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MILLIE PRICE – SOCIOLOGY REVISION
1. THE USES AND GRATIFICATION
• This model starts with the view that media audiences are thinking, active
and creative human beings.
• In this view the media help people to create their own personal identities.
1. This model recognises the active role of media audiences. Audiences
make conscience choices about how they use the media
2. It recognises that audiences have the power to decide media content
(pluralists – we have CHOICE)
1. focuses on individual use and gratification and ignores the wider social
factors affecting the way audiences respond
2. The model over estimates the power of the audience to influence media
content – people who own the media decide + can change peoples views
2. THE CULTURAL EFFECTS MODEL
(PASSIVE) ‘ the drip drip effect’
• This model recognises that the media are owned and heavily
influenced by the dominant and most powerful groups of
society, and their interests strongly influence the content of
• People have different backgrounds and experiences and this
means that they interpret what they read, see and hear in
different ways (depending on factors such as their class,
gender and ethnicity.
• The cultural effects model suggests that the media gradually
influence the audience over a period of time – a slow, steady,
subtle process of brainwashing
1. Not everyone is passive – some people that adopt the
pluralist view would say that we have choice whether to
listen to the media or not.
3. HYPERMIC SYRINGE
• This model suggests that people are consuming the media
passively and the media has an immediate effect on behaviour
1. Not everyone is effected by the media, there are other
outside influences (pluralist = say we have choice of what
2. Outside influences aren't recognised (family, school) – not
everything is learnt e.g. mental health
4. THE TWO STEP FLOW MODEL (MORE
PASSIVE THAN ACTIVE – INBETWEEN)
• Developed by Katz & Lazarsfield (1955)
• The responses to media will be influenced by the beliefs and
values they already hold, and opinions . Also opinions of peer
• This model suggests that people are influenced by ‘OPINION
LEADERS’ – which are those respected members of social
groups. They get info and form views from the media who
then lead opinion and discussion in their social groups. E.g.
popular students who’s views are taken notice of.
• It suggests that it is these OPINION LEADERS who are
influenced by the media (FIRST STEP) & then they pass these
opinions on with their own interpretation to their social group
4. THE TWO STEPFLOW MODEL(MORE
PASSIVETHAN ACTIVE– INBETWEEN)
1. The model recognises that the effects of the media are not as direct,
powerful and influential as the hypodermic syringe theory suggests –
the two step flow model suggests that OPINION LEADERS are the ones
subject to media influence, NOT THE WHOLE AUDIENCE
2. Recognises that audiences are not completely passive and uncritically
accepting of direct messages, but that ‘OPINION LEADERS’ select,
interpret and filter media messages before they reach mass audiences
1. It still rests on the basic assumption that the influence of the audience
STEMS FROM THE MEDIA TO THE AUDIENCE – still assumes that
audiences are victims of media content
2. It suggests that people are very venerable to influence and
manipulation by ‘opinion leaders’. – doesn’t recognise that people have
their OWN OPINION to base their views on media content.