2. Dairy Products
include milk, yogurt,
cheese, ice cream,
Cream, butter, sour
cream are also dairy
products but they
also have a large
amount of fat.
One of the most well-liked foods.
heat treated to destroy
mechanical process that
prevents the cream
from rising to the
surface of milk.
milk sugar often causes
problems for some
4. Types of Milk
Whole-3.3% fat by
weight with 48% of
the calories from fat.
Low-Fat-is 1-2 %
fat by weight with
a trace of fat.
a dairy product
5. Other Types of Milk
Buttermilk-has a tart,
buttery flavor and
smooth, thick texture. It
was originally the fluid
left after the cream was
churned into butter. Now
it is made from cultured
low fat milk.
chocolate or cocoa and
Nonfat Dry Milk-a
powdered form of skim
canned whole or skim
milk that contains only
half the amount of water.
sweetened canned milk.
Used for desserts and
6. Other Types of Milk
Dairy Products made from milk to which
helpful bacteria have been added are
cultured milk dairy products.
Kefir- has been used for centuries in the
Middle East and Russia.
8. Storing Dairy Products
All dairy products are highly
perishable. Cover and store in the
coldest part of the refrigerator.
Keep containers tightly covered to
prevent contamination and off flavors.
Keep milk away from light-which
destroys the riboflavin in the milk.
Store milk in the original container.
Cheese is a
To make cheese,
milk is coagulated-
the curd (solid part)
is separated from
the whey (liquid
10. Kinds of Cheese
Have not been
allowed to age or
Made with controlled
amounts of bacteria,
mold, yeast, or enzymes.
Has been allowed to
ripen. Aging can be from
two weeks to two years.
11. Process Cheese
Processed Cheese- products that are
made from other cheeses, such as
Processed cheese blends more easily in
cooked cheese dishes than natural cheese
because of the emulsifiers (holds
things together) it contains.
12. Cooking with Milk and Cream
Because milk is protein food, special care must be taken
during cooking to prevent the following:
Scorching-burning that results in a color change.
To prevent, use low heat.
Curdling-high temperature, acids, tannins, enzymes
and salts cause the milk proteins to coagulate and
cause clumps. Use a low temperature and fresh milk
13. Whipping Properties of Cream
Sugar decreases the volume and
stiffness of whipped cream You should
add the sugar after the cream is thick.
14. Preparing Common Milk Based
White Sauce-starch thickened milk product.
Classic White Sauce is prepared with a roux- a
cooked paste of flour and fat. The ratio is one part
flour to one part fat.
Melt the fat over low heat. Stir in flour to form a roux.
Stir in milk. Stir constantly as you cook the mixture over
medium heat until it thickens into a smooth sauce.
You can use a slurry (a liquid mixture of milk and flour) to
thicken a white sauce.
15. Food Science Principles of
All puddings require the use of moderate
cooking temperatures to prevent scorching
and over coagulation of the eggs.
When you use eggs in puddings, you should
first add a small amount of the hot pudding
to the beaten eggs. You can add the diluted
egg mixture to the rest of the hot pudding.
Eggs added directly to the hot mixture will
coagulate into lumps. This is called tempering
16. Cooking with Cheese
Like all high protein
foods, heat can
adversely affect cheese.
If you cook cheese at
too high of a
cheese will become
rubbery and tough.
When the proteins in
cheese becomes tough
and rubbery and the fat