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artificial intelligence

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artificial intelligence

  1. 1. Lakshmi Narain College Of Technology Presented By: Branch: CSE MEGHA SHARMA Semester: 5th
  2. 2. PATTERN RECOGNITION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
  3. 3. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?  WHAT IS PATTERN RECOGNITION?  HISTORY OF AI AND CONTRIBUTION OF JOHN Mc CARTHY.  THE TEST THAT CHANGED AI FOR ONCE AND FOR ALL.  BRANCHES OF AI.  APPLICATIONS OF AI.  CONCLUSION.
  4. 4. WHAT IS AI • Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. • It is also defined as "the study and design of intelligent agents“ where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. • John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS : • AI is a branch of computer science dealing with symbolic, non algorithmic methods of problem solving • AI is a branch of computer science that deals with ways of knowledge using symbols rather than numbers and with Heuristics, method for processing information. • AI works with pattern matching methods which attempt to describe objects , events or processes in terms of their qualitative features and logical and computational Relationship.
  6. 6. What is Pattern Recognition • In machine learning, pattern recognition is the assignment of a label to a given input value. An example of pattern recognition is classification, which attempts to assign each input value to one of a given set of classes (for example, determine whether a given email is "spam" or "non- spam"). • However, pattern recognition is a more general problem that encompasses other types of output as well.
  7. 7. • Other examples are regression, which assigns a real-valued output to each input; sequence labeling, which assigns a class to each member of a sequence of values (for example, part of speech tagging, which assigns a part of speech to each word in an input sentence); and parsing, which assigns a parse tree to an input sentence, describing the syntactic structure of the sentence
  8. 8. History of AI • In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed The logic Theorist, the first AI program. • This was a crucial stepping stone in Developing the AI field. • From its birth 4 decades ago, there have been a variety of AI programs, and they have impacted other technological advancements. • In the early seventies, the capabilities of AI programs were limited. Even the most impressive could only handle trivial versions of the problems they were supposed to solve; all the programs were, in some sense, "toys"
  9. 9. “THE TEST THAT CHANGED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ONCE AND FOR ALL”
  10. 10. Google artificial intelligence 'invents' cat • Google scientists have claimed a breakthrough in technology that is able to “learn” like a human brain by building a computer able to recognize a picture of a cat • The computer is based on a “neural network” of 16,000 processing cores with more than a billion interconnections, each very roughly simulating a connection in a human brain. • A team from Google’s cutting-edge research lab, Google X, and Stanford University, fed the system 10 million thumbnail images taken from YouTube as “training” and then tested whether it was able to recognize 20,000 objects in new images.
  11. 11. • Among the objects the system learned to recognize was a cat, one of the most regulars star of viral clips uploaded by YouTube members. • “We never told it during the training, ‘This is a cat,’” said Google fellow Dr. Jeff Dean. “It basically invented the concept of a cat.” • Overall, the neural network achieved 15.8 per cent accuracy. As well as cats’ faces, it learned the “concepts” of human faces and bodies, by compiling a ghostly image of their general features.
  12. 12. MAJOR BRANCHES OF AI • LOGICAL AI : What a program knows about the world. In general the facts of the specific situation in which it must act and it’s goals are all represented by sentences of some mathematical logical language. • PATTERN RECOGNITION : When a program makes observation of some kind, it is often programmed to compare what it sees with already stored patterns.
  13. 13. • PLANNING : Planning programs start with general facts about the world. They generate a strategy for achieving the goal, the strategy is just a sequence of action. • EPISTEMOLOGY : This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are required for solving problems in the world. • ONTOLOGY : It is the study of kinds of things that exist. In AI, things deal with various kinds of object
  14. 14. APPLICATIONS OF AI • GAME PLAYING : You can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. • SPEECH RECOGNITION : In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient.
  15. 15. • NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSOR The goal of NLP is to enable people and computers to communicate in a natural (humanly) language(such as, English) rather than in a computer language. The field of NLP is divided in 2 categories—  Natural Language understanding.  Natural Language generation
  16. 16. • AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING : Programming is a process of telling a computer exactly what you want it to do. Writing a program is a tedious job. It must be designed, written, tested, debugged and evaluated. The goal of automatic planning is to create special programs that act intelligent tools to assist programmers and expedite each phase of programming process. Ultimate aim is computer itself should develop a program in accordance with specifications of programmer.
  17. 17. • ROBOTICS : A Robot is an electro-mechanical device that can be programmed to perform manual tasks or a reprogrammable multi functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for performance of variety of tasks.
  18. 18. • COMPUTER VISION People generally use vision as their primary means of sensing their environment, we generally see more than we hear, feel or smell or taste The goal of computer vision research is to give computers this same powerful facility for understanding their surrounding. Here AI helps computer to understand what they see through attached cameras.
  19. 19. ANY QUERY ??

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