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Malaysian studies presentation

  1. Malaysian Studies Presentation by NURUL BADRIAH BINTI ANWAR ALI
  2. Number 3 : The opposition against the colonist in Malaysia was of two types , that is , opposition with bloodshed and opposition through peaceful means. Which type of opposition would you have supported and why???
  3. What does Colonization mean???
  4.  to send colonists to or establish a colony in an area.  to settle in an area as colonists.  to transform a community into a colony.  the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies  to take control of an area by any means.
  5. ~ I would support the opposition through bloodshed because everything is fair in war. There is no rules in war for me. From the history point of view, the struggle for independence can be divided into two phases that is a)the struggle with bloodshed and b)the struggle through negotiation that is through peaceful way. ~ The first phase of struggle had seen many people killed. The second phase had witnessed the efforts to avoid bloodshed in which many associations were formed and the mass media were utilized to stir the spirit of nationalism.
  6. Do you still remember how long does Malaysia had been colonized by foreign powers???
  7.  Approximately, it is about 446 years. From Portuguese, Dutch, Japanese, Communistand finally British, there were many struggles and bloodshed in order to gain independence from the foreign forces. The European Colonization of Malaysia started in year 1511, when the Portuguese captured Malacca. The Portuguese were in turn defeated in 1641 by the Dutch, who colonized until the advert of British in 1824. During the World War II, Japanese had colonized Malaysia too in 1941 – 1945. These left many European and Japanese influences in Malaysia later on.  Throughout the era of colonization, many efforts were taken in earnest to free the country from the foreign powers. The local inhabitants (especially the Malays) constantly opposed the colonists.
  8. The Bloodshed Struggle  The bloody struggle began since the Portuguese occupied Malacca in 1511 until the beginning of the 20th century.  The people fought the colonists by using arms. It occurred in every state due to the colonists’ action that imposed excessive tax rates, violated Malay customs and religions of the local population, restricted the higher officials’ source of income from taxes and oppressed the people. For an instance, in Pahang, Tok Gajah and Dato’ Bahaman launched a holy war when the British resident introduced the post of tax collector and magistrate. Another example is the struggle of Tok Janggut in Kelantan when the British imposed taxes on the local people.
  9. The Portuguese and Dutch Colonization  Portuguese colonized Malacca in 1511 under the lead of Alfonso de Albuquerque.  Their objective was to control the maritime trade in the east and to spread Christianity.  However, they could not expand their power due to inconsistency of their trading policy oppression over people and merchants.  The Malays who were mainly Muslims viewed them as enemies of Islam, thus launched series of attacks against them.  Among their traces left in the country are Eurasian community, Catholics teachings, the Romanized writing, language, terminologies (almari, jandela, tuala).
  10. The Portuguese and Dutch Colonization  The Dutch defeated Portuguese and took over Malacca in 1641.  Their main objective was to control the tin ore in Malay Peninsula.  After the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, Malacca was passed over to British.  No much impact recorded from the Portuguese and the Dutch colonization on the country.
  11. The British Colonization There is a long story about the British colonization. Let us summarize their colonization in a chronology:  1786 : Francis Light founded Penang  1819 : Stamford Raffles founded Singapore  1824 : The signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty between the British and the Dutch in which Malacca was passed over to the British.  1826 : The combination of Penang, Malacca and Singapore under one administration which was called the Straits Settlements  1841 : James Brooke took over Sarawak  1874 : British interfere the Malay state affairs of Perak after the signing of Pangkor Treaty and also their intervention in Sungai Ujong, Negri Sembilan
  12.  1878: British took over Sabah from the King of Brunei  1888: British intervened the affairs of Pahang  1896: British formed the Federated Malay States that put Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang under one administration  1909: Siam (Thailand) handed over Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu to British under the Bangkok Treaty and put them under one Administration which was called the Non-Federated Malay States  1914: British intervention in Johor when Johor accepted a British advisor  1945: The establishment of the British Military Administration (BMA)  1946: The establishment of Malayan Union (MU)  1948: The establishment of the Federation of Malaya to replace the Malayan Union  1957: The independence of Malaya
  13. Do you know why the British could easily interfere the affairs of the Malay States ????
  14.  Internal weaknesses of the states such as unrest and civil war.  No unity among the people.  The abandon of economic resources such as tin ore and agriculture products found in these states.  The strong competition among western powers for colonize as much as colonies to meet the quest of industrial revolution in the West.  The British wanted to secure their trade business in this region.
  15. Reaction towards the Western Colonization  The local inhabitants did not happy with the colonization, thus they fought the colonialists.  The Johor Kingdom, for example, launched war repeatedly against the Portuguese from 1511-1596 to win back Malacca from the Portuguese and the same resistance also given to the Dutch as well as the English.  In which the people used arms to free themselves from the control of colonialists.
  16. Do you know why the people opposed the colonialists ???
  17. The factors of their opposition can be summarized as follow:  Local rulers and leaders lost power and control over their own country  Exploitation of national resources by the colonists and their control over the taxation system that had become the source of income of local leaders  The colonists did not understand the local customs and customary practices such as slavery and the tradition of hunting for human heads in Sarawak.  When the colonists tried to eradicate those practices, the local people opposed them.
  18. The Japanese Colonization  The Japanese occupied Malaya from 15th of February 1942 to 15th of August 1945 (approximately three and a half years).  The occupied the whole country and Singapore within 70 days.  One of the interesting war tactics was using bicycle even in the jungles and villages.  Their main aim was to establish a New Great East Asia government.  They promised to give independence to certain South East Asian countries.
  19. Among the impacts of the Japanese occupation are: Social impact :-  Their occupation worsened the racial relationship as they against the Chinese and on the side of the Malays.  As a result, the Chinese looked at the Malays as their enemies.  For an example, when the Japanese used the police force (mainly Malays) to fight the MPAJA (mainly Chinese) had caused racial friction and tension between the Chinese and the Malays.  After the defeat of the Japanese in the World War II, MPAJA took over the country for fourteen days and they took revenge on the Malays whom they accused of supporting the Japenese.
  20. Economic impact :-  The country had experienced a very bad economic recession.  During their invasion, they had destroyed many economic infrastructures.  Inflation became rampant and it caused hardship to the live of the people.
  21. Political impact :-  The Japanese administration was a misery and nightmare to the people.  The misery had raised political awareness among the Malays.  The Japanese slogan “Asia for Asians” had attracted the Malays and stirred them to get independence for their land and to build their own government.  The Chinese, however, established an association called Malayan Peoples’ Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) to fight the Japanese.
  22. The Era of Emergency  The era is closely related to the development of communist ideology in the country.  It lasted for 12 years. Through the activities of Malayan Communist Party (MCP) who were mainly Chinese, they tried to instill and spread the communist ideology among the people.  After the World War II ended, some of the MCP guerrillas hid in jungles and formed Malaysian Races Liberation Army (MRLA) or better known as Three Stars (Bintang Tiga).  Their aim was to establish the Communist Republic of Malaya.  The communist ideology was not accepted by the majority of the population.
  23. Do you know why the people did not accept the ideology ???
  24.  The ideology against the Islamic teachings because it denied the existence of God.  Many Chinese were more interested in economic activities and to focus on improving the economy. They did not want to involve in the guerrilla activities. To secure the interest of the Chinese in this country, they established Malayan Chinese Party (MCA).
  25.  The climax of the communist guerillas activities happened in 1948 after the Calcutta Resolution in which they launched attacks on rubber estates, tine mines, police station and general public especially the Europeans.  Many people were dead. As a result, the British government came out with some steps to wipe out the guerilla activities.
  26. The steps can be summarized as follow :- a) The British government declared state of emergency and enacted Emergency Law  16 June 1948 : Declaration of emergency in Perak & Johor  17 June 1948 : Declaration of emergency on the whole peninsula  The enactment of Emergency Law 1948: - outlawed the MCP -gave powers to police and soldiers to arrest and detain communist suspects without court trial  Registration System was introduced in which citizens aged 12 years and above must register and own an identity card
  27. b) The Briggs Plan  Introduced by Sir Harold Briggs  To relocate the squatter areas near to forest to a new village in order to restrict the Chinese from supplying food, medicine and information to the communist guerillas. About 400,000 Chinese were relocated to 400 new villages.  The plan succeeded in eradicating communist violence.
  28. c) Use of Military Force  Sir Gerald Templer used army force to fight the communists  He recruited 67,000 Malay special soldiers and formed home guards systems with 210,000 strength  He also sought assistance from the Commonwealths military  More aggressive attacks were launched against the communists
  29. d) Launch Psychological Warfare  Sir Gerald Templer took the following measures: i) Made easier for non-Malays to obtain citizenship. ii) Award pardon to large number of MCP members who surrendered iii) Reward people who supplied information about communists activities iv) Distribute pamphlets calling communist guerillas to surrender v) Introduced “white and black areas”. White areas indicated free communist areas while black areas were the opposite. vi) Introduce curfews system in the areas where the guerillas were hunted  The warfare succeeded in ending the communist activities and bringing back people to work together.
  30. e) The Baling Negotiation 1955  The MCP lastly decided to negotiate with the British after series of steps taken by the British to contain their activities  The negotiation failed as the MCP rejected the government’s counter offer and refused to lay down their arms
  31. The era of emergency left many negative impacts on the country. Among the impacts are:  Huge number of people killed  The infrastructures, properties were destroyed  The economy was cripple  New villages (mainly Chinese) were equipped with facilities. This had created hatred among the Malays towards the Chinese. Thus, social gap widened.
  32. Conclusion The struggle for independence can be divided into two phases the struggle with bloodshed and the struggle through negotiation. The first phase of struggle had seen many people killed. The second phase had witnessed the efforts to avoid bloodshed in which many associations were formed and the mass media were utilized to stir the spirit of nationalism. The struggle became earnest when the British introduced the Malayan Union specially the Malays who had shown the strongest opposition due to the erosion of the Malay rulers’ powers and sovereignty as well as the Malays’ rights. To make their struggle more effective, many political parties were formed with various objectives. Some were formed on ethnicity base and some were cross ethnicity. Even though the British government had received much opposition, they were still reluctant to grant independence to the country because of the problem of unity among the people.
  33. Among those four colonists, it was the British and Japanese who left the greatest impact on the country. The British wisely intervened in the administration of the Malay states and introduced different forms of administration such as Resident System, the Federated Malay States and the Non- Federated Malay States. It was the British who created plural society with different economic, social and political functions. The Japanese on the other hand, had created tension among the people especially between the Chinese and the Malays. It was the Japanese who driven the Chinese to form communist guerillas. The activities of communists became rampant until the British government had to declare the emergency throughout the country. The era of emergency had witnessed the loss of lives and the destruction of property. However, the emergency was also a blessing because it expedited the process of achieving independence.