AT THE ORIGINS OF SHIPBUILDING TREATISES: JOSEPH FURTTENBACH AND THE ARCHITECTURA NAVALIS

Università degli Studi di Genova
Università degli Studi di GenovaProfessore associato presso Università degli Studi di Genova / University of Genoa
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
AT THE ORIGINS OF SHIPBUILDING TREATISES:
JOSEPH FURTTENBACH AND THE ARCHITECTURA NAVALIS
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Part I
AT THE ORIGINS OF SHIPBUILDING TREATISES
Manoel Fernandes, Livro de Traças de Carpintaria, 1616 [Biblioteca da Ajuda, Lisboa]
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Shipwrights and Shipbuilders or Naval Architects
Mathew Baker (1530 – 1613) was one of the most renowned shipwrights, and the first to put the practice of
shipbuilding down on paper [Stephen Johnston. Making mathematical practice: gentlemen, practitioners and
artisans in Elizabethan England (Ph.D. Cambridge, 1994): Chapter 3 (pp. 107-165)]
Illustration from Mathew’s Baker “Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry” [Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge]
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
At the origins of Shipbuilding Treatises
Bartolomeo Crescenzio (16th century). Nautica mediterranea: nella quale si mostra la fabrica delle galee galeazze,
e galeoni con tutti lor armamenti, ufficii et ordini et il modo di far vogar una galea a tutti transiti del mar con solo
vinti remieri. Roma: Bonfadino, 1607.
Illustration from Bartolomeo Crescenzio, Nautica mediterranea, p. 62.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The coeval treatises of Bartolomeo Crescenzio remains anchored to the description
rather than to the technical illustration
Thomé Cano (c. 1580 – post 1618).
Arte para fabricar, fortificar y aparejar naos de guerra y merchante… Sevilla: Estupiñan, 1611.
Frontispiece: copy kept at the Philosophy and Literature Library of the University of Madrid
and Portuguese fusta from Jan Huygen van Linschoten. Itinerario... Amsterdam: Cornelis Claesz, 1596.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Ithier Hobier maybe it is the first that try to explain how to build a ship
by means of the technical drawing
Ithier Hobier (17th century).
De la construction d’une gallaire et de son équipage. Paris: Langloys, 1622.
[Bibliothéque de l’Arsenal, Paris]
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
George Fournier served as a naval military chaplain on a ship of the line, and acquired a
strong knowledge of technical and naval matters and in his treaty Hydrographie he
attempted to provide a scientific foundation to the design of ships
George Fournier (1595 – 1652).
Hydrographie contenant la théorie et la practiqve de tovtes les parties de la navigation. Paris: Soly, 1643.
2nd edition. Paris: Du Puis, 1667. Woodcut folding plate: Royal vessel the « Saint Louis », not the « Couronne ».
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Isaac Vossius (1618 – 1689).
‘De Trirerium & Liburnicarum constructione’ in Variarum Observationum Liber. Londini: Scott, 1685; plate p. 119
and Fontana, Fulvio (1649 - 1723). I pregi della Toscana nell'imprese più segnalate de' Cavalieri di Santo Stefano ... Firenze: Miccioni, 1701; plate VIII.
Isaac Vossius publishes in the year 1685 a compendium on the construction
of the Greek and Roman trireme, archetypes of medieval galleys
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Epigono of Vossius,
Marcus Meibom describes the construction of the ancient trireme
Marcus Meibom (1630 – 1711).
Marci Meibomii de Fabrica Triremium Liber. Amsterdami: s.n., 1671.
Plate p. 22.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
New horizons were opened to the African coasts thanks to Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394 – 1460) and to the West thanks to Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506)
Livro de Lisuarte de Abreu, 1565.
(Manuscript 525, New York, Pierpont Morgan Library)
Code illustrating the armies of the Indies, from that of Vasco da Gama of 1497 to that of the principal captain D. Jorge de Sousa in the year 1563.
Portuguese fleet under Marechal D. Fernando Coutinho on the way to the East Indies, 1509 and view of Lisbon, 1585.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
New ships required not only technical knowledge related to construction, but also
scientific skills related to geometry, mathematics, static and hydrodynamics
Mary Rose carrack as reproduced in The Anthony Roll of Henry VIII’s Navy.
[Pepys Library 2991 and British Library Additional MS 22047]
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Empirical and descriptive knowledge in the first naval construction treaties
Construction des vaisseaux du roy et le nom de toutes les pièces qui y entrent... Avec toutes les proportions des rangs,
leur explication et l'exercice du canon. Le Havre de Grâce: J. Hubault, 1691.
Frontispiece, plate and “Table des proportions qu’on observe à la Constructions des Navires”.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The knowledge of the naval anatomy
Gaztañeta e Iturribalzaga, Antonio de (1656-1728). Proporciones de las medidas … para la Fabrica de Navios, y
Fragatas de Guerra… . Madrid: Alonso, 1720.
Frontispiece, plate and “Tablas de las proporciones…”.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Joseph Furttenbach which will be the forerunner of a renewal of the treatises in the
naval field, and which will find its epigones in François Dassié (17th century), Nicolaes
Witsen (1641 - 1717), Johannes Van Keulen (1654 – 1715), Carel Allard (1648 –
1709), Cornelis van Yk (16th-17th century), Stefano de Zuanne de Michel (17th
century), Paul Hoste (1652 – 1700) and many others
François Dassié. L’architecture navale… Paris: de la Caille, 1677.
Background image from:Nicolaes Witsen. Architectura Navalis… Amsterdam: Casparus Commelijn, 1671.
Johannes Van Keulen. De nieuwe hollandsche scheepsbouw. Amsterdam: J. van Keulen, 1680.
Stefano de Zuanne de Michel. L’architettura Navale di Stefano de Zuanne de Michel Viceproto de’ Marangoni… Venezia: Manuscript, 1686
Carel Allard. Nieuwe Hollandse Scheeps-bouw… Carel Allard. Amsteldam: Allard, 1695.
Cornelis van Yk. De Nederlandsche Scheeps-bouw… Delft: Voorstad, 1697.
Paul Hoste. Thèorie de la construction des vaisseaux… Lyon: Bruyset, 1697.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
«As ships became much larger and more complex, it was necessary to use scale plans in
their construction. (…) With large ships, from about 1580 onwards, the plan was
needed to construct both ship and model … some of the earliest plans were produced in
Venice in the sixteenth century. (…) The first known English plans are those in
Matthew Baker’s manuscript ‘Fragment of Early English Shipwrightry’ (and) the
clearest set of seventeenth century plans comes from Anthony Deane’s ‘Doctrine of
Naval Architecture’ of 1670. The ‘Keltridge draughts’, plans of seven ships, drawn by
William Keltridge are dated 1684» [Brian Lavery, 1995]
Wenceslaus Hollar. Plusieurs fortes des grandz vaisseaux desseignez en diuers lieux au naturel. 1650.
Plate 1: ‘Grands vaisseau’.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The eighteenth century will testify to these changes thanks to the contributions of
William Sutherland (1668 – 1740), Pierre Bouguer (1698 - 1758), Henri Louis
Duhamel du Monceau (1700 – 1782), Marmaduke Stalkartt (1750 – 1805), Fredrik
Henrik af Chapman (1721 – 1808), Honoré-Sébastien Vial du Clairbois (1733 – 1816),
Jorge Juan y Santacilia (1713 – 1773), who were able to understand Hoste’s lesson and
develop this new discipline based on mathematics and drawing
Contemporary schematic of the boat Brynhilda made by Fredrik Henrik af Chapman.
From the collections of the Maritime Museum in Stockholm.
In the background: William, Sutherland. The ship-builders assistant …
London: Mount, Bell, and Smith, 1711; plate 27.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
These authors will tread the path to the new discipline that thanks to the
mathematicians as Pierre Bouguer (1698 –1758), Johann Bernoulli (1667 – 1748),
Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) will become Naval Science
Bernoulli, Johann. Essay d’une Nouvelle Theorie de la Manœuvre des vaisseaux… Basle: Jean George König, 1714.
Bouguer, Pierre. Traité du navire, de sa Construction, et de ses Mouvemens. Paris: Ch. Ant. Jombert, 1746.
Euler, Leonhard. Scientia navalis. Petropoli: Typis Academiae Scientiarum, 1749.
Leonhard Euler, painting by Jakob Emanuel Handmann (1718 – 1781) [Deutsches Museum, Munich].
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Part II
THE MULTIFACETED GERMAN SCHOLAR JOSEPH FURTTENBACH
Joseph Furttenbach. Mechanische Reiss Laden, Das ist, Ein gar geschmeidige, bey sich verborgen tragende Laden... Augsburg: Johann Schultes, 1644.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The German mathematician, architect and engineer,
Joseph Furttenbach (1591 – 1667) was a man with vast speculative horizons
Miniature antique map: prospect of Genoa, published in Joseph Furttenbach’s Newes Itinerarium Italiae. Ulm: Jonan Saurn, 1627.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
He went to Italy, in Genoa
where he attended training courses in mercantile activity
Joseph Furttenbach. ‘La Riviera di Genova’, in Mannhaffter Kunst-Spiegel... Augsburg: Schultes, 1663.
Map of Genoa, frontispiece.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
He worked on shipbuilding, pyrotechnics and artillery (“Arte de la Bombardieri”) with
the help of Ambrosio Cusano (17th century) commander of the Bombardiers of the
Republic of Genoa, and on military architecture under the guidance of the architect and
military engineer Paolo Rizio (17th century)
Joseph Furttenbach. ‘La Riviera di Genova’, in Mannhaffter Kunst-Spiegel... Augsburg: Schultes, 1663.
Plate p. 210.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
In 1627 he published the diary of his trip to Italy entitled Newes Itinerarium Italiae
(Ulm, 1627), which was one of the most widespread and read travel journals in
seventeenth-century Germany
Joseph Furttenbach. ‘La Riviera di Genova’, in Mannhaffter Kunst-Spiegel... Augsburg: Schultes, 1663.
Ligurian Riviera, from Rapallo to Portovenere, plate p. 104.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
In 1631 he was appointed Architect of the Town Hall of Ulm and took care of the
maintenance of city fortifications and public buildings. As a municipal architect, he
designed and built a hospital, a bathhouse and a water supply elevator, an Italian-style
theater, fortifications, bridges, gardens, various school buildings, housing for the military
and plans to expand the town
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura Privata: Das is Gründtliche Beschreibung...in was form...ein Burgerliches Wohn-
Haus... Augsburg: Johann Schultes the Younger, 1641.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
In Genoa he learned « l’arte di costruire navigli ».
The Architectura Navalis was the first compendium on the art of shipbuilding based on
the direct experience of the shipyard
Joseph Furttenbach. Newes Itinerarium Italiae. Ulm: Saurn, 1627.
Effects of the Libeccio wind (south-west wind) in the port of Genoa on 11 November 1613.
Newes Itinerarium Italiae: pp. 203-207, plate p. 275.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Joseph Furttenbach. Newes Itinerarium Italiae. Ulm: Saurn, 1627.
Barchetta (small boat): figures 23 and 24.
During his stay in Italy, especially in Genoa, Furttenbach studied the Mediterranean
ships, particularly galleys and galleons, but also brigantines, feluccas, frigates, etc.
These studies stimulated his technical and mathematical skills so that he elaborated his
idea of naval architecture basing on the Genoese ships
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
For these reasons the Architectura Navalis is considered one of the first shipbuilding
treatises and it was used as a reference model by many later authors in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries
Carel Allard. Nieuwe Hollandse scheeps-bouw. Amsteldam: Allard, 1695.
Frontispiece.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Furttenbach writes that in his treatise are shown « méthodes infaillibles et certaines » that
he learned during visits to the Italian shipyards
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate p. 29, p. 40-41, p. 106.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Part III
THE JOSEPH FURTTENBACH’S ARCHITECTURA NAVALIS
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
An encyclopaedic and descriptive intent to describe:
galleys, galeazze, galeotte, brigs, feluccas, frigates, leudi,
brigantines, polacres, tartans, etc.
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Ship: plate 15.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The first treaty part and the first seven engravings are dedicated to the galley description
as made by Ithier Hobier an also by Claudio Bartholomeo Morisoto (1592 – 1661)
Claudio Bartholomeo Morisoto “Nova Triremis, quam dicimus, Galere”
in Orbis Maritimi sive Rerum in maris et littoribus gestarum generalis historia. Divione: Palliot, 1643.
Frontispiece, plate and “Tablas de las proporciones…”.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Both from Furttenbach and its peers, the galley was considered one of the most
important rowing boats because it was possible to use it in the best conditions both in
case of peace and war
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate 1.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
A versatile ship:
for both military and mercantile purposes
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate 4.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
A fast and simple ship to manoeuvre
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate 7.
Genoese Galley “Fulmen in hostes”
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The detailed description of the galley shows the attention that the author had for this
important vessel
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate 2.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Furttenbach describes the individual parts that form the structural members of the
galley, using Italian terms to describe them
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate 7 and p. 56-57.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
In the following pictures of his book, we see Furttenbach’s care to illustrate in the best
way the construction of this important ship
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Galley: plate 3.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
In the continuation of the treaty, Furttenbach describes many types of boats; among
these he cites: the galleass, the galeotta (smaller galley) and the brigantine, the felucca,
the frigate, the leudo (is the name given, in Liguria, to a family of Latin sailboats that
were used for the cabotage, coasting trade, activities throughout the Mediterranean
area), the barchetta (small boat), the ship, probably the Flemish fluyt, then the polacre,
the tartan, the barge, the caramuzzala (a small Turkish vessel)
and then the ordinary rowboat and sail boat
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Frigate: plate 8.
A Caramuzzala or Caramoussal is a high-pooped historical trading and naval ship of the Ottoman Navy.
They were particularly active in the 17th century Ottoman Empire.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
In the second part of his treatise, Furttenbach explains the principles for the
construction of a boat typical of the Netherlands, probably the Fluyt
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Fluyt: plate 10.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
He provides a lot of information and constructional details sufficient for a time
carpenter to proceed with the construction of this boat
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Fluyt: plate 16.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The text is similar to the work done half a century before him, by the scientist, explorer
and shipbuilder Diego García de Palacio (1540 – 1595)
Diego García de Palacio. Instrucion nauthica (Instrucción náutica)… Mexico: Ocharte, 1587.
Libro Quarto, p. 93-94.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
The last part of the Treaty of Furttenbach tells the story of the naval battle of Lepanto
that took place on 7 October 1571
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Battle of Lepanto: plate 20.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
CONCLUSIONS
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Caramuzzala: plate 17.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Furttenbach shows his perfect knowledge of shipbuilding in the seventeenth century
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Plate 11.
In the box: Flag of merchant or pirate ship (Caramuzzala or Caramoussal) of Algeria,
also Pirate flag attributed to Christopher Moody (1650 - c. 1718) or Thomas Tew (1649 - 1695).
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
Furttenbach shows a careful analysis of the individual construction elements, of the
shape, of the dimensions and of the nomenclature of the parts that contribute to
forming a boat, using scale drawing and geometry, etc., …
Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629.
Plate 12.
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects
International Conference Historic Ships
5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK
Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella
University of Genoa, Italy
… It is for these reasons that Furttenbach can be considered an anticipator, a pioneer of
the science and technique of shipbuilding; all these disciplines will then be developed in
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Thanks for your attention
1 de 45

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AT THE ORIGINS OF SHIPBUILDING TREATISES: JOSEPH FURTTENBACH AND THE ARCHITECTURA NAVALIS

  • 1. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy AT THE ORIGINS OF SHIPBUILDING TREATISES: JOSEPH FURTTENBACH AND THE ARCHITECTURA NAVALIS
  • 2. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Part I AT THE ORIGINS OF SHIPBUILDING TREATISES Manoel Fernandes, Livro de Traças de Carpintaria, 1616 [Biblioteca da Ajuda, Lisboa]
  • 3. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Shipwrights and Shipbuilders or Naval Architects Mathew Baker (1530 – 1613) was one of the most renowned shipwrights, and the first to put the practice of shipbuilding down on paper [Stephen Johnston. Making mathematical practice: gentlemen, practitioners and artisans in Elizabethan England (Ph.D. Cambridge, 1994): Chapter 3 (pp. 107-165)] Illustration from Mathew’s Baker “Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry” [Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge]
  • 4. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy At the origins of Shipbuilding Treatises Bartolomeo Crescenzio (16th century). Nautica mediterranea: nella quale si mostra la fabrica delle galee galeazze, e galeoni con tutti lor armamenti, ufficii et ordini et il modo di far vogar una galea a tutti transiti del mar con solo vinti remieri. Roma: Bonfadino, 1607. Illustration from Bartolomeo Crescenzio, Nautica mediterranea, p. 62.
  • 5. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The coeval treatises of Bartolomeo Crescenzio remains anchored to the description rather than to the technical illustration Thomé Cano (c. 1580 – post 1618). Arte para fabricar, fortificar y aparejar naos de guerra y merchante… Sevilla: Estupiñan, 1611. Frontispiece: copy kept at the Philosophy and Literature Library of the University of Madrid and Portuguese fusta from Jan Huygen van Linschoten. Itinerario... Amsterdam: Cornelis Claesz, 1596.
  • 6. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Ithier Hobier maybe it is the first that try to explain how to build a ship by means of the technical drawing Ithier Hobier (17th century). De la construction d’une gallaire et de son équipage. Paris: Langloys, 1622. [Bibliothéque de l’Arsenal, Paris]
  • 7. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy George Fournier served as a naval military chaplain on a ship of the line, and acquired a strong knowledge of technical and naval matters and in his treaty Hydrographie he attempted to provide a scientific foundation to the design of ships George Fournier (1595 – 1652). Hydrographie contenant la théorie et la practiqve de tovtes les parties de la navigation. Paris: Soly, 1643. 2nd edition. Paris: Du Puis, 1667. Woodcut folding plate: Royal vessel the « Saint Louis », not the « Couronne ».
  • 8. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Isaac Vossius (1618 – 1689). ‘De Trirerium & Liburnicarum constructione’ in Variarum Observationum Liber. Londini: Scott, 1685; plate p. 119 and Fontana, Fulvio (1649 - 1723). I pregi della Toscana nell'imprese più segnalate de' Cavalieri di Santo Stefano ... Firenze: Miccioni, 1701; plate VIII. Isaac Vossius publishes in the year 1685 a compendium on the construction of the Greek and Roman trireme, archetypes of medieval galleys
  • 9. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Epigono of Vossius, Marcus Meibom describes the construction of the ancient trireme Marcus Meibom (1630 – 1711). Marci Meibomii de Fabrica Triremium Liber. Amsterdami: s.n., 1671. Plate p. 22.
  • 10. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy New horizons were opened to the African coasts thanks to Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 – 1460) and to the West thanks to Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) Livro de Lisuarte de Abreu, 1565. (Manuscript 525, New York, Pierpont Morgan Library) Code illustrating the armies of the Indies, from that of Vasco da Gama of 1497 to that of the principal captain D. Jorge de Sousa in the year 1563. Portuguese fleet under Marechal D. Fernando Coutinho on the way to the East Indies, 1509 and view of Lisbon, 1585.
  • 11. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy New ships required not only technical knowledge related to construction, but also scientific skills related to geometry, mathematics, static and hydrodynamics Mary Rose carrack as reproduced in The Anthony Roll of Henry VIII’s Navy. [Pepys Library 2991 and British Library Additional MS 22047]
  • 12. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Empirical and descriptive knowledge in the first naval construction treaties Construction des vaisseaux du roy et le nom de toutes les pièces qui y entrent... Avec toutes les proportions des rangs, leur explication et l'exercice du canon. Le Havre de Grâce: J. Hubault, 1691. Frontispiece, plate and “Table des proportions qu’on observe à la Constructions des Navires”.
  • 13. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The knowledge of the naval anatomy Gaztañeta e Iturribalzaga, Antonio de (1656-1728). Proporciones de las medidas … para la Fabrica de Navios, y Fragatas de Guerra… . Madrid: Alonso, 1720. Frontispiece, plate and “Tablas de las proporciones…”.
  • 14. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Joseph Furttenbach which will be the forerunner of a renewal of the treatises in the naval field, and which will find its epigones in François Dassié (17th century), Nicolaes Witsen (1641 - 1717), Johannes Van Keulen (1654 – 1715), Carel Allard (1648 – 1709), Cornelis van Yk (16th-17th century), Stefano de Zuanne de Michel (17th century), Paul Hoste (1652 – 1700) and many others François Dassié. L’architecture navale… Paris: de la Caille, 1677. Background image from:Nicolaes Witsen. Architectura Navalis… Amsterdam: Casparus Commelijn, 1671. Johannes Van Keulen. De nieuwe hollandsche scheepsbouw. Amsterdam: J. van Keulen, 1680. Stefano de Zuanne de Michel. L’architettura Navale di Stefano de Zuanne de Michel Viceproto de’ Marangoni… Venezia: Manuscript, 1686 Carel Allard. Nieuwe Hollandse Scheeps-bouw… Carel Allard. Amsteldam: Allard, 1695. Cornelis van Yk. De Nederlandsche Scheeps-bouw… Delft: Voorstad, 1697. Paul Hoste. Thèorie de la construction des vaisseaux… Lyon: Bruyset, 1697.
  • 15. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy «As ships became much larger and more complex, it was necessary to use scale plans in their construction. (…) With large ships, from about 1580 onwards, the plan was needed to construct both ship and model … some of the earliest plans were produced in Venice in the sixteenth century. (…) The first known English plans are those in Matthew Baker’s manuscript ‘Fragment of Early English Shipwrightry’ (and) the clearest set of seventeenth century plans comes from Anthony Deane’s ‘Doctrine of Naval Architecture’ of 1670. The ‘Keltridge draughts’, plans of seven ships, drawn by William Keltridge are dated 1684» [Brian Lavery, 1995] Wenceslaus Hollar. Plusieurs fortes des grandz vaisseaux desseignez en diuers lieux au naturel. 1650. Plate 1: ‘Grands vaisseau’.
  • 16. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The eighteenth century will testify to these changes thanks to the contributions of William Sutherland (1668 – 1740), Pierre Bouguer (1698 - 1758), Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau (1700 – 1782), Marmaduke Stalkartt (1750 – 1805), Fredrik Henrik af Chapman (1721 – 1808), Honoré-Sébastien Vial du Clairbois (1733 – 1816), Jorge Juan y Santacilia (1713 – 1773), who were able to understand Hoste’s lesson and develop this new discipline based on mathematics and drawing Contemporary schematic of the boat Brynhilda made by Fredrik Henrik af Chapman. From the collections of the Maritime Museum in Stockholm. In the background: William, Sutherland. The ship-builders assistant … London: Mount, Bell, and Smith, 1711; plate 27.
  • 17. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy These authors will tread the path to the new discipline that thanks to the mathematicians as Pierre Bouguer (1698 –1758), Johann Bernoulli (1667 – 1748), Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) will become Naval Science Bernoulli, Johann. Essay d’une Nouvelle Theorie de la Manœuvre des vaisseaux… Basle: Jean George König, 1714. Bouguer, Pierre. Traité du navire, de sa Construction, et de ses Mouvemens. Paris: Ch. Ant. Jombert, 1746. Euler, Leonhard. Scientia navalis. Petropoli: Typis Academiae Scientiarum, 1749. Leonhard Euler, painting by Jakob Emanuel Handmann (1718 – 1781) [Deutsches Museum, Munich].
  • 18. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Part II THE MULTIFACETED GERMAN SCHOLAR JOSEPH FURTTENBACH Joseph Furttenbach. Mechanische Reiss Laden, Das ist, Ein gar geschmeidige, bey sich verborgen tragende Laden... Augsburg: Johann Schultes, 1644.
  • 19. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The German mathematician, architect and engineer, Joseph Furttenbach (1591 – 1667) was a man with vast speculative horizons Miniature antique map: prospect of Genoa, published in Joseph Furttenbach’s Newes Itinerarium Italiae. Ulm: Jonan Saurn, 1627.
  • 20. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy He went to Italy, in Genoa where he attended training courses in mercantile activity Joseph Furttenbach. ‘La Riviera di Genova’, in Mannhaffter Kunst-Spiegel... Augsburg: Schultes, 1663. Map of Genoa, frontispiece.
  • 21. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy He worked on shipbuilding, pyrotechnics and artillery (“Arte de la Bombardieri”) with the help of Ambrosio Cusano (17th century) commander of the Bombardiers of the Republic of Genoa, and on military architecture under the guidance of the architect and military engineer Paolo Rizio (17th century) Joseph Furttenbach. ‘La Riviera di Genova’, in Mannhaffter Kunst-Spiegel... Augsburg: Schultes, 1663. Plate p. 210.
  • 22. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy In 1627 he published the diary of his trip to Italy entitled Newes Itinerarium Italiae (Ulm, 1627), which was one of the most widespread and read travel journals in seventeenth-century Germany Joseph Furttenbach. ‘La Riviera di Genova’, in Mannhaffter Kunst-Spiegel... Augsburg: Schultes, 1663. Ligurian Riviera, from Rapallo to Portovenere, plate p. 104.
  • 23. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy In 1631 he was appointed Architect of the Town Hall of Ulm and took care of the maintenance of city fortifications and public buildings. As a municipal architect, he designed and built a hospital, a bathhouse and a water supply elevator, an Italian-style theater, fortifications, bridges, gardens, various school buildings, housing for the military and plans to expand the town Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura Privata: Das is Gründtliche Beschreibung...in was form...ein Burgerliches Wohn- Haus... Augsburg: Johann Schultes the Younger, 1641.
  • 24. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy In Genoa he learned « l’arte di costruire navigli ». The Architectura Navalis was the first compendium on the art of shipbuilding based on the direct experience of the shipyard Joseph Furttenbach. Newes Itinerarium Italiae. Ulm: Saurn, 1627. Effects of the Libeccio wind (south-west wind) in the port of Genoa on 11 November 1613. Newes Itinerarium Italiae: pp. 203-207, plate p. 275.
  • 25. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Joseph Furttenbach. Newes Itinerarium Italiae. Ulm: Saurn, 1627. Barchetta (small boat): figures 23 and 24. During his stay in Italy, especially in Genoa, Furttenbach studied the Mediterranean ships, particularly galleys and galleons, but also brigantines, feluccas, frigates, etc. These studies stimulated his technical and mathematical skills so that he elaborated his idea of naval architecture basing on the Genoese ships
  • 26. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy For these reasons the Architectura Navalis is considered one of the first shipbuilding treatises and it was used as a reference model by many later authors in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Carel Allard. Nieuwe Hollandse scheeps-bouw. Amsteldam: Allard, 1695. Frontispiece.
  • 27. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Furttenbach writes that in his treatise are shown « méthodes infaillibles et certaines » that he learned during visits to the Italian shipyards Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate p. 29, p. 40-41, p. 106.
  • 28. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Part III THE JOSEPH FURTTENBACH’S ARCHITECTURA NAVALIS
  • 29. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy An encyclopaedic and descriptive intent to describe: galleys, galeazze, galeotte, brigs, feluccas, frigates, leudi, brigantines, polacres, tartans, etc. Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Ship: plate 15.
  • 30. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The first treaty part and the first seven engravings are dedicated to the galley description as made by Ithier Hobier an also by Claudio Bartholomeo Morisoto (1592 – 1661) Claudio Bartholomeo Morisoto “Nova Triremis, quam dicimus, Galere” in Orbis Maritimi sive Rerum in maris et littoribus gestarum generalis historia. Divione: Palliot, 1643. Frontispiece, plate and “Tablas de las proporciones…”.
  • 31. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Both from Furttenbach and its peers, the galley was considered one of the most important rowing boats because it was possible to use it in the best conditions both in case of peace and war Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate 1.
  • 32. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy A versatile ship: for both military and mercantile purposes Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate 4.
  • 33. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy A fast and simple ship to manoeuvre Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate 7. Genoese Galley “Fulmen in hostes”
  • 34. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The detailed description of the galley shows the attention that the author had for this important vessel Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate 2.
  • 35. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Furttenbach describes the individual parts that form the structural members of the galley, using Italian terms to describe them Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate 7 and p. 56-57.
  • 36. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy In the following pictures of his book, we see Furttenbach’s care to illustrate in the best way the construction of this important ship Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Galley: plate 3.
  • 37. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy In the continuation of the treaty, Furttenbach describes many types of boats; among these he cites: the galleass, the galeotta (smaller galley) and the brigantine, the felucca, the frigate, the leudo (is the name given, in Liguria, to a family of Latin sailboats that were used for the cabotage, coasting trade, activities throughout the Mediterranean area), the barchetta (small boat), the ship, probably the Flemish fluyt, then the polacre, the tartan, the barge, the caramuzzala (a small Turkish vessel) and then the ordinary rowboat and sail boat Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Frigate: plate 8. A Caramuzzala or Caramoussal is a high-pooped historical trading and naval ship of the Ottoman Navy. They were particularly active in the 17th century Ottoman Empire.
  • 38. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy In the second part of his treatise, Furttenbach explains the principles for the construction of a boat typical of the Netherlands, probably the Fluyt Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Fluyt: plate 10.
  • 39. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy He provides a lot of information and constructional details sufficient for a time carpenter to proceed with the construction of this boat Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Fluyt: plate 16.
  • 40. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The text is similar to the work done half a century before him, by the scientist, explorer and shipbuilder Diego García de Palacio (1540 – 1595) Diego García de Palacio. Instrucion nauthica (Instrucción náutica)… Mexico: Ocharte, 1587. Libro Quarto, p. 93-94.
  • 41. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy The last part of the Treaty of Furttenbach tells the story of the naval battle of Lepanto that took place on 7 October 1571 Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Battle of Lepanto: plate 20.
  • 42. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy CONCLUSIONS Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Caramuzzala: plate 17.
  • 43. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Furttenbach shows his perfect knowledge of shipbuilding in the seventeenth century Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Plate 11. In the box: Flag of merchant or pirate ship (Caramuzzala or Caramoussal) of Algeria, also Pirate flag attributed to Christopher Moody (1650 - c. 1718) or Thomas Tew (1649 - 1695).
  • 44. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy Furttenbach shows a careful analysis of the individual construction elements, of the shape, of the dimensions and of the nomenclature of the parts that contribute to forming a boat, using scale drawing and geometry, etc., … Joseph Furttenbach. Architectura navalis. Ulm: Saurn, 1629. Plate 12.
  • 45. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference Historic Ships 5 – 6 December 2018, London, UK Massimo Corradi and Claudia Tacchella University of Genoa, Italy … It is for these reasons that Furttenbach can be considered an anticipator, a pioneer of the science and technique of shipbuilding; all these disciplines will then be developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Thanks for your attention