Introduction to indian writing in english pre-independence

Teacher en Department of English
12 de Dec de 2017

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Introduction to indian writing in english pre-independence

  1. Milan Parmar (GSET, M.Phil) Department of English Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University Bhavnagar
  2. Plan for the study……. To understand What is Indian writing in English ? Definition Beginning….. Role of English in Indian Renaissance  Major writers- poets, dramatists, novelists Minor writers- poets, dramatist, novelists
  3. So, What is Indian writing in English?.......  There are many English literature, like British English literature……American Literature…. African Literature……Canadian Literature, Australian Literature and so on.  All are written in a single language, English, then why not call it simply “English Literature” only?  Though all written in one common language, all differs from each other in their subject matter, theme, style, and use of language.
  4. So, What is an Indian writing in English.......?  Indian writings in English are a product of the historical encounter between the two cultures—Indian and the western—for about one hundred and ninety years.  Indian English Literature refers to the body of works by authors in India who write in English and whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous languages of India.(Wikipedia)  M.K. Naik a well known critic in his book, ‘A History of English Literature’ defines Indian English literature as “literature written originally in English by authors Indian by birth, ancestry or nationality.” (Naik)  K. R. S. Iyenger states “Indians have been writing in English for communicating with one another, and with the outside world, for self expression and for creative writing in English”. (Iyengar)
  5.  ……..2.  It differs from other English literature in matter of subject, style, use of language, geographical setting, cultural background, and themes.  It is literature written about/on Indian subjects, setting is basically Indian rural and urban places, and it presents variety of cultures of India, use of Indianized English, and basically express Indian feelings and emotions.  The Early writers of IWE includes Henry Dorezio, R.Tagore, Bankimchandra, Arbindo Ghosh, Nirad C. Chaudhari, Sarojini Naidu, Toru Dutt, R.K. Narayan, Raja Rao, Mulkraj Anand, Manohar Malgownkar etc.
  6. Debate of the term  Which term should be used….  Anglo-Indian ….? Iyengar “a literature written by Englishman on theme and subject related to India”  Indo-Anglian ….? P.Lal, “a genre written and created by the Indians through English language.  Indo-British ….? Indian + British, creators are Indian but the language is British  Commonwealth literature/Third world literature …? “literature produced in countries once were colonies of England.  What is problematic…?
  7. “most of the above mentioned terms have racial and colonial connotation thus at the present time ‘Indian writing in English’ is agreed term by literary critics”
  8. The Beginning….  It begins with the colonial encounter when India and British came face to face, and begin the exchange between the two culture, language, and literature.  English education began as early as 1717 in Madras, 1718 at Bombay, and 1720 at Calcutta.  The Hindu College established in 1817 at Calcutta with efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy, David Hare and sir Edwin.  English education brought new life, and opened new Vistas of knowledge.  With English education and study of English literature, Indians learnt at first to read and speak and comprehend English, and they soon started writing.  This Indian writing in English- in variety of forms referred to as literary renaissance in India.
  9.  The study of English literature stimulated literary creation in regional languages. The Novel remained a center of attraction for Indian authors.  Indian Writing initially begins with the translation of works original works written in their mother tongue.  The renaissance in modern Indian literature begins with Raja Rammohan Roy. His interest and inquiries ranged from the rights of women and the freedom of press to English education…  Raja Rammohan Roy could be named as first of the Indian masters of English Prose.  Henry Derozio, Kashiprasad Ghosh, and Micheal Madhusudan Dutt were important writers of the beginning.
  10. Conti….The beginning…  Henry Derozio- (1809- 1831)  Poet, journalist, teacher  Became a teacher of English literature in the Hindu College at the age of 18.  “He does not only taught English Literature, but also made his pupils to ask questions, think for themselves, and not shrink from the right answers.”  He loved India and loved Nature, he also loved his students- are reflected in his poems.  His works are influenced by French Revolution and English Romantics.  He has written many short lyrics, and sonnets.  His most famous work is Fakir of Jungheera-1828.
  11. Kashiprsad Ghosh (1809- 1873), poet, journalist, editor. He was educated at Hindu College and passed out in 1828. He edited an English Weekly, The Hindu Intelligence. One of the first Indian to publish a regular volume of verse. The Shair and Other Poems (1830)
  12.  Michael Madhusudan Dutt(1827-1873)  Poet, Lawyer  Influenced by English Romantic.  His fame as poet rest upon his great Bengali Epic “Meghnad Badha”  narrative poem “The captive Ladie” appeared in Madras in 1849.  It evokes Muhmmad Gazni’s vision of slaughter of Hindus in Old Delhi.  He is known as Poet’s Poet in Bengal.  Sri Aurobindo said about this poet, “The God himself took thy pen and wrote.”
  13. Role of English In Indian Renaissance  English has played a very crucial role in Indian renaissance.  Most of the Indian thinkers and reformers either have studied under English education or influenced by English culture and Literature.  It is through the study of English, these thinkers gain new knowledge, and insight over the diseased body of India.  Those who studied In English Education system defied idolatry, orthodoxy, superstition and rituals.  For, Western Education was open sesame to knowledge, freedom and power.  Raja Rammohan Roy had been attracted to west, and learned that even in Christianity there are ills.  In fact all the reformers are in one or another way influenced by English language, culture and religion.
  14. Major writers • Toru Dutt (1856-1877) Indian poet who wrote in English and French • A Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields-1876 • Her poem, Our Casuarina Tree, and Savitri are most famous. • Bianca, or the Young Spanish Maiden-1879(novel) • Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan
  15.  Rabindranath Tagore- (1861 – 1941)  Novelist, Poet, Dramatist, painter  First non-European to win Noble prize in literature 1913  Known mostly for poetry but is multi-talent personality.  King George V, gave him Knighthood, which he gave up in 1919 in protest against Jaliyawala Bagh Massacre.  Novels : The Wreck (1905), Gora(1910), The Home and the World(1916)  Poems: Gitanjali (1913), Golden Boat, Balaka ("Wild Geese“).  From his poems two are selected as national anthem, Jan Gan Man in India, and Amar Shonar Bangla- Shrilanka.  Drama: The Post Office (1912), Chandalika (Untouchable Girl), Chitra, Sanyasi-1887, Sacrifice  Short Stories:- The Beggar Woman, The Runaway", 1895 and other stories.
  16. Sarojini Naidu (1879–1949)  Poet, freedom fighter, Nightingale of India.  First woman governor.  Her Poems : Her first collection of poems, The Golden Threshold (1905), it was admired by G.K. Gokhle, and even by British press for its Indian qualities.  The Bird of Time was published in 1912, it consist 46 poems.- “song of life and Death”  The Broken Wing was published in 1917- 61 poems- Tagore highly praised this work.  The themes and background of her poetry were purely Indian and she portrayed the festivals, occupations and life of the Indians.  Lyricism, imagery, mysticism and native fervor, are the remarkable qualities of her poetry  Her most famous poems are, The Weaver, The Flute Player of Brindaban  Mr. Gasworth compared her with Mrs. Browning for her poem “The Temple: A pilgrimage of Love. (218)
  17. Nissim Ezekiel Born 16 December 1924 – Died 9 January 2004 Indian Jewish poet, actor, playwright, editor and art-critic Nissim Ezekiel is considered to be a pioneering figure in modern Indian English Poetry. He enriched and established Indian English language poetry through his modernist innovations and techniques, which enlarged Indian English literature. His Poetry:- 1952: Time To Chang, 1956: The Discovery of India, 1960: The Unfinished Man, 1982: Latter-Day Psalms, His famous poem is “The Night Of The Scorpion”
  18. • Aurobindo Ghosh (1872-1950) • Nationalist, philosopher, poet, reformer • Founder of Sri Aurobindo Ashram Pondicherry • His Literary works: The Life Divine, Synthesis of Yoga, Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, The Renaissance In India And Other Essays On Indian Culture(1918) • His works also include philosophy, poetry, translations and commentaries on Hindu Epics like Mahabharata and Bhagvad Geeta. • Plays: Purseus the deliverer, vassavadutta, Rodogune, and Eric.
  19. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay: (1838-1894) Poet, journalist, novelist His Novels- Rajmohan's Wife(1864), Kapalkundala (1866), Mrinalini (1869), The Poison Tree(1873), Krishnakanta's Will(1878), Anandamath(1882), Durgesh Nandini(1865). National song of India “Vande Mataram” is taken from “Anandmath”
  20. The “Trinity” of Novelist • Raja Rao (1908-2006) • Novelist and short story writer • Sahitya Akademi Award in 1964 • His work • Novels:- Kanthapura (1938), The Serpent and the Rope (1960), The Cat and Shakespeare: A Tale of India (1965). • Short Stories:- The Cow of the Barricades (1947), The Policeman and the Rose (1978). • His works are deeply metaphysical in nature, themes of his works are nationalism, Indian culture, spiritualism.
  21. Mulk Raj Anand(1905-2004) • IWE Novelist, Classic Writer. • Notable for his depiction of poor and downtrodden people’s life in India. his novels attacks on the social structure of India. • Novels: Untouchable (1935), • Coolie (1936), Two Leaves and a Bud (1937), • The Village (1939), The Sword and the Sickle (1942), • The Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953) • Munna in Coolie and Bakha in Untouchable are the product of his sympathy for poor. • His works are highly critical of British rule in India and India's caste system and oppression of the poor.
  22. R. K. Narayan (1906-2001) Author, famous for creating an imaginary Place “Malgudi” Sahitya Academy award in 1958 Novels: Swami and Friends1935, The Bachelor of Arts 1937, The English Teacher 1945, The Financial Expert- 1952 Waiting for the Mahatma 1955, The Guide1958, The Man-Eater of Malgudi1961, Short Story collections: Malgudi Days-1942, An Astrologer's Day and Other Stories-1947, Lawley Road and Other Stories-1956, A Horse and Two Goats-1970 Autobiographies: My Days-1974, My Dateless Diary-1960 “His works highlights the social context and everyday life of his character. And also Gandhian movement”
  23. References • MLA Style • Wikipedia contributors. "Indian English literature." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 17 Nov. 2017. Web. 12 Dec. 2017 • Naik, M K. "A History of Indian English Literature." Naik, M K. New Delhi: SahityaAkademi, 1995. • Iyengar, K R Srinivasa. "Introduction." Iyengar, K R Srinivasa. Indian Writing In English. Sterling Publishers, 1983.