2. Child Population
- Extinction of School Age Children
• Historical Perspective: The number of school aged children
has been on a steady decrease since 2009. Before this time, school
aged children represented more than 25 percent of the population in
the United States. Children of color are steadily increasing in the
population count and it is predicted that by 2019, children of color
will be the majority.
3. Child Population
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: As an educational system,
it is important that we adapt to each of our students, even when the
minority becomes the majority. The number of students in a
classroom will be affected. Also, teachers will need to take more
time for one-on-one activities with students who are struggling
(“The State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
4. Child Poverty
- Childhood Poverty Epidemic
• Historical Perspective: Childhood poverty has reached an all-time
high, especially in children of color. Poverty can have a devastating effect on
children, especially on their education. If a child comes to school hungry, they
will not be able to focus. If a child comes to school without having adequate
sleep, they will be distracted. If a child does not have access to medicine, they
will never feel well enough to participate. Although the recession ended in 2007,
there are many families who feel the aftershocks of the hard times.
5. Child Poverty
- Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: Once there is a history
of poverty in a family, it is hard to escape. Most times, children who are raised in
poverty are slow developers and they do not have access to extra help that is needed
to be successful in school. Eventually, they might fall behind in school or even drop
out. The increased dropout rate can, in turn, contribute to a higher crime rate.
Although childhood poverty is not a guarantee that the child will never escape
poverty, there is a direct correlation between childhood poverty and that child being
in poverty as an adult(“The State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
6. Family Structure & Income
- The Falling Out of Families
• Historical Perspective: In the past, a woman and man were
married and took on the responsibility of raising a family. Raising children and
providing for their futures were the most important things to a family in a time
not long ago. However, today is a much different story. Families today can
consist of only the mother, only the father, or both parents. A family might also
be a legal guardian or perhaps a grandparent. No matter the case, the family
structure can play a major role in a child’s education.
7. Family Structure & Income
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: If a child comes from a
single home, the parent might have to work long hours to meet the
family’s most basic needs. When the parent is absent, the older children
in the family might have to take on roles of a parent. This can cause the
student to not have time to study or complete assignments in school.
Income can also be a barrier for student success. Lack of funds can lead
to inadequate nutrition, living conditions, and supplies for school (“The
State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
8. Housing & Homelessness
- Homeless Children on the Rise
• Historical Perspective: Housing is the most expensive
necessity for a family. The number of homeless students in America
has been steadily increasing since the recession. Almost one fourth
of black parents report living in an unsafe neighborhood.
9. Housing & Homelessness
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues:
Homelessness can cause students to fall behind in school, causing a
spiraling effect on their adulthood. In addition to homelessness,
students deal with hunger, sickness, and truancy issues. These
issues can cause students to fall behind in school (“The State of
America’s Children,” n.d.).
10. Child Hunger & Nutrition
- Hunger Amongst Children
• Historical Perspective: The recession has impacted America in many
ways. Perhaps the most devastating in the amount of hungry there are in America.
Nutrition programs set up by the federal government have helped many children escape
the effects of hunger. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants,
and Children was created in 1972. It provides pregnant women and their babies with
formula, milk, and other healthy foods for their young children. The Supplemental
Nutrition Assistance Program, created in 2008, also provides families with healthy foods.
11. Child Hunger & Nutrition
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: Hunger can affect
anyone at any age. A child, especially young children, can be severely
crippled by the effects of hunger. If a child experiences hunger often at a
young age, they might fall behind their peers developmentally. It has
been shown that a student’s test scores drop if a student is hungry.
There is even a chance that a student can become obese due to the lack
of access to healthy foods. This can cause additional health issues for
students (“The State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
12. Child Health
- Lack of Healthcare for Children
• Historical Perspective: Many children across the United
States have no health insurance, especially poor children and children
of color. There have been several acts by the government that has
helped increase healthcare for children. Medicaid was put into effect in
1965 under President Johnson. The Children’s Health Insurance
Program was formed in 1997. Affordable Care Act of 2010 was also put
into place to ensure that children can have access to affordable health
13. Child Health
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: Although the
number of children who remain uninsured has decreased, many
children are still unenrolled in healthcare. Struggling with sickness
can be a distraction for the student. If they do not feel well, they will
not feel like learning (“The State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
14. Early Childhood
- High Cost of Early Education
• Historical Perspective: Child Care and Development Fund
was created in 1990 but was reauthorized in 1996. The fund has
distributed over 5 billion dollars to go towards early childhood
education to families who are less fortunate. The money can pay for
child dare, pre-school, and other child care related expenses (“OCC
Fact Sheet,” n.d.).
15. Early Childhood
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: It has been shown
that adequate early childhood education can prepare students to be
successful in their later years. Early childhood is a vital stage in
development. Adequate educational experiences are key to leading a
child in the right educational direction.
- Unequal Access to Education
• Historical Perspective: Although the most important goal
for the educational system in the United States is to provide each
child with a quality education, it can be argued that there is an
unequal playing field for poor students or students of color.
Historically, an uneducated parent will not have as high educational
expectations from their children than their educated counterparts.
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: One study
showed that most children of color are at a disadvantage because of
their parents’ expectations of their educational career. If they come
from a home in which the parents do not have a higher education,
education might not be a priority for that home (Cook, 2015).
18. Child Welfare
- Child Abuse and Neglect
• Historical Perspective: Children can be in the foster care
system can due to abuse, neglect, or other reasons. However,
children of color represent a majority of children in the system.
Thankfully, the number of children in foster care is decreasing.
Children of color are more likely to be a victim of a violent crime
than other children (Cook, 2015).
19. Child Welfare
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: Students who are
in foster care have numerous challenges in education. Often times,
students in foster care do not have access to the things they need to
be successful in education or adulthood (“The State of America’s
20. Juvenile Justice
- The Young Life of Crime
• Historical Perspective: Children who come from an area of
poverty are at an increased risk of crime. The number of children in the
juvenile justice system has decreased over the past 10 years. It has been
shown that children who are incarcerated have more issues with the law
as adults. They also face assault, harassment, and violence in the jail
setting. Residential programs seem to be more effective in rehabilitating
children who have committed crimes.
21. Juvenile Justice
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: For those students
who have been in trouble with the law, after school programs can
help the student stay out of trouble and stay on the path to
educational success (“The State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
22. Gun Violence
- Life Lost too Soon
• Historical Perspective: The gun violence in the United
States is at an all-time high, especially effecting children and teens
of color. Since the 1960s, over 150,000 children have been killed by
23. Gun Violence
• Acculturation/Assimilation Issues: A child who lives
in poverty has several struggles including hunger, inadequate health
care, and fear of homelessness. In addition, many higher poverty
areas are affected by gun violence. The added stress of an unsafe
environment can negatively impact the learning environment (“The
State of America’s Children,” n.d.).
• In the article “Multicultural Teaching Models to Educate Pre-Service
Teachers: Reflections, Service-Learning, and Mentoring” discusses
the issues that teachers might face in the real word when it comes to
different ethnicities and the challenges that might present
themselves over the course of their career of teaching. One issue is
the diversity of today’s schools. The challenge that teachers must
overcome is to reach individual student even though they are all
coming from different cultures and face different circumstances that
can affect their learning. (Krummel, 2013).
• I was raised in a middle class family in a rural community. I came from a two parent
home. Education was always very important to my parents. In fact, they encouraged
me often to go to college, as neither of my parents had a higher education. Both
parents had full time jobs so my grandmother watched my brother and me while my
parents were away. We did not have a lot of extra money but we had enough for the
necessities. I consider myself very lucky to have come from the situation I did.
However, my personal experiences inhibit my knowledge about some of the struggles
that students face. In my classroom, I have students who struggle with poverty,
hunger, and broken families. I can see its effects on my students. America should
strive to take care of its own, especially its children. They are our future and we
should invest in theirs.
Cook, L. (2015, January 28). U.S. Education: Still Separate and Unequal. Retrieved January 25,
2016, from http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2015/01/28/us-education-still-
Krummel, A. (2013). Multicultural Teaching Models to Educate Pre-Service Teachers:
Reflections, Service-Learning, and Mentoring. Critical Issues in Education, 16(1), 1-8.
Retrieved January 28, 2016, from
OCC Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2016, from
The State of America's Children® 2014 Report. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from