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3D Printing - A Manufacturing Revolution

The question is not if but when companies need to consider 3D printing. A.T. Kearney is helping forward-thinking players overcome the challenges and take advantage of powerful opportunities in this next generation of manufacturing.

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3D Printing - A Manufacturing Revolution

  1. 1. 13D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution 3D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution The question is not if but when companies need to consider 3D printing. A.T. Kearney is helping forward-thinking players over- come the challenges and take advantage of powerful opportunities in this next generation of manufacturing.
  2. 2. 23D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution “Digital fabrication will allow individuals to design and produce tangible objects on demand, wherever and whenever they need them. The revolution is not additive versus subtractive manufacturing; it is the ability to turn data into things and things into data.” — Neil Gershenfeld, director of the Center for Bits and Atoms at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  3. 3. 13D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Is 3D Printing the Next Industrial Revolution? Also known as additive manufacturing, 3D printing (3DP) creates physical products from a digital design file by joining or forming input substrate materials using a layer- upon-layer printing approach. There are seven major printing technologies today. Each has a different way of processing input materials into a final product. Combined with advanced scanning, 3DP technologies allow physical products to be converted into digital design files and vice versa. Going forward, 3DP has the power to transform the digital-physical interface for product design, development, and manufacturing. What is 3D printing? • Plastics • Ceramics and wax • Plastics • Sand Material type Photo- polymerization Material extrusion • Plastics • Metals Sheet lamination • Plastics • Metals • Glass Binder jetting • Plastics • Metals • Wax and biomaterial Material jetting • Plastics • Metals • Ceramics, sand, and carbon Powder bed fusion • MetalsDirect energy deposition Technology Source: A.T. Kearney analysis 1 Create an image using computer- aided design software. 2 Send the image to a 3D printer. 2 The 3D printer then builds the product by putting down thin layers of material.
  4. 4. 23D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution 3DP Creates Breakthrough Value in Product Design and Production Across five dimensions, 3DP offers distinct benefits that traditional manufacturing cannot deliver: Mass customization. The ability to create custom-built designs opens doors to unlimited possibilities. New capabilities. Complex products can be mass produced without high fixed-cost capital investments and at a lower variable cost than traditional methods. Lead time and speed. Shorter design, process, and production cycles get products to market faster. Supply chain simplification. Production is closer to the point of demand with much less inventory. Waste reduction. With unused powder being reused for successive printing, much less material is wasted. 3D printing offers distinct benefits that traditional manufacturing cannot deliver. Although traditional manufacturing will have cost advantages in large-scale pro- duction settings for the foreseeable future, 3DP’s role will grow in settings where these five dimensions are crucial for success, such as prototyping (lead time and speed), personalized medical implants (mass customization), and jet components that require a complex assembly and have high fly-to-buy ratios (new capabilities and waste reduction).
  5. 5. 33D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution 3DP Creates New Value Chains In addition to transforming how products are designed and made, 3DP will disrupt value chains. Consider this retail scenario, where 3DP transforms how a consumer shops, co-creates, and buys shoes. 3D printing allows shoppers to create custom-made shoes Source: A.T. Kearney analysis Online database app Another app searches and matches products to design files Printer center The center facilitates click-to-print and serves as a pick-up location Scanning device app The app scans and digitizes products Mass customizeapp Consumers can easily customize a design • Jane sees a pair of shoes she likes in a store near 45th Street in New York City • Her glasses detect the shoe’s model, design, and brand • An app scans the store for her size • Her glasses cannot find an exact match, but a similar pair has just been created in the online repository • Jane decides to customize the shoes using the interface in her handheld device; the shoes are fitted according to her most recent fitting profile • The shoes will be printed within the hour at a nearby printing center while Jane has lunch, does more shopping, and then swings by on her way home to pick up her shoes Data transfer
  6. 6. 43D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Opportunities By 2020, 3DP is expected to be a $17 billion market. The use of 3D printing is expected to grow Global 3D industry market for hardware, supplies, and services $ billion 3D printing market 15–20% 15–20% Five-year CAGRSector Aerospace (including defense) Industrial (including construction) Healthcare $0.8 billion 18% $0.8 billion 18% 20–25%$0.7 billion 15-17% Automotive 15–20%$0.5 billion 12% Jewelry 25–30%$0.5 billion 12% Energy 30–35%Less than 5% Other (many sectors) 20–25%Less than 20% Total 25%$4.5 billion 2014 Sources: Wohlers Report, SmarTech Markets, Credit Suisse; A.T. Kearney analysis 2014 2016 2018 2020 4.5 7.0 11.0 17.2 +25% 43D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution
  7. 7. 53D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Already, 3DP is prevalent in prototyping and small-batch production.   • Low to medium volume • High value-to-weight ratio • High fly-to-buy and material waste ratio • Complex geometry • Complex multi-part assembly under traditional manufacturing • Need for form-function-fit customization Ideal applications Automotive Aerospace Medical Consumer Source: A.T. Kearney analysis Current applications • Specialized components for engine production • Innovative designs, such as concept car chassis • Production-approved components, such as fuel nozzles • Prototype jet engine parts • Orthodontic implants for hips and spines • Surgical guides • Custom jewelry • High-performance sporting goods • New products with prior design for manufacture limits • Lightweight structures, such as chassis • High-performance parts, such as sensor housings • Full-scale manufacture of semi-standard components • Stents • Personalized prosthetics • Apparel production • Fashion accessories production Imminent applications Several industries have embraced 3D printing 53D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution
  8. 8. 63D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Challenges Hardware could be five to seven years away from achieving the technical and cost requirements needed to go beyond its current prototyping role into supporting production across broad, multi-material categories. Hardware must improve for 3D printing to succeed with complex items +/- 0.05 mm +/- 0.0001 mm 5 ppm +/- 0.001 mm Precision and tolerance +/- 0.001 mm +/- 0.025 mm +/- 2 mm None More than 100 More than 50 More than 15 More than 10 Number of materials More than 10 More than five One to three One Complex assembly, safety, and functional testing Complex functional testing Complex assembly and safety testing Assembly complexity Complex assembly and functional testing Simple assembly and flow testing Minimal assembly None Complex assembly, safety, and functional testing Throughput Hundreds per hour (needs a volume- based processing breakthrough) Thousands per hour (needs a surface- based printing breakthrough) Hundreds per hour 10 to hundreds per hour 10 to hundreds per hour Thousands per hour Cars Apple watches Cosmetics Helmets Cameras Biomedical device kits Toys iPhone cases Complex Simple Note: mm is millimeters; ppm is parts per million. Source: A.T. Kearney analysis Capability in more than seven yearsCurrent capability Capability in five to seven years
  9. 9. 73D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution New software platforms will be vital to support 3DP applications. Source: A.T. Kearney analysis The 3D printing software ecosystem Scanning and digitization app • Rapid image- to-design matching • High-perfor- mance scanning embedded in high-quality scanners • Accurate and easy to use Online database app • Single-source repository of all product and component design templates (“the iTunes of design”) • Integration with original equipment manufacturers and crowd-sourced designers Mass customizeapp • Instant and flexible design customization • Visual dashboard with final price and sustainability information • Integration with medical and user guide advice app Printer center • Low-cost, high- throughput, high- quality production of 3D printed products • Centralized factories, local printers, or storefronts Intellectual property management and payment system • Bitcoin and design credit payment options • Segmented licensing and royalties • Last-mile fulfilment 3D data and records management • 3D services subscribers and providers database • Secure information processing and transaction • Records manage- ment and web services In both education and design capability, 3D design thinking is preventing mass adoption by companies and consumers. Better education and design capabilities could give 3D printing a boost Design thinking DIY movement Note: DIY is do it yourself. Source: A.T. Kearney analysis Education • Only 1 percent of the United States is 3D-printing literate, meaning they understand how the process is used, according to the Illinois MakerLab at the University of Illinois • 3D printing “is still relegated to industry and tinkerers due to the high learning curve,” one 3D enthusiast said Tools and ideas • “Nearly all—95 percent—say they intend to go online via a PC to find design ideas” for home improvement, according to Planese • “No one understands how product development works,” one 3D printing entrepreneur said • More than a third of home- owners start their home improvement projects online, according to Zillow • Seven in 10 use the Internet for information or to get help when starting a project, and 25 percent research a specific brand, according to Social media and online resources
  10. 10. 83D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution “With 3D printing, complexity is free. The printer doesn’t care if it makes the most rudimentary shape or the most complex shape, and that is completely turning design and manu- facturing on its head as we know it.” — Avi Reichental, President & CEO, 3D Systems
  11. 11. 93D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Planning for the Future The question is not if but when companies need to consider 3DP in their strategic planning. Forward-thinking players will need to sense and anticipate the future and create an adaptive response by answering five questions: • How will 3D printing shape the end-to-end value chain in my sector? • How robust is my firm’s five- to 10-year value chain strategy against 3D disruptions? • What are the most relevant 3D disruption scenarios? • What are the leading indicators and trigger points for anticipating 3D disruption? • What are the immediate action items to future-proof against 3D disruption? 93D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution
  12. 12. 103D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution A.T. Kearney and 3D Printing We collaborate with leading companies in the 3D printing ecosystem, including hardware OEMs, software platform companies, academics and researchers, and specialized marketing research firms, to help organizations understand and capitalize on 3DP opportunities. We help our clients embrace opportunities by creating scenarios and future-proofing for 3DP disruptions in the value chain. Scenarios and future-proofing help our clients prepare for 3D printing Note: D represents various levels of disruption drivers. Source: A.T. Kearney analysis Baseline • Develop an under- standing of the 3D printing landscape • Identify trends and industry norms Drivers • Develop an initial set of drivers for 3PD disruption • Consolidate into first- and second- order drivers • Confirm and refine via expert interviews and baseline development • Assess the possible futures for each driver through expert interviews and baseline research • Create a compre- hensive vision of realistic possibilities Projections Scenarios • Create forward-looking value chain realities for each driver • Use market analysis to guide the projections Time $ D1 D2 D3 D4 D1 D2 D3 D4 D1 D2 D3 D4 103D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution
  13. 13. 113D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Our cost modeling compares 3DP and traditional manufacturing. We help answer three vital questions: • At what point is 3DP cheaper than traditional manufacturing? • How might the value chain get realigned? • What is the impact of extreme demand variability? 113D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution Break-even comparison: traditional manufacturing vs. 3DP Illustrative Should-cost analysis by materials, functional performance, and structural characteristics 1 Sensitivity analysis of underlying cost drivers. Broadly speaking, sensitivity refers to a measure of how far altering an input will vary the output. 2 “Buy-to-fly ratio” is an aerospace term that refers to the ratio of the weight of the raw material used for a component to the weight of the component itself. –10% 14 35% Impact on break- even quantity2 Sector Buy to fly ratio2 +10% ChangeSensitivity1 50 125% –10% 14 35%Raw material $/lb +10% 50 125% –10% 21 5%Setup/run hours ratio +10% 23 5% –10% 11 50%Shop rates +10% 100 350% –10% 4 82%Material application (lb/hour) +10% 100 350% Traditional manufacturing Current break-even $ units 3DP Future break-even
  14. 14. 123D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution A.T. Kearney’s 3D Printing Team Sean Monahan, partner, New York Jeff Staub, consultant, Melbourne Adam Ginsburg, consultant, Melbourne Farhan Qureshi, associate, Washington, D.C. Michael Hu, principal, Chicago Adam Detwiler, consultant, Melbourne Kirit Rosario, consultant, Chicago
  15. 15. 133D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution
  16. 16. A.T. Kearney is a leading global management consulting firm with offices in more than 40 countries. Since 1926, we have been trusted advisors to the world's foremost organizations. A.T. Kearney is a partner-owned firm, committed to helping clients achieve immediate impact and growing advantage on their most mission-critical issues. For more information, visit Americas Asia Pacific Europe Middle East and Africa Atlanta Bogotá Calgary Chicago Dallas Detroit Houston Mexico City New York Palo Alto San Francisco São Paulo Toronto Washington, D.C. Bangkok Beijing Hong Kong Jakarta Kuala Lumpur Melbourne Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Sydney Taipei Tokyo Abu Dhabi Doha Dubai Johannesburg Manama Riyadh For more information, permission to reprint or translate this work, and all other correspondence, please email: The signature of our namesake and founder, Andrew Thomas Kearney, on the cover of this document represents our pledge to live the values he instilled in our firm and uphold his commitment to ensuring “essential rightness” in all that we do. A.T. Kearney Korea LLC is a separate and independent legal entity operating under the A.T. Kearney name in Korea. A.T. Kearney operates in India as A.T. Kearney Limited (Branch Office), a branch office of A.T. Kearney Limited, a company organized under the laws of England and Wales. © 2015, A.T. Kearney, Inc. All rights reserved. Amsterdam Berlin Brussels Bucharest Budapest Copenhagen Düsseldorf Frankfurt Helsinki Istanbul Kiev Lisbon Ljubljana London Madrid Milan Moscow Munich Oslo Paris Prague Rome Stockholm Stuttgart Vienna Warsaw Zurich