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Crossing the chasm between ontology engineering and application development

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Crossing the chasm between ontology engineering and application development

  1. 1. Paola Espinoza-Arias Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Oscar Corcho ETSI Informáticos Ontology Engineering Group Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development 1st February 2022
  2. 2. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 2 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  3. 3. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Introduction 3 Many organizations follow a knowledge-driven approach ontology developers application developers Challenges:  Production-consumption  Technical Objective: Facilitate the consumption of ontology-based Knowledge Graphs by application developers
  4. 4. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 4 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  5. 5. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Lightweight Heavyweight Ontology Development Methodologies 5 Grüninger & Fox METHON TOLOGY On-To- Knowledge NeOn SAMOD LOT 1995 1997 2001 2015 2016 2019 Activities of the Ontology Development Process
  6. 6. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Specification Conceptualiza- tion Formalization Implementation Maintenance Kickoff Refinement Evaluation Maintenance Specification Scheduling Conceptualiza- tion Formalization Implementation Define a test case Merge current model with the modelet Refactor the current model Specification Implementation Publication Maintenance Propose scenarios Define CQs Specify Terminology Formalize CQs Include axioms Define theorems Ontology Development Methodologies 6 Grüninger & Fox METHON TOLOGY On-To- Knowledge NeOn SAMOD LOT 1995 1997 2001 2015 2016 2019 Activities of the Ontology Development Process No details on how to use the ontology after it has been generated
  7. 7. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development One Ontology = Multiple Artefacts 7 Grüninger & Fox METHON TOLOGY On-To- Knowledge NeOn SAMOD LOT 1995 1997 2001 2015 2016 2019 Ontology Artefacts CQs Documentation Bugs, issues, new requirements Intermediate representations ORSD Ontology ORSD ORSD ORSD Semi-formal description MS, CQs, GoT Modelets Queries Several reusable ontology artefacts Queries Acronyms • CQs = Competency Questions • ORSD = Ontology Requirements Specification Document • MS= Motivating Scenarios • GoT= Glossary of Terms
  8. 8. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 8 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server OBA OWL2OAS RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools
  9. 9. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 9 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server OBA OWL2OAS RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools Software Development Field
  10. 10. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 10 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server OBA OWL2OAS RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools HMTL access to RDF data
  11. 11. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 11 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server OBA OWL2OAS RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools Implements BASIL Implements Implements HMTL access to RDF data Implements Implements Implements Implements
  12. 12. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 12 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server OBA OWL2OAS RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools Implements BASIL Implements Implements HMTL access to RDF data Implements Implements Implements Implements Adhoc specifications
  13. 13. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 13 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server OBA OWL2OAS RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools OAS Main findings from our analysis: o OpenAPI Specification (OAS) is one of the most common specification used in the Semantic Web
  14. 14. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Approaches for the generation of APIs from ontologies 14 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SPARQL Protocol Linked Data API OpenAPI Specification SPARQL GSP Hydra GraphQL Linked Data Protocol Linked Data Templates Solid Specifications Virtuoso Pubby Puelia ELDA Apache Marmotta BASIL AtomGraph GRLC JSON-QB API OSF Trellis LODI R4R Ontology2 GraphQL Community Solid Server RAMOSE Walder Technologies and Tools Main findings from our analysis: o OpenAPI Specification (OAS) is one of the most common specification used in the Semantic Web o Most of the technologies and tools generate the API from SPARQL queries o Recent tools generate the API from OWL ontologies o The main effort is focused on the technological support for generating APIs OAS Ontology2 GraphQL Ontology OBA OWL2OAS There is not a methodological approach to generate APIs from ontology artefacts OAS
  15. 15. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 15 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  16. 16. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Objectives 16 O1: To help ontology developers generate APIs to allow ontology usage and Knowledge Graph data consumption. Contribution 1: A method for API generation Hypothesis 1: It is possible to propose a clearly- defined and reproducible method that allows creating APIs from a set of ontology artefacts in such a manner that these APIs allow getting data from Knowledge Graphs. O2: To automate the API generation process from ontology artefacts generated during the ontology development process. Contribution 2: A tool for supporting API generation (OATAPI) Hypothesis 2: It is possible to automatically generate APIs (based on ontology artefacts) that are indistinguishable from the APIs that would be defined by application developers in real use cases. Hypothesis 3: It is possible to automatically generate APIs (based on ontology artefacts) that are similar to the APIs defined manually according to our proposed method. Is it possible to generate APIs based on the artefacts created by ontology developers during the ontology development process?
  17. 17. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Assumptions and Restrictions 17 Assumptions • A1: A set of competency questions is defined before implementing any ontology, and these questions are available. • A2: APIs are data consumption interfaces that are well-known by application developers. • A3: The provision of APIs for KG data consumption is a common practice in the Semantic Web field. • A4: Competency questions can be translated into APIs, which provide data required for their expected answers. • A5: KGs contain data organized according to ontologies from which the API has been derived. • A6: Competency questions are written in natural language following state of the art practices. • A7: Ontologies have labels that make their elements human readable. Restrictions • Ontologies: R1: Implemented in OWL R3: Contain labels defined in English R5: If do not contain labels, the URI of elements must be defined with short and compact natural language names R6: Evaluated and do not contain errors R7: Data and object properties must have a domain and range explicitly defined • Competency questions: R2: Must be written in English R4: Its main terms are the same as the labels of ontology elements.
  18. 18. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Research Methodology 18 Field Research Work Survey Development Implementation Ontology Development Definition of APIs to provide access to ontology-based data Analysis of specifications, tools and technologies for API generation Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts Refinement of the method for API generation based on ontology artefacts OATAPI Phases Activities 2nd 3rd 4th 1st
  19. 19. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 19 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions o Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts o OATAPI 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  20. 20. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts 20 Legend Phase Artefacts phase flow Ontology requirements specification Ontology implementation ORSD Ontology maintenance Issues, bugs, etc. Ontology Ontology publication Online ontology LOT methodology base workflow http://lot.linkeddata.es/ Ontology exploitation API output Actors • Ont. Devel. • Users • Experts • Ont. Devel. • Users • Experts • Ont. Devel. • Users • Experts • Ont. Devel. • Users • Experts • Ont. Devel. • App. Devel.
  21. 21. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts 21 Legend Activity Artefacts activity flow API Design API Specification API Design Details API validation Validated API API Definition API Implementation Implemented API API Deployment Deployed API output Actors • Ont. Devel. • App. Devel. • Ont. Devel. • App. Devel. • Ont. Devel. • Ont. Devel. • App. Devel. • Ont. Devel. • App. Devel. (Input) Artefact reference X Referenced artefacts from other activities Competency Questions 5 Ontology serialization (OWL) 8 Ontology Exploitation 14 15 16 17 18 5, 8 14 15 16 17
  22. 22. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Design 22 Legend Task Artefacts task flow API paradigm selection API Paradigm output (Input) Artefact reference X 20 Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment  Decide how the API will behave, the resources and operations required
  23. 23. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Design 23 Legend Task Artefacts task flow API paradigm selection Operations detection API Paradigm Query generation SPARQL queries List of API operations Ontology elements identification List of ontology elements output (Input) Artefact reference X Referenced artefacts from other activities Competency Questions 5 Ontology serialization (OWL) 8 Competency Questions Analysis 20 21 22 23 5 8 Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment  Decide how the API will behave, the resources and operations required
  24. 24. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Example of Competency Question Analysis 24 Give me the details of the terrace that belongs to a local business. GET Class Class Object Property http://vocab.ciudadesabiertas.es/def/comercio/tejido-comercial Operation GET PREFIX escom:<http://vocab.ciudadesabiertas.es/def/comercio/tejido-comercial#> CONSTRUCT { ?terrace ?predicate ?object } WHERE { { SELECT DISTINCT ?terrace WHERE {?terrace escom:perteneceALocal ?local-business-id} } ?terrace ?predicate ?object } Operation Ontology Elements API path GET Local Business, belongs to local, Terrace /local-businesses/{local-business-id}/ terraces Operation Ontology Elements GET Local Business, belongs to local, Terrace List of terms and their correspondences to operations Rules for naming REST APIs based on ontology artefacts
  25. 25. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Design 25 Legend Task Artefacts task flow API paradigm selection Operations detection API Paradigm Query generation SPARQL queries List of API operations Ontology elements identification List of ontology elements Authentication/ authorization mechanisms selection Authentication / authorization method output (Input) Artefact reference X Referenced artefacts from other activities Competency Questions 5 Ontology serialization (OWL) 8 Competency Questions Analysis 20 21 22 23 24 5 8 Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment  Decide how the API will behave, the resources and operations required
  26. 26. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Specification 26  Description of the decisions taken on the API Design o IDLs such as OAS, JSON API, among others. Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment API specification template Metadata Resources Status
  27. 27. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Implementation 27 Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment Server SPARQL endpoint API Client  Develop the server-side functionality Request Request Query Data Data Data
  28. 28. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development CONSTRUCT { ?terrace ?predicate ?object } WHERE { { SELECT DISTINCT ?terrace WHERE {?terrace escom:perteneceALocal data:10003602}} ?terrace ?predicate ?object }  Test the API’s behavior Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Validation 28 Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment Server SPARQL endpoint Client GET /local-businesses/10003602/terraces escom:area ”15"^^xsd:float ; escom:numeroDeMesasAutorizadas ”6"^^xsd:integer ; escom:numeroDeSillasAutorizadas ”18"^^xsd:integer ; ... { ”area" : ”15" ”numberOfTables" : ”6" ”numberOfChairs" : ”6" ... } CQs PREFIX escom:<http://vocab.ciudadesabiertas.es/def/comercio/tejido-comercial#> PREFIX data:<http://vocab.ciudadesabiertas.es/comercio/tejido-comercial/data/>
  29. 29. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts: Deployment 29 Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment  Make the API on-line available: o Publish the API in a production environment o Make the API specification available o Make the API findable on the Web: https://www.programmableweb.com http://smart-api.info/registry
  30. 30. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 30 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions o Method for API generation based on ontology artefacts o OATAPI 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  31. 31. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 31  Ontology Artefacts to API (OATAPI) o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi API paths generation Query generation Queries Paths
  32. 32. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 32  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi CQ breakdown API paths generation Query generation Queries Paths
  33. 33. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 33  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi Operations detection Term REST operation give, list, which, what, who, …. GET GET API paths generation Query generation Queries Paths
  34. 34. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 34  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Queries Paths Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification API paths generation Query generation Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi Ontology elements identification Local Business Terrace Opening License …… …… Ontology Elements Local Business, belongs to local, Terrace
  35. 35. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 35  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Queries Paths Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification API paths generation Query generation Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi API paths generation Terrace Opening License …… …… Local Business
  36. 36. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 36  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Queries Paths Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification API paths generation Query generation Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi API paths generation Terrace Opening License …… …… Local Business
  37. 37. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 37  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Queries Paths Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification API paths generation Query generation Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi API paths generation Terrace Opening License …… …… Local Business /local-businesses/{local-business-id}/terraces
  38. 38. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development OATAPI 38  Ontology Artefacts to API o Automates the generation of REST API paths and SPARQL queries CQs Ontology Queries Paths Analysis of competency questions CQ breakdown Operations detection Ontology elements identification API paths generation Query generation Code is available in GitHub under Apache License 2.0: https://github.com/paoespinozarias/oatapi Query generation Terrace Opening License …… …… Local Business PREFIX escom:<http://vocab.ciudadesabiertas.es/def/comercio/tejido-comercial#> CONSTRUCT { ?terrace ?predicate ?object } WHERE { { SELECT DISTINCT ?terrace WHERE {?terrace escom:perteneceALocal ?local- business-id} } ?terrace ?predicate ?object }
  39. 39. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Technological support for the API generation method 39 Queries Paths OATAPI Design Specification Validation Implementation Deployment Mapping OWLtoOAS Mapping OWLtoOAS: https://owl-to-oas.readthedocs.io/en/latest/mapping OAS Ontology Based APIs (OBA) Server functionality Contribution of this thesis Tool from the State of the Art Ontology Based APIs https://oba.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
  40. 40. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 40 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  41. 41. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Indistinguishable API paths 41  Hypothesis 2: It is possible to automatically generate APIs (based on ontology artefacts) that are indistinguishable from the APIs that would be defined by application developers in real use cases.  Experiment: o Testbed composed by: • 3 Ontologies and 9 CQs • API paths from real use case • API paths generated by OATAPI o Questionnaire to ask participants the way API paths from the testbed were generated o 20 participants evaluated
  42. 42. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Results for the experiment on indistinguishable API paths 42 CQ API path from use cases (1st API shown in the questionnaire) API path from OATAPI (2nd API shown in the questionnaire) API path generation 1st automatically and 2nd manually 2nd automatically and 1st manually Both manually Both automatically Indistingui- shable What are the local businesses of the city? /local-business/local-business /local-businesses 50% 10% 5% 10% 25% Obtain the information of a certain terrace. /local-business/terrace/{id} /terraces/{terrace-id} 25% 15% 15% 10% 35% List all the shopping areas of the city. /local-business/shopping-area /shopping-areas 35% 15% 15% 5% 30% What are the air quality stations? /service/air-quality/list /air-quality-stations 45% 15% 5% 10% 25% What is the information of an air quality station? /service/air-quality/ list?rf=htmlsrsname= utm30nid=14 /air-quality-stations/{air- quality-station-id} 40% 20% 5% 5% 30% What are the air quality observations? /service/air-quality /air-quality-observations 35% 10% 5% 10% 40% List all contracts of the city. /service/public- procurement/contract /contracts 30% 25% 5% 5% 35% What are the details of a contracting organization? /service/public- procurement/contracting- body/{id} /organizations/{organization- id} 30% 15% 15% 5% 35% What are the details of a notice? /service/public-procurement/ notice/{idNotice} /notices/{notice-id} 30% 20% 10% 5% 35% Hypothesis 2
  43. 43. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Results for the experiment on indistinguishable API paths 43 CQ API path from use cases (1st API shown in the questionnaire) API path from OATAPI (2nd API shown in the questionnaire) Preference 1st 2nd Both No preference What are the local businesses of the city? /local-business/local-business /local-businesses 5% 90% 5% Obtain the information of a certain terrace. /local-business/terrace/{id} /terraces/{terrace-id} 50% 30% 15% 5% List all the shopping areas of the city. /local-business/shopping-area /shopping-areas 30% 60% 5% 5% What are the air quality stations? /service/air-quality/list /air-quality-stations 20% 70% 5% 5% What is the information of an air quality station? /service/air-quality/ list?rf=htmlsrsname= utm30nid=14 /air-quality-stations/{air- quality-station-id} 15% 80% 5% What are the air quality observations? /service/air-quality /air-quality-observations 35% 50% 10% 5% List all contracts of the city. /service/public- procurement/contract /contracts 50% 45% 10% 5% What are the details of a contracting organization? /service/public- procurement/contracting- body/{id} /organizations/{organization- id} 35% 50% 10% 5% What are the details of a notice? /service/public-procurement/ notice/{idNotice} /notices/{notice-id} 20% 60% 15% 5% API paths generated by OATAPI are preferred
  44. 44. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Similarity between API paths 44  Hypothesis 3: It is possible to automatically generate APIs (based on ontology artefacts) that are similar to the APIs defined manually according to our proposed method  Experiment: o Testbed composed by: • 8 Ontologies and 228 CQs • API paths manually generated according to the proposed method (50) • API paths generated by OATAPI (50) o Similarity evaluated with the ROUGE metric
  45. 45. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Results for the experiment on the similarity between API paths 45  38 API paths were similar  76% from the 50 API paths analyzed Hypothesis 3 API paths by ontology
  46. 46. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Outline 46 1. Introduction 2. State of the Art 3. Methodology 4. Contributions 5. Evaluation 6. Conclusions and Future Directions
  47. 47. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Conclusions 47 Facilitate the consumption of ontology-based KGs by application developers
  48. 48. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Conclusions 48 Facilitate the consumption of ontology-based KGs by application developers O1: To help ontology engineers generate APIs to allow ontology usage and Knowledge Graph data consumption. O2: To automate the API generation process from ontology artefacts generated during the ontology development process. Contribution 1: A method for API generation Contribution 2: A tool for supporting API generation (OATAPI)
  49. 49. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Conclusions 49 Facilitate the consumption of ontology-based KGs by application developers O2: To automate the API generation process from ontology artefacts generated during the ontology development process. Contribution 1: A method for API generation Contribution 2: A tool for supporting API generation (OATAPI) • The adoption of definitions, techniques, and processes taken from the Software Engineering field is a common and helpful practice for Ontology Engineering. • The knowledge acquired about the domain by the ontology developer and the ontology artefacts generated during the ontology development process can support the generation of APIs. • Making ontology artefacts publicly available is as important as making their implementation available. • The definition of competency questions should be as precise as possible. O1: To help ontology engineers generate APIs to allow ontology usage and Knowledge Graph data consumption.
  50. 50. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Future Directions 50 • OATAPI – From a PoC to a running prototype: o Adopting a more robust approach for the CQ analysis o Exploiting inference for ontology element identification o Enabling synonym detection o Generating the OAS automatically o Extension of OATAPI evaluation • Annotation of CQs
  51. 51. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Future Directions 51 • OATAPI – From a PoC to a running prototype: o Adopting a more robust approach for the CQ analysis o Exploiting inference for ontology element identification o Enabling synonym detection o Generating the OAS automatically o Extension of OATAPI evaluation • Annotation of CQs • API Resource path prediction • API Version management • API generation from application requirements
  52. 52. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development Dissemination 52 Espinoza-Arias P., Garijo, D. and Corcho, O.. Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development: A Survey. Journal of Web Semantics. 70 (2021). Espinoza-Arias P., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Corcho, O.. Using LOT methodology to develop a noise pollution ontology: a Spanish use case. Journal Ambient Intelligence Human Computing 11, 4557–4568 (2020). Espinoza-Arias P., Fernández-Ruiz, M.J., Morlán-Plo, V., Notivol-Bezares, R. and Corcho, O. The Zaragoza’s Knowledge Graph: Open Data to Harness the City Knowledge. Information (2020), 11, 129. Espinoza-Arias P., Garijo D. and Corcho O. (2020) Mapping the Web Ontology Language to the OpenAPI Specification. In: Grossmann G., Ram S. (eds) Advances in Conceptual Modeling. ER 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12584. Springer, Cham Poveda-Villalón M., Espinoza-Arias P., Garijo D., Corcho O. (2020) Coming to Terms with FAIR Ontologies. In: Keet C.M., Dumontier M. (eds) Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. EKAW 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12387. Springer, Cham. Espinoza-Arias P., Garijo D. and Corcho O. From Ontology Artefacts to APIs. In preparation to be submitted to the Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management Conference EKAW 2022 Journal Conference Workshop
  53. 53. Paola Espinoza-Arias Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Oscar Corcho ETSI Informáticos Ontology Engineering Group Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain Crossing the Chasm Between Ontology Engineering and Application Development 1st February 2022

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