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  1. (1) Introduction Hormones Functions Table’s 16-7
  2. The endocrine and nervous are both communicators of the body. The endocrine is a slow communicator while the nervous system is a fast communicator. The nervous system collects and processes information, analyzes it, and generates coordinated output to control complex behaviors. The nervous system Endocrine system also is partly responsible for (21) homeostasis. It works in conjunction with the endocrine system by employing nerve impulses and by responding rapidly to stimuli to adjust body processes. (2)
  3. Facial Skeleton (21) Overall function regulation of effectors to maintain homeostasis Control by regulatory feedbacks loops Yes(endocrine reflexes) Effector tissues endocrine effectors virtually all tissues Effector cells target cells (3)
  4. (1)
  5. * Organic chemical substances secreted by ductless glands (or endocrine glands) and are released into the blood stream for onward transportation to their target organs. * Regulate a variety of body functions. -The way the body uses food growth -Sex and reproduction the regulation of the composition of the blood -The body’s reaction to emergencies and the control of hormones themselves(4)
  6. (5)
  7. * Molecules manufactured by the endocrine cells from cholesterol * Derived from a common molecule, being characterized by a chemical group at the core of each molecule * Ex: Cortisol. Aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and (6) *
  8. * Do not enter the cell but bind to plasma membrane receptors, generating a chemical signal (second messenger) inside the target cell. * Five different second messenger chemicals, including cyclic AMP have been identified. Second messengers activate other intracellular chemicals to produce the target cell response.(7) *
  9. (1)
  10. * is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring.(7)
  11. * is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 * gramsin humans. It is not a part of the brain. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity covered by a dural fold. The pituitary is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the infundibular stem. The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis(8) (9)
  12. * is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. (10) * (11)
  13. * The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence, or "Adam's apple"). The isthmus (the bridge between the two lobes of the thyroid) is located inferior to the cricoid cartilage. * * The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones. It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, the principal ones being triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine which can sometimes be referred to as tetraiodothyronine (T4). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesized from both iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also produces calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.(12) *
  14. * The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, which are usually located on the rear surface of the thyroid gland, or, in rare cases, within the thyroid gland itself or in the chest. Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the (13) bones. (14) *
  15. * the adrenal glands are endocrine glands that sit at the top of the kidneys; in humans, the right adrenal gland is triangular shaped, while the left adrenal gland is semilunar shaped. They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. They also produce androgens. The adrenal glands affect kidney function through the secretion of aldosterone, a hormone involved in regulating the osmolarity of blood plasma. (15) *
  16. Functions (1)
  17. * Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine. (16) *
  18. * Throughout the pancreas are clusters of cells called the islets of Langerhans. Islets are made up of several types of cells, including beta cells that make insulin. *
  19. * The testes are two egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. They produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone. *
  20. * The placenta is a structure that develops in your uterus during pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby's blood. It attaches to the wall of your uterus, and your baby's umbilical cord arises from it. In most pregnancies, the placenta attaches at the top or side of the uterus. *
  21. * The thymus is a small organ in your upper chest, under your breastbone. Before birth and during childhood, the thymus helps the body make a type of white blood cell. These cells help protect you from infections. *
  22. * The gastrointestinal mucosa forms a barrier between the body and a lumenal environment which not only contains nutrients, but is laden with potentially hostile microorganisms and toxins. The challenge is to allow efficient transport of nutrients across the epithelium while rigorously excluding passage of harmful molecules and organisms into the animal. The exclusionary properties of the gastric and intestinal mucosa are referred to as the gastrointestinal barrier. *
  23. * The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a fist, located just behind and slightly left of the breastbone. The heart pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins called the cardiovascular system. The heart moves the hormones throughout the body. *
  24. (1)
  25. Hormone Source Targets Principal Action Growth hormone-releasing hormone Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion of growth hormone GRH (somatotrophs) Growth hormone- inhibiting hormone Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion of growth hormone GIH, or somatostatin (somatotrophs) Corticoptropin- releasing hormone CRH Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone ACTH (corticotrophs) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of thyroid-stimulating TSH (thyrotrophs) Gonadotropin- releasing hormone Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) GNRH (gonadotrophs) Prolactin-releasing hormone PRH Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion of prolactin (corticotrophs) Prolactin- inhibiting hormone PIH Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion of prolactin (corticotrophs) Growth hormone GH (somatotrophs Adenohypophysis General Promotes growth by stimulating protein anabolism [STH]) (somatotrophs) Prolactin PRL (lactogenic hormone) Adenohypophysis Mammary glands Promotes milk secretion (lactotrophs) (alveolar secretory cells) Thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH Adenohypophysis Thyroid gland Stimulates development and secretion in the thyroid gland (thyrotrophs) Adenocorticotrophic hormone ACTH Adenohypophysis Adrenal cortex Promotes development and secretion in the adrenal cortex (corticotrophs) Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH Adenohypophysis Gonads (primary Female: promotes development of ovarian follicle; stimulates (gonadotrophs) sex organs) estrogen secretion Male: promotes development of testis; stimulates sperm production Luteinizing hormone LH Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: triggers ovulation; promotes development of corpus luteum (gonadotrophs) Male: simulates production of testosterone Antidiuretic hormone ADH Neurohypophysis Kidney Promotes water retention by kidney tubules Oxytocin OT Neurohypophysis Uterus and Stimulates uterine contractions; stimulates ejection of milk into mammary gland mammary glands
  26. Hormone Source Targets Principal Action Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid gland (follicular cells) General Increase rate of metabolism Tetaiodothyronine (T4) Thyroid gland (follicular cells) General Increases rate of metabolism (usually converted to T3 first) or thyroxine Calcitonin CT Thyroid gland (parafollicular cells) Bone tissue Increases calcium storage in bone; lowering blood Ca++ levels Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid glands Bone tissue and kidney Increases removal from storage in bone and produces the PTH or parathromone active form of vitamin D in the kidneys, increasing absorption of calcium by intestines and increasing blood Ca++ levels Aldosterone Adrenal cortex (zona glomerlulosa) Kidney Stimulates kidney tubules to conserve sodium, which, in turn, triggers, the release of ADH and the resulting conservation of water by the kidney Cortisol (hydrocortisone) Adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata) General Influences metabolism of food molecules; in large amounts, it has an anti-inflammatory effect Adrenal androgens Adrenal cortex (zona reticularis) Sex organs, other Exact role uncertain, but may support sexual function effectors Adrenal estrogens Adrenal cortex (zona reticularis) Sex organs Thought to be physiologically insignificant Epinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division (adrenaline) of the autonomic nervous system Norepinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system Glucagon Pancreatic islets (alpha [a] cells or General Promotes movement of glucose from storage and into the A cells) blood Insulin Pancreatic islets (beta [b] cells or B General Promotes movement of glucose out of the blood and into cells) cells Somatostatin Pancreatic islets (delta [d] cells or D Pancreatic cells and Can have general effects in the body, but primary role seems cells) other effectors to be regulation of secretion of other pancreatic hormones Pancreatic polypeptide Pancreatic islets (pancreatic Intestinal cells and Exact function uncertain, but seems to influence absorption polypeptide [PP] of F cells) other effectors in the digestive tract
  27. * Group didn’t do all their citations…. * -megan