Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Written communicative competence

902 visualizaciones

Publicado el

Developing rReading and writing in the EFL class

Publicado en: Educación
  • Sé el primero en comentar

Written communicative competence

  1. 1. Written communicative competence MONTSE IRUN CHAVARRIA MIRUN@DAL.UDL.CAT
  2. 2. Index (c) Montse Irun  Reading  Definition  components  Writing
  3. 3. Reading Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  4. 4. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  5. 5. What is reading?  Define reading  Which texts do students read in class and at home?  What do they do with the readings? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  6. 6. Reading is not just knowing the words; it isn’t a lineal process or an accumulation of meaning. It isn’t just a way of finding information. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  7. 7. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  8. 8. What is reading? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  9. 9. Writer’s meaning Visual signal Reader’s knowledge Reader’s reconstruction Visual information Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  10. 10. What do effective readers do?  have a clear purpose in reading;  read silently;  read phrase by phrase, rather than word by word;  concentrate on the important bits, skim the rest, and skip the insignificant parts; Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  11. 11. What do effective readers do?  use different speeds and strategies for different reading tasks;  perceive the information in the target language rather than mentally translate;  guess the meaning of new words from the context, or ignore them;  use background information to help understand the text. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  12. 12. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  13. 13. Three mechanisms Bottom-up processing Top – down processing Interactional processing Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  14. 14. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun Bottom up processing
  15. 15. Discourses Sentences/ Phrases Words Morphemes Phonemes Linguistic knowledge is used. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun The Bottom-up Model
  16. 16. Bottom – up processing  Starting from sounds and letters to make meaning  Identify words and structures  Focus on vocabulary, grammar, organization  Can include text features such as title, subtitles, text types Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  17. 17. Discourses Sentences/ Phrases Words Morphemes Phonemes Linguistic Knowledge & Background Knowledge Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun The Top-down Model
  18. 18. Top down processing (schema theory)  Comprehension resides in the reader  Reader uses background knowledge and makes predictions  Teacher focus is on meaning- generating activities (Anderson 2008) Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  19. 19. Interactive processing Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  20. 20. Discourses Sentences/ Phrases Words Morphemes Phonemes Schemata to be activated the schema of language; the schema of content; the schema of forms Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun The Interactive Model
  21. 21. Top down or bottom up? 1. Schema building to activate background knowledge 2. Pre-teaching new vocabulary words 3. Help students comprehend discourse structures 4. Underline a grammar structure or verb tense 5. Skip over vocabulary words you don’t know 6. Write the number of a paragraph where you find the answer Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  22. 22. Intensive and extensive reading Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  23. 23. The nature of reading Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun Reading aloud Silent reading Manner Utterance of every word Silent Speed Usually slow Usually fast Purpose Usually to share information Usually to get information Skills involved Pronunciation and intonation Skimming, scanning, predicting; Guessing unknown words; Understanding details; Understanding relations between sentences and between paragraphs; Understanding references; Understanding inferences Activity type Collective activity Individual activity Manageme nt in the classroom Easy to manage as it can be observed and heard Difficult to manage as teachers cannot see what is going on in the students’ minds
  24. 24. Teaching versus testing Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  25. 25. Comprehension vs. strategy development? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  26. 26. Selecting appropriate reading materials Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  27. 27. What’s on the menu? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  28. 28. Ja saps que els lacumols de la matèria estan units en sòlids i líquids i cal donar energia per separar-los. Els lacumols estan formats per lacus units fortament i també cal donar energia per separar-los. També saps que tot està format per lacumols; o per cums o per grans estructures de molts lacus units fortament entre ells. I per separar les seves càrregues, també cal energia. Si relaciones totes aquestes afirmacions entendràs com es produeix la unió entre els lacus, és a dir, l’enllaç. COM S’UNEIXEN ELS LACUS? Reading and understanding a text Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  29. 29. Stages pre-reading while-reading post-reading Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  30. 30. Pre reading activities Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun Identification of the purpose for reading Knowledge about the topic Activation of previous knowledge Text Structure Author Title / Images Why are we reading this text?
  31. 31. Pre-reading activities predicting setting the scene skimming Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  32. 32. Setting the scene getting students familiar with the cultural and social background knowledge relevant to the reading text Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  33. 33. Skimming reading quickly to get the gist, i.e. the main idea of the text. Some suggestions:  Ask general questions. “Why did the writer write the article?”  Were your guesses correct? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  34. 34. While-reading activities Focus on the process of understanding rather than the result of reading.  Scanning  Information transfer activities  Reading comprehension questions  Understanding references  Making inferences Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  35. 35. Activities while reading  Keeping questions in mind  Taking notes  Filling in a graphic organizer  Monitoring comprehension  Developing fluency Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  36. 36. Scanning Reading to locate specific information. The reader has something in his mind and he or she should ignore the irrelevant parts when reading. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  37. 37. Information transfer activities using transition devices Transition device: A way to transfer information from one form to another, e.g. From a text to visual form. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun Input Transition Device Output Used to make information in text form effectively processed and retained.
  38. 38. Examples of using transition devices Example  Read the following passage and complete the table, which compares the two earthquakes. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  39. 39. At 5:13 on the morning of April 18th, 1906, they city of San Francisco was shaken by a terrible earthquake. A great part of the city was destroyed and a large number of buildings were burnt. The umber of people who lost their homes reached as many as 250 000. About 700 people died in the earthquake and the fires. Another earthquake shook San Francisco on October 17th, 1989. It was America’s second strongest earthquake and about 100 people were killed. It happened in the evening as people were travelling home. A wide and busy road, which was built like a bridge over another road, fell onto the one below. Many people were killed in the cars, but a few lucky ones were not hurt. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the centre of town but about 50 kilometres away. In one part of the town a great may buildings were destroyed. These buildings were over 50 years old, so they were not strong enough. There were a lot of fires all over the city. The electricity was cut of for several days too. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  40. 40. Time Date Location Number of people killed Damage Earthquake in 1906 Earthquake in 1989 Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  41. 41.  A follow-up output activity can be conducted based on the results.  “Which earthquake caused more damage and why?” Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  42. 42. Reading comprehension questions  Questions for literal comprehension. (Answers directly and explicitly available in the text)  Questions involving reorganization or reinterpretation. (Require Ss to obtain literal information from various parts of the text and put it together or reinterpret it)  Questions for inferences. (what is not explicitly stated but implied)  Questions for evaluation or appreciation. (making a judgement about the text in terms of what the writer is trying to convey)  Questions for personal responses. (reader’s reaction to the content of the text) Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  43. 43. Normally we pose questions to favour the comprehension of a text But, be careful how to write questions! Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  44. 44. De cranta, un brosqui pidró las grascas y una murolla nascró filotudamente. No lo ligaron lligamente, pero no le sarretaron tan plam. Cuando el brosqui manijó las grascas, la murolla drinó priscamente. 1- ¿Qué pidró el brosqui? 2- ¿Cómo nascó la murolla? 3- ¿Cómo lo sarretaron? 4- ¿Quién drinó? Which is the interest of these questions? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  45. 45. Understanding references All natural language, spoken or written, uses referential word such as pronouns to refers to people or things already mentioned previously in the context. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  46. 46. Making inferences Making inferences means “reading between the lines”, which requires the reader to use background knowledge in order to infer the implied meaning of the author. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  47. 47. What can you infer from the following?  Blandida is a country which has every climatic condition known to man.  When she came into the room, the large crowd grew silent.  The painting had been in the family for years, but sadly Bill realised he would have to sell it. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  48. 48. Post-reading activities should provide the students with opportunities to relate what they have read to what they already know or what they feel. should enable students to produce language based on what they have learned. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  49. 49. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  50. 50. Discussion questions  Do you think he was a good doctor?  How do you think the young man felt? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  51. 51. Role Play 1. Act out the conversation between the doctor and the young man. 2. Act out an interview between a journalist and the doctor. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  52. 52. Which are the writer’s reasons? Which arguments are useful for people who don’t agree? Which evidence does the writer give? Which is the idea of the text? Cooperative Reading Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  53. 53. Putting it all together Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  54. 54. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  55. 55. Putting it all together 1. Read the text at the end of the handout. 2. With a partner or in a small group, select two activities for either the pre-, during, or post- reading portion of the lesson. 3. What activities would you choose? How would you design each activity? What would the students need to do to complete these tasks? How long would each task take to complete? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  56. 56. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  57. 57. Main Ideas: Reading  should focus on developing students’ reading skills and strategies rather than testing students’ reading comprehension.  is an interactive process.  is divided into 3 stages: pre-reading, while-reading, and post-reading activities. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  58. 58. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  59. 59. Writing Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  60. 60. Writing  Why do people write?  Which type of text?  Who do they write to?  How do people write? Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  61. 61. Steps in writing Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  62. 62. What is the writing process? Writing an essay takes time. Writing is often referred to as a process. There are several steps: Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun  Pre-Writing  Organizing  Drafting  Revising and Editing  Handing in a Final Copy
  63. 63. Pre-Writing Before writing, you will need to Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun  brainstorm or generate ideas for your topic  choose a topic to write on  focus in on central ideas
  64. 64. Organizing Making an outline can help you organize what you want to write. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun Essay Outline I. Introduction Thesis: _____________________ II. Body 1. Topic Sentence: _____________ - supporting ideas 2. Topic Sentence: ____________ - supporting ideas 3. Topic Sentence: ____________ - supporting ideas III. Conclusion
  65. 65. Drafting Start writing your rough draft. Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun  Don’t worry about writing the ‘perfect’ paper the first time.  Your goal is to develop and support the ideas listed in your outline.  Don’t focus on spelling and grammar.
  66. 66. Revising and Editing Content and Organization Spelling, Grammar, Punctuation, etc. Revision Editing Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  67. 67. The Final Copy Some guidelines: Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun  word-processed  all new paragraphs indented / separated  DIN A4 white paper  double spaced, size 12 font  margins on all sides  appropriate layout
  68. 68. After reading / watching / speaking …  Which type of writing? To whom? What for?  What is the meaning / intention / purpose of the text?  Evaluation - regulation of the composition Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun Role writer
  69. 69. My reasons against are … My idea is that… My reasons for are … I may convince someone by telling him/her that… The evidence I would give is that … Planning an argumentative essay Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  70. 70. Evaluation criteria Yes R No How could you improve it? 1. The ideas are rellevant to the problem 2. Evidence is given to support opinion. 3. Both sides of the argumentation are provided 4. Language is fluent 5. Language is accurate and appropriate 6. The text is well organised Evaluation Written Communicative Competence - Montse Irun
  71. 71. (c) Montse Irun

×