confidently, writing explanations in your own words
  42. 42. you’ve got to remember all the concepts from the previous one; if I listen to lecture captures right next to each other I’ve got that fresh in my head. Thinking across the module Replay Lecture Capture attend the lectures summarise lectures watch captures first exposure to ideas from the lecture content make summary notes on the lecture watch back previous captures to see how ideas develop make connections expand summaries to show connections or use for preparation for next lecture
  43. 43. Replay Lecture Capture
  44. 44. Photo: Lecture capture is an enabling technology, offering inclusive, individualised and flexible engagement in and out of class
  45. 45. Replay Lecture Capture Cooke, M., Watson, B., Blacklock, E., Mansah, M., Howard, M., Johnson, A., Tower, M., Murfield, J. (2012) ‘Lecture Capture: first year student nurses’ experiences of a web-based lecture technology’, Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29, 3, 14-21. Cornock, M. and Walker, R. (2014) Why do students use lecture capture? Interim report on a qualitative research project. Lecture Capture: Building the Evidence Base, 17 December 2014, Loughborough University, UK. Cornock, M. (2015). Justifying lecture capture: the importance of student experiences in understanding the value of learning technologies. Extended paper, #867, ALT-C 2015 – Shaping the future of learning together. Annual Conference of the Association for Learning Technology, 8-10 September 2015, University of Manchester, UK. Copely, J. (2007) ‘Audio and video podcasts of lectures for campus-based students: production and evaluation of student use’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44, 4, 387-399. Ford, M. B., Burns, C. E., Mitch, N. and Gomez, M. M. (2012) ‘The effectiveness of classroom capture technology’, Active Learning in Higher Education, 13, 3, 191-201. Giannokos, M. N., Jaccheri, L. and Krogstie, J. (2015) ‘Exploring the relationship between video lectures usage patterns and students’ attitudes, British Journal of Educational Technology. Early online release. Gosper, M., McNeill, M., Woo, K., Phillips, R., Preston, G. and Green, D. (2007) Web-based lecture recording technologies: Do students learn from them? EDUCAUSE 2007: The Best Thinking in Higher ED IT, 23 - 26 October 2007, Seattle, WA. Huxham, M. (2010) ‘The medium makes the message: Effects of cues on students’ lecture notes’, Active Learning in Higher Education, 11, 3, 179-188. Leadbeater, W., Shuttleworth, T., Couperthwaite, J., Nightingale, K. P. (2013) ‘Evaluating the use and impact of lecture recording in undergraduates: Evidence for distinct approaches by different groups of students’, Computers & Education, 61, 185-192. Newton, G., Tucker, T., Dawson, J. and Currie, E. (2014) ‘Use of Lecture Capture in Higher Education - Lessons from the Trenches’, TechTrends, 58, 2, 32-45. Owston, R., Lupshenyuk, D., Wideman, H. (2011) ‘Lecture capture in large undergraduate classes: Student perceptions and academic performance’, Internet and Higher Education, 14, 262-268. Soong, S. K. A., Chan, L. K., Cheers, C., Hu, C. (2006) ‘Impact of video recorded lectures among students’, Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascillite conference: Who’s learning? Whose technology?, 3-6 December 2006, Sydney, Australia. Wiese, C. and Newton, G. (2013) ‘Use of Lecture Capture in Undergraduate Biological Science Education’, The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 4, 2, Article 4. Williams, A.E., Augilar-Roca, N.M., O’Dowd, D.K. (2016). ‘Lecture capture podcasts: differential student use and performace in a large introductory course’, Educational Technology Research and Development, 64, 1-12.
  46. 46. Replay Lecture Capture Quotes from University of York students who participated in our research project in 2015. Further information at Matt Cornock, E-Learning Development Team @mattcornock