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Pronation is a normal motion of the foot during walking or running.
Pronation Helps to absorb the normal forces travelingfrom the body aboveto the ground below.
Specifically The ankle bone slightly turns inward and the rest of the footturns slightly outward.
Ankle bone (talus)controls the motions of the hindfoot (calcaneus/navicular)
Let’s get more technicalDuring pronation Talus- slightly moves Toward the mid-line of the body (medially)- transverse plane The inner side (medial) lifts up-ward and the outer side (lateral) slightly drops downward- Inverts- frontal plane Front of the talus slightly dips – sagittal plane
The mid-footcontrols the motions ofthe forefoot.
Therefore:the talus ultimately controls the motions of the rest of the foot.
The foot movesin the oppositedirection of the talus during walking.
Foot has to move in all three planes topronate Slightly turns away from the mid-line of the body – lateral (abduction) transverse plane motion Sole of the foot slightly turns outward (everts) frontal plane Foot turns slightly up-wards (dorsiflexes) sagittal plane.
PronationAlso allows for adaptation while walking on uneven surfaces.
The motions of the foot when walking. Pronation and Supination
Supination - Pronation• Opposite movements between the ankle bone and the foot.• Think of it as a winding and unwinding of the foot mechanism.• A period of stability and less stability of the foot structures while walking.
Pronation & supination are veryimportant motions of the foot during the walking cycle.
These complex motions of the footconsist of a lockingand unlocking of the joints within the foot.
Pronation unlocks the foot and turns it into a “Loose bag of bones”We have to be very careful using this termwhen describing the stability of the bones ofthe foot during pronation as it seems like thereis no stability within the foot during this period.This is not the case, it is just that there is aperiod of slight joint motion as the foot isallowed to be a mobile adapter.
Mobile AdapterThis is a very important aspect of the foot to allowslight accommodation to an uneven weightbearingsurface below the foot.During this time there is a normal amount ofadaptation that is acceptable and built into themechanics of the foot.
What controls how much pronation or supination occurs in the foot?
It is determined by the motion of theankle bone (talus) on two hindfoot bones (calcaneus-heel bone and navicular).
There is a specific point when the foot needs to be supinating.
During the contact phase of walking the hindfoot lands supinated,quickly pronates, and re-supinates for toe-off.
At mid-stance the foot transitions from itssupinated motion into a pronating motion.
Finally, in order for the foot to function as it was designed, the hindfoot must stiffen/limit joint motion and transitionback into supination in order to prepare the foot for lift-off.