Lakshmi Narain College Of
Presented By: Branch: CSE
MEGHA SHARMA Semester: 5th
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?
WHAT IS PATTERN RECOGNITION?
HISTORY OF AI AND CONTRIBUTION OF
JOHN Mc CARTHY.
THE TEST THAT CHANGED AI FOR ONCE AND
BRANCHES OF AI.
APPLICATIONS OF AI.
WHAT IS AI
• Artificial intelligence (AI) is
the intelligence of machines and
the branch of computer
science that aims to create it.
• It is also defined as "the study
and design of intelligent agents“
where an intelligent agent is a
system that perceives its
environment and takes actions
that maximize its chances of
• John McCarthy, who coined the
term in 1955, defines it as "the
science and engineering of
making intelligent machines."
• AI is a branch of computer science
dealing with symbolic, non algorithmic
methods of problem solving
• AI is a branch of computer science that
deals with ways of knowledge using
symbols rather than numbers and with
Heuristics, method for processing
• AI works with pattern matching methods
which attempt to describe objects ,
events or processes in terms of their
qualitative features and logical and
What is Pattern Recognition
• In machine learning, pattern
recognition is the assignment
of a label to a given input
value. An example of pattern
recognition is classification,
which attempts to assign each
input value to one of a given
set of classes (for example,
determine whether a given
email is "spam" or "non-
• However, pattern recognition is
a more general problem that
encompasses other types of
output as well.
• Other examples are regression,
which assigns a real-valued
output to each input;
sequence labeling, which assigns
a class to each member of a
sequence of values (for
example, part of speech tagging,
which assigns a part of speech to
each word in an input sentence);
parsing, which assigns a parse
tree to an input sentence,
describing the syntactic
structure of the sentence
History of AI
• In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed
The logic Theorist, the first AI program.
• This was a crucial stepping stone in
Developing the AI field.
• From its birth 4 decades ago, there have
been a variety of AI programs, and they
have impacted other technological
• In the early seventies, the capabilities of
AI programs were limited. Even the most
impressive could only handle trivial
versions of the problems they were
supposed to solve; all the programs were,
in some sense, "toys"
“THE TEST THAT
AND FOR ALL”
Google artificial intelligence 'invents' cat
• Google scientists have claimed a breakthrough in
technology that is able to “learn” like a human
brain by building a computer able to recognize a
picture of a cat
• The computer is based on a “neural network” of
16,000 processing cores with more than a billion
interconnections, each very roughly simulating a
connection in a human brain.
• A team from Google’s cutting-edge research lab,
Google X, and Stanford University, fed the system
10 million thumbnail images taken from YouTube
as “training” and then tested whether it was able
to recognize 20,000 objects in new images.
• Among the objects the system learned to
recognize was a cat, one of the most regulars
star of viral clips uploaded by YouTube
• “We never told it during the training, ‘This is a
cat,’” said Google fellow Dr. Jeff Dean. “It
basically invented the concept of a cat.”
• Overall, the neural network achieved 15.8 per
cent accuracy. As well as cats’ faces, it learned
the “concepts” of human faces and bodies, by
compiling a ghostly image of their general
MAJOR BRANCHES OF AI
• LOGICAL AI :
What a program knows about the world.
In general the facts of the specific
situation in which it must act and it’s
goals are all represented by sentences of
some mathematical logical language.
• PATTERN RECOGNITION :
When a program makes observation of
some kind, it is often programmed to
compare what it sees with already
• PLANNING :
Planning programs start with general facts about
the world. They generate a strategy for achieving
the goal, the strategy is just a sequence of
• EPISTEMOLOGY :
This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are
required for solving problems in the world.
• ONTOLOGY :
It is the study of kinds of things that exist. In AI,
things deal with various kinds of object
APPLICATIONS OF AI
• GAME PLAYING :
You can buy machines that can play master level
chess for a few hundred dollars.
• SPEECH RECOGNITION :
In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached
a practical level for limited purposes. Thus United
Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight
information by a system using speech recognition of
flight numbers and city names. It is quite
• NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSOR
The goal of NLP is to enable people and
computers to communicate in a natural
(humanly) language(such as, English)
rather than in a computer language.
The field of NLP is divided in 2
Natural Language understanding.
Natural Language generation
• AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING :
Programming is a process of telling a computer
exactly what you want it to do. Writing a program
is a tedious job. It must be designed, written,
tested, debugged and evaluated.
The goal of automatic planning is to create
special programs that act intelligent tools to assist
programmers and expedite each phase of
programming process. Ultimate aim is computer
itself should develop a program in accordance
with specifications of programmer.
• ROBOTICS :
A Robot is an electro-mechanical
device that can be programmed to
perform manual tasks or a
reprogrammable multi functional
manipulator designed to move
materials, parts, tools, or specialized
devices through variable
programmed motions for
performance of variety of tasks.
• COMPUTER VISION
People generally use vision as their
primary means of sensing their
environment, we generally see more
than we hear, feel or smell or taste
The goal of computer vision research
is to give computers this same
powerful facility for understanding
Here AI helps computer to
understand what they see through
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