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Excretory System

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Excretory System

  1. 1. THE EXCRETORY SYSTEMChapter 4 Section 2
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF EXCRETORY SYSTEMEliminate wastes from the body.It is a combined effort of…
  4. 4. URINARY SYSTEMRids blood of wastesproduced by the cellsControls the bloodvolume by removingexcess water producedby body cells duringrespiration.
  5. 5. REGULATING FLUID LEVELSHypothalamusThe Hypothalamus is constantly monitoring howmuch fluid is in the body and is always sending out ahormone that controls the amount of fluid.Hormone
  6. 6. REGULATING FLUID LEVELSHypothalamusHow much fluid is in this body?
  7. 7. HypothalamusREGULATING FLUID LEVELSToo Much!!Hormone
  8. 8. REGULATING FLUID LEVELSHormoneWhen there is too much fluid in the body, thehypothalamus send out less hormone which tells thekidneys to…Return less water to bloodIncrease the amount ofwastewater, called urine.Hypothalamus
  9. 9. HypothalamusREGULATING FLUID LEVELSNot enough!!Hormone
  10. 10. REGULATING FLUID LEVELSWhen there is not enough fluid in the body, thehypothalamus send out more hormone which tellsthe kidneys to…Return more water to your blood (which decreasesthe amount of urine)HypothalamusHormone
  11. 11. Located on the back wall of the abdomen at aboutwaist levelFilter blood that contains wastes collected fromcellsRed-brown colour is due to the enormous bloodsupplyHow longs does it take all the blood in your bodyto filter through the kidneys????5 minutes!!!ORGAN OF THE URINARY SYSTEM - KIDNEYS
  13. 13. Blood entersthe kidneysthrough a largeartery andleaves througha large vein.
  14. 14. FILTRATION IN THE KIDNEYSThere are about 1 million tiny filtering unitscalled nephrons.A nephron is acuplike structureand a tube-likestructure calleda duct.
  15. 15. Filtration in the kidneys happens in two stages.The first filtration:Blood moves from a renal artery to capillariesin the cuplike structure.Water, sugar, salt, andwastes from the blood passinto the cuplike structure.Red blood cells and proteinsare left behind in blood.FILTRATION IN THE KIDNEYS
  16. 16. Liquid in the cuplike structure is squeezedinto a narrow tubule.Capillaries that surround the tubule performthe second filtration.Most of the water, sugar,and salt are reabsorbed andreturned to the blood.These capillaries merge toform small veins, whichmerge to form a renal veinin each kidney.FILTRATION IN THE KIDNEYS
  17. 17. Purified blood is returned to the circulatorysystem.The liquid left behind flows into collectingtubules.This wastewater, urine,contains excess water, salts,and other wastes that arenot reabsorbed by the body.An average person produces1L of urine per day.FILTRATION IN THE KIDNEYS
  18. 18. URINARY SYSTEMUrine in the collectingtubule drains into afunnel-shaped areathat leads to eachureterThe ureter is a tubethat leads from thekidneys to the bladder.The bladder is amuscular organ thatholds urine until itleaves the body.
  19. 19. URINARY SYSTEMThe walls of thebladder are elastic,they can stretch andhold up to 0.5 L ofurine.When empty, it lookswrinkled and the cellslining the bladder arethick.
  20. 20. URINARY SYSTEMWhen full, it looks likean inflated balloonand the cells arestretched and thin.The urethra carriesurine from thebladder to the outsideof the body.
  21. 21. GAINING AND LOSING WATERHow does your body gain water?Source Amount (mL) PercentOxidation of nutrients 250 10Foods 750 30Liquids 150 60Total 2500 100
  22. 22. GAINING AND LOSING WATERHow does your body lose water?Source Amount (mL) PercentUrine 1500 60Skin 500 20Lungs 350 14Feces 150 6Total 2500 100
  23. 23. URINARY DISEASES & DISORDERSIf your kidneys are not working, then……Waste products are not removed, then buildup and acts as a poison in body cellsSometimes fluids also build up around theheart, causing it to work harder to moveblood to lungsWater accumulates and causes swelling ofankles and feet
  24. 24. When no excretion is happening……An imbalance of salts occurs in the body andthe body tries to restore this balance.If it is not restored, the kidneys and otherorgans can be damaged.Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys donot function properly.This is NOT good because the job of thekidney is so important to the rest of thebody.URINARY DISEASES & DISORDERS
  25. 25. What if there is an infection……An microorganism infection usually begins inthe bladderIt can spread to the kidneysMost of the time, it can be cured withantibioticsURINARY DISEASES & DISORDERS
  26. 26. When a ureter or urethra is blocked……Urine cannot flow out of the body properly.If the blockage is not corrected, the kidneyscan be affected.URINARY DISEASES & DISORDERS
  27. 27. Detecting a disease or disorder….Urine can be tested.Change in colour can suggest liver orkidney problems.Increases amounts of albumin (aprotein) can indicate kidney disease.High levels of glucose can indicatediabetes.URINARY DISEASES & DISORDERS
  28. 28. A person can live with only one kidney.The one kidney will increase in size and worksharder to make up for the loss of the other kidney.If a person is missing both kidneys can still live, buthas to have their blood filtered by an artificialkidney machine. This process is called dialysis.URINARY DISEASES & DISORDERS
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