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ESCHATOLOGY
(THE DOCTRINE OF LAST THINGS)
INTRODUCTION TO ESCHATOLOGY
• The whole area of Eschatology has excited both
Christians and not-yet-Christians for the pas...
BCP STATEMENT OF FAITH
• The Statement of Faith of the BCP has the following
to say about the Last Things: “We believe in ...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• Death. It is obvious that most believers in the Lord Jesus Christ
have died, along with those who...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• Death.
• Before the Death and Resurrection of Christ. There
seems to e a difference between what ...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• Death.
• Since the death and resurrection of Christ.
• The New Testament gives and answer to the ...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• Death.
• Since the death and resurrection of Christ.
• 1Intermediate body. Some very sound theolo...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• Resurrection of the Dead. When Jesus returns, the
dead will be physically resurrected. The resurr...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• Judgment. After people die, regardless of their
spiritual condition, they face judgment by God. T...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• The Eternal State. The Bible clearly teaches that humans will
no cease to exist at some time in t...
INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY
• The Eternal State.
– Hell.
• Mt 25:41,46 – “Then he will say to those on his left,
‘Depart from m...
INTERPRETATION OF PROPHECY
• Your eschatology will be a reflection or modification of one the
following:
– Futurist View.
...
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• In order to understand the terminology it might be well
to have some brief definitions in mind:
– Se...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Certainty of His Coming.
– The Prophecies of Christ.
• Mt 24:30 – “At that time the sign of the Son...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Certainty of His Coming.
– The teaching of the apostles
• Peter –
– Ac 3:19-21 – “… turn to God … t...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Certainty of His Coming.
– The teaching of the apostles.
• Paul –
– 1Th 4:15-16 – “For the Lord him...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Time of His Coming.
– Mt 24:36 – “No-one knows about that day or hour, not even
the angels in heave...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Time of His Coming.
– 1Th 5:1-3 – “Now, brothers, about times and dates we do
not need to write to ...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Purpose of His Coming.
– it will be wonderful to see Him face to face;
– Christians are vindicated ...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Millennium
– Latin word made up of two separate words:
• mille = “thousand”
• anus = “year”
– It me...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Millennium
– Amillennialism (Realised Millennialism).
• No future reign of Christ on earth.
• The k...
RETURN OF CHRIST
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Millennium
– Postmillennialism.
• The world will increasingly respond to the preaching of
the gospe...
RETURN OF CHRIST
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Millennium
– Premillennialism.
• Jesus Christ will return to this earth sometime in the
future;
• W...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Millennium
– Historic Premillennialism.
• The millennial reign of Christ on the earth
• No pretribu...
RETURN OF CHRIST
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Millennium
– Dispensational Premillennialism.
• Difference between Israel and the church and
• Pret...
RETURN OF CHRIST
RETURN OF CHRIST
Views Concerning Last Things
Cate-
gories
Amillennialism
Post-
millennialism
Historic
Premillennialism
Di...
RETURN OF CHRIST
Views Concerning Last Things
Cate-
gories
Amillennialism
Post-
millennialism
Historic
Premillennialism
Di...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Tribulation
– The Bible speaks of the persecution and tribulation of the
people of God.
• De 4:30 –...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Tribulation
• Ac 14:22 – “…strengthening the disciples and
encouraging them to remain true to the f...
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Tribulation
– The Rapture
• Pre-Tribulation Rapture. This views maintains that the
church will be t...
RETURN OF CHRIST
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Tribulation
– The Rapture
• Mid-Tribulation Rapture. This view believes that the
church will go thr...
RETURN OF CHRIST
RETURN OF CHRIST
• The Tribulation
– The Rapture
• Post-Tribulation Rapture. Posttribulationists believe that
the church w...
RETURN OF CHRIST
THE END
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Seats SOM-TOPC-10 Eschatology

Ordination and Theology in Philippine Context 10 Eschatology

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Seats SOM-TOPC-10 Eschatology

  1. 1. ESCHATOLOGY (THE DOCTRINE OF LAST THINGS)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO ESCHATOLOGY • The whole area of Eschatology has excited both Christians and not-yet-Christians for the past 2000 years. It seems like everyone wants to know something about the end times. Elaborate, sometimes complicated time lines of the events of the end of the world. Eschatology, however, is more than just the study of the events surrounding the end of the world, it is also the study of the events surrounding the end of our lives on earth and the transition from earth to heaven. • The study of the events surrounding our personal transition from earth to heaven is called, Personal, or Individual Eschatology, and the study of the events surrounding the end of the world is called Eschatology.
  3. 3. BCP STATEMENT OF FAITH • The Statement of Faith of the BCP has the following to say about the Last Things: “We believe in the personal and visible return of the Lord Jesus Christ to earth and the establishment of His kingdom. We believe in the resurrection of the body, the final judgment, the eternal felicity of the righteous, and the endless sufferings of the wicked.”
  4. 4. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • Death. It is obvious that most believers in the Lord Jesus Christ have died, along with those who believed before the Lord Jesus came to the earth. Where do they go? What is their condition? What about those who do not believe--what happens to them? • Death is the result of sin in the world. People only live one life and die one physical death. Death is the separation of the material parts of humans from the immaterial parts of humans. The perishable material parts (i.e. the body) return to dust but the immaterial parts are joined to a new, imperishable body (see 1, below) and go to their eternal state – those of the righteous to the presence of the Lord, and those of the wicked to hell. • Ro 6:23 – “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” • 2Co 5:8 – “We are confident, I say, and would prefer to be away from the body and at home with the Lord.”
  5. 5. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • Death. • Before the Death and Resurrection of Christ. There seems to e a difference between what happened o those.at least believers, who died before Christ and those who died (and die) after that time. There is not a lot of revelation concerning the is subject, but what there is seems to indicate tat those who died prior to the time of Christ did not go directly to heaven, but did go to a place of conscious, enjoyable existence, often designated “paradise” or “Abraham’s side.” • Lu 16:19-31 – “The time came when the beggar died and the angels carried him to Abraham's side.”
  6. 6. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • Death. • Since the death and resurrection of Christ. • The New Testament gives and answer to the age-old question, “What happens when we die?” For the believer in Christ his/her future is transformed from a big question, to that of quiet confidence. It is hard to improve on the words of the Apostle Paul, “Absent from the body, present with the Lord” (2Co 5:8). But what will be our condition when death takes place? Consider four options: • 1Soul Sleep. There are a number of professing Christian groups that believe there will be a time of “soul sleep” between the death of the believer and the resurrection. They believe that we will cease to consciously exist during hat time.
  7. 7. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • Death. • Since the death and resurrection of Christ. • 1Intermediate body. Some very sound theologians believer that there will be some form of body that we will possess in between the time of the death of this present earthy body and the resurrection. This is based on some of the things said in 2Co 5:1-8, particularly the statement found several times in the passage, “to be clothed.” • 1Conscious Soul/Spirit existence. The New Testament teaches that we will continue to exist following death in a conscious, disembodied condition in heaven. The Bible seems clear on the fact that this is possible, is in effect the reality of our condition. Compare Christ between death and the resurrection, and the teaching of 2Co
  8. 8. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • Resurrection of the Dead. When Jesus returns, the dead will be physically resurrected. The resurrected bodies will be new and immortal. • 1Philippians 3:20-21 – “But our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Saviour from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body.” • 1See also 1Th 4:13-18; 1Co 15:35-58
  9. 9. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • Judgment. After people die, regardless of their spiritual condition, they face judgment by God. This includes both believers and unbelievers. People will be judged by what they have done with their lives, as well as whether their name appears in the Book of Life or not. Those whose names do not appear are thrown into hell. • Re 20:11-15 – “Then I saw a great white throne … And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged according to what they had done as recorded in the books .… If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.”
  10. 10. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • The Eternal State. The Bible clearly teaches that humans will no cease to exist at some time in the future but will live forever. As such, there are three abodes for humans after death--earth, heaven, or hell. • Earth. Re 21:1 says, “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth ….” But why a new earth? Isn’t God just going to be through with it, destroy it and live happily in heaven for evermore? Or is there something about the earth that is important to God. Maybe this time will be a return to the paradise-like conditions of the Garden of Eden. Perhaps this will be the time when the prophecies concerning the establishment of the land for the people of God to live in will be fulfilled. • 2Pe 3:10 – “But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare.”
  11. 11. INDIVIDUAL ESCHATOLOGY • The Eternal State. – Hell. • Mt 25:41,46 – “Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.’ … Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.” • Re 21:8 – “But the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practise magic arts, the idolaters and all liars–their place will be in the fiery lake of burning sulphur. This is the second death.” • Re 20:10 – “And the devil, who deceived them, was thrown into the lake of burning sulphur, where the beast and the false prophet had been thrown. They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever.”
  12. 12. INTERPRETATION OF PROPHECY • Your eschatology will be a reflection or modification of one the following: – Futurist View. • Most of the events of prophetic truth are yet to be fulfilled in the future. – Preterist View. • The events described were taking place at the time written, and therefore are past from our perspective. – Historical View. • The events prophesied were future at the time they were given, but were to be fulfilled sometime in history. They may be fulfilled already, may be being fulfilled, or may yet be fulfilled in the future. – Symbolic View. • The events mentioned are timeless in their teaching, and do not refer to some historical fulfilment, either past, present, or future.
  13. 13. DEFINITION OF TERMS • In order to understand the terminology it might be well to have some brief definitions in mind: – Second Coming. • Christ will return to earth again visibly and bodily. The purpose of that return will be consistent with your view of the rapture and millennium. – Tribulation. • There will be a period of persecution on the earth before the second coming of Christ. It may last for seven (7) years or for a period of time represented by the number seven (7). – Rapture. • Christ will receive His church to Himself in the clouds and they will return with Him to heaven.
  14. 14. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Certainty of His Coming. – The Prophecies of Christ. • Mt 24:30 – “At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory.” • Mt 26:64 – “’Yes, it is as you say,’ Jesus replied. ‘But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’”
  15. 15. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Certainty of His Coming. – The teaching of the apostles • Peter – – Ac 3:19-21 – “… turn to God … that he may send the Christ, who has been appointed for you--even Jesus. He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his holy prophets.” – 2Pe 3:3-9 – “… in the last days scoffers will come …. They will say, ‘Where is this “coming” he promised?’ …. But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day .… He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance.”
  16. 16. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Certainty of His Coming. – The teaching of the apostles. • Paul – – 1Th 4:15-16 – “For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.” – Titus 2:13 – “… while we wait for the blessed hope-- the glorious appearing of our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ …” • John – – 1 Jo 2:28 – “And now, dear children, continue in him, so that when he appears we may be confident and unashamed before him at his coming.”
  17. 17. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Time of His Coming. – Mt 24:36 – “No-one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” – Ac 1:6-7 – “It is not for you to know.” – Mk 13:10 – “And the gospel must first be preached to all nations.” – Ac 1:6-7 – “So when they met together, they asked him, ‘Lord, are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?’ He said to them: ‘It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority.’”
  18. 18. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Time of His Coming. – 1Th 5:1-3 – “Now, brothers, about times and dates we do not need to write to you, for you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. While people are saying, ‘Peace and safety’, destruction will come on them suddenly, as labour pains on a pregnant woman, and they will not escape.” – Mt 24:14 – “And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.”
  19. 19. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Purpose of His Coming. – it will be wonderful to see Him face to face; – Christians are vindicated in their faith before all who have ridiculed, mocked and even persecuted them; – God is finally vindicated. • 2Th 2:8 – “And then that lawless one will be revealed who the Lord will slay with the breath of His mouth and bring to an end by the appearance of His coming.”
  20. 20. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Millennium – Latin word made up of two separate words: • mille = “thousand” • anus = “year” – It means 1000 years. – Re 20:1-6 – the Greek word used there is cilia eth (chilia ete), which means 1000 years. – What are the basic positions held?
  21. 21. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Millennium – Amillennialism (Realised Millennialism). • No future reign of Christ on earth. • The kingdom of God is now present in the world through His Word, His Spirit, and His church. – Church. » The church fulfils the promises of God given to Israel because Israel and the church are one and the same--the body of Christ. – Covenants. » The covenants given by God in the Old Testament were either conditional, and therefore they are broken and are no longer applicable, or they are viewed as fulfilled through the church today.
  22. 22. RETURN OF CHRIST
  23. 23. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Millennium – Postmillennialism. • The world will increasingly respond to the preaching of the gospel by the church over an extended period of time; • After which Christ will return. – How? God will use His church to establish the Kingdom on this earth. – How Long? An extended, indefinite period of time, but not limited to 1000 years. – When does it Start? The present age blends into the millennial age. Most Postmillennialists believe this kingdom has already begun on earth. – Current Status of the belief.
  24. 24. RETURN OF CHRIST
  25. 25. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Millennium – Premillennialism. • Jesus Christ will return to this earth sometime in the future; • Will establish His 1000-year Kingdom upon the earth; • After which will come the eternal state. – There are two major types of Premillennialism in Christian Theology today, » Historic Premillennialism » Dispensational Premillennialism
  26. 26. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Millennium – Historic Premillennialism. • The millennial reign of Christ on the earth • No pretribulational rapture • No difference between Israel and the church..
  27. 27. RETURN OF CHRIST
  28. 28. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Millennium – Dispensational Premillennialism. • Difference between Israel and the church and • Pretribulational rapture (usually)..
  29. 29. RETURN OF CHRIST
  30. 30. RETURN OF CHRIST Views Concerning Last Things Cate- gories Amillennialism Post- millennialism Historic Premillennialism Dispensational Premillennialism Christ’s Second Coming no distinct. betw/ rapture & 2nd coming; Intro Eternal state no distinct. betw/ rapture & 2nd coming; Christ returns aft. 1000 @ same time as rapture; Christ returns to reign on earth 2 phases: Rapture for church; 2nd coming to earth 7 years later Resurr- ection All people at 2nd coming All people at 2nd coming Believers at start of 1000; Unbelievers at end of 1000 1st-Church at rapture; 2nd-OT/Trib saints at 2nd coming; 3rd- Unbelievers at end of 1000 Judg- ments 1 for all people 1 for all people 1st at 2nd coming. 2nd at end of Trib. 1st-Believers' works at rapture; 2nd-Jews/ Gentiles at end of Trib; 3rd-Unbelievers at end of 1000
  31. 31. RETURN OF CHRIST Views Concerning Last Things Cate- gories Amillennialism Post- millennialism Historic Premillennialism Dispensational Premillennialism Trib- ulation Experienced in present age Experienced in present age PostTrib: Church goes through Trib PreTrib: church raptured prior to Trib. Mill- ennium No literal 1000 yrs on earth after 2nd coming. Kingdom present in church age. Present age blends into 1000 yrs because of progress of gospel. 1000 yrs is present & future. Christ is reigning in heaven. 1000 yrs not necessarily 1000 yrs. At 2nd coming Christ inaugurates literal 1000 yr. reign on earth. Israel & Church Church is New Israel – no distinctions Church is New Israel – no distinctions Some distinctions; future for Israel but church is spiritual Israel Complete distinct. betw/ Israel & church. Distinct program for each
  32. 32. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Tribulation – The Bible speaks of the persecution and tribulation of the people of God. • De 4:30 – “When you are in distress and all these things have happened to you, then in later days you will return to the LORD your God and obey him.” • Mt 24:21 – “For then there will be great distress, unequalled from the beginning of the world until now--and never to be equalled again.” • Jo 16:33 – “I have told you these things, so that in me you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! I have overcome the world.”
  33. 33. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Tribulation • Ac 14:22 – “…strengthening the disciples and encouraging them to remain true to the faith. ‘We must go through many hardships to enter the kingdom of God,’ they said.” • Ro 5:3-4 – “Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character; and character, hope.” • 1Th 3:4 – “In fact, when we were with you, we kept telling you that we would be persecuted. And it turned out that way, as you well know.” • Re 7:14 – “I answered, ‘Sir, you know.’ And he said, ‘These are they who have come out of the great tribulation; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.’”
  34. 34. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Tribulation – The Rapture • Pre-Tribulation Rapture. This views maintains that the church will be taken out of the world prior to the beginning of the time of the tribulation on this earth. All believers who are a part of the church, both dead and alive, will be resurrected, or transformed, and go to be will Jesus Christ for that period of trouble that will sweep this earth in unbelievable fury during that time. Most pretribulationists would believe that the tribulation period will last for about seven years.
  35. 35. RETURN OF CHRIST
  36. 36. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Tribulation – The Rapture • Mid-Tribulation Rapture. This view believes that the church will go through the first half of the tribulation period and will then be removed at the middle, before the worst part takes place. • A modification of this view is the Partial Rapture position. Some hold that only those who are practising righteousness and who are expecting the return of Christ will be taken in the Rapture, and the rest will be left on this earth to either by martyred, or to go through the tribulation.
  37. 37. RETURN OF CHRIST
  38. 38. RETURN OF CHRIST • The Tribulation – The Rapture • Post-Tribulation Rapture. Posttribulationists believe that the church will go through the tribulation period. They often make a distinction between “tribulation” and “wrath.” The Bible does teach that we will be delivered from “wrath.” Therefore it is claimed that believers will go through the tribulation, but will be miraculously kept from the wrath which is a part of that time.
  39. 39. RETURN OF CHRIST
  40. 40. THE END

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