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Problem Based Learning

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Special Topics In Education

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Problem Based Learning

  1. 1. Problem-based and Project-based Learning Special Topics in Education Volume 2 Marygrace C. Cordovilla - Cagungun
  2. 2. Problem Based Instruction  Problem-based learning is a learner-centered approach to teaching and learning in which the learner learns about a subject through problem-solving.  In a problem-based learning (PBL) model, students engage complex, challenging problems and collaboratively work toward their resolution.  PBL is about students connecting disciplinary knowledge to real- world problems—the motivation to solve a problem becomes the motivation to learn.
  3. 3. Problem-based learning process
  4. 4. Why PBL? In problem-based learning, students work together in small groups to solve real-world problems. Students  Increases motivation to learn  Develops critical thinking, writing, and communication skills  Enhances retention of information  Provides a model for lifelong learning Faculty  Role: facilitate group process and learning—not to provide easy answers.  Instructors are able to learn with students, and find renewed interest and excitement in teaching.  Creating strong problems that lead students to realize the intended course learning outcomes.
  5. 5. Unique aspects that define the PBL approach  Problem-based learning is student-centered.  In a PBL course, students and the instructor become co-learners, co-planners, and co-evaluators as they design, implement, and continually refine their curricula.  PBL fosters collaboration among students, stresses the development of problem solving skills within the context of professional practice, promotes self-directed learning, and is aimed at increasing motivation for life-long learning.
  6. 6. Seven steps to PBL  Clarify. The students read through the problem, then identify and clarify any words or concepts that they do not understand.  Define. The students work together to define what they think the problem is.  Analyze. The students discuss the problem. At this stage there is no sifting of ideas.  Review. Students now try to arrange their ideas and explanations into tentative solutions.  Identify learning objectives. The group reaches a consensus on learning objectives.  Self Study. Students individually gather information towards the learning objectives and prepare to share their findings with the rest of the group.  7. Report. The students come together in their groups and share their results. The facilitator checks that the learning objectives have been met.
  7. 7. Advantages of  Develop your diagnostic reasoning and analytical problem-solving skills.  Determine what knowledge you need to acquire to understand the problem, and others like it.  Discover the best resources for acquiring that information.  Carry out your own personalized study using a wide range of resources.  Apply the information you have learned back to the problem.  Integrate this newly acquired knowledge with your existing understanding.
  8. 8. Project Based Learning Project-Based Learning is a comprehensive instructional approach to engage learners in sustained, cooperative investigation (Bransford & Stein, 1993).
  9. 9. What is project-based learning?  Project-based learning is a dynamic approach to teaching in which students explore real-world problems and challenges. With this type of active and engaged learning, students are inspired to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subjects they're studying.
  10. 10. PBL Pedagogy  Improved Learning Strategies & Thinking Skills: learning to learn, life-long learning, active learning and cooperative learning.  Contextual Learning  High Standards for All Learners  Changing Roles and Increasing Participation: students as teachers, teachers as coaches, parent and community involvement.
  11. 11. What makes a good project?  Purpose. Is the project personally meaningful?  Time. Sufficient time must be provided for learners to think about and plan.  Complexity. The best projects combine multiple subject areas and call upon the prior knowledge and expertise of each student.  Connected. During great projects students are connected to each other.
  12. 12. What makes a good project?  Access. Students need access to a wide variety of concrete and digital materials anytime, anyplace.  Shareable. Students need to make something that is shareable with others.  Novelty. Few project ideas are so profound that every child needs to engage in its development in every class. (by Gary Stager, Ph.D.)
  13. 13. Key components of Project-Based Learning  Learner-centered environment  Collaboration  Curricular content  Authentic tasks  Multiple expression modes  Emphasis on time management  Innovative assessment
  14. 14. Benefits of Project-Based Learning  Increased attendance, growth in self-reliance, and improved attitudes toward learning (Thomas, 2000)  Academic gains equal to or better than those generated by other models, with students involved in projects taking greater responsibility for their own learning than during more traditional classroom activities (Boaler, 1997; SRI, 2000 )  Opportunities to develop complex skills, such as higher-order thinking, problem-solving, collaborating, and communicating (SRI, 2000)  Access to a broader range of learning opportunities in the classroom, providing a strategy for engaging culturally diverse learners (Railsback, 2002)
  15. 15. References  Boaler, J. (1999, March 31). Mathematics for the moment, or the millennium? Education Week.  Thomas, J.W. (1998). Project-based learning: Overview. Novato, CA: Buck Institute for Education.  Railsback, J. (2002). Project-based instruction: Creating excitement for learning. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.