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  1. 1. Power and Sexual Coercion Chapter 17
  2. 2. 17 Rape and Sexual Assault > The U.S. Department of Justice defines rape as forced sexual intercourse that can include psychological and physiological coercion. > Sexual assault is defined as any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the consent of the recipient of the unwanted sexual activity.
  3. 3. 17 Rape and Sexual Assault Statistics > Estimates: 1 in 5 women (18.3%) and 1 in 71 men (1.4%) in the United States have been raped at some point in their lives > In the majority of cases, the victims know their assailants > Rape and sexual assault are among the most underreported crimes in U.S.; only half of all rapes are reported > Reasons for not reporting > Non-confidentiality, shame, or humiliation
  4. 4. 17 Common Myths About Rape > Because victims often know their assailants and may blame themselves for being with them, these factors can make them less comfortable reporting their attacks, especially if they were using drugs or alcohol before the rape.
  5. 5. 17 The Typical Rapist > Research has shown that rapists are primarily male, single, are between the ages of 15 and 30, have high levels of impulsivity and aggression, sexist views about women, and high levels of rape myth acceptance. > Gender, ethnic and cultural differences about rape do exist.
  6. 6. 17 Theories about Rape > Rapist psychopathology: a disease model > Men rape due to alcohol intoxication, mental illness or uncontrollable sexual urges > Disease or alcohol leads men to rape > Victim precipitation theory: blaming the victim > Victims make themselves vulnerable to rape by their dress, behaviors or where they walk > Men are more likely to believe this theory than women
  7. 7. 17 Theories about Rape (cont’d.) > Feminist theory: keeping women in their place > Rape and the threat of rape are used by society to keep women in a position subordinate to men’s > Sex-role stereotyping encourages rape > Sociological theory: balance of power > Rape is an expression of power differentials in society > Evolutionary theory: product of evolution > Males and females differ in their reproductive strategies
  8. 8. Global Reported Rape and Convictions Figure 17.3 Reported Rapes and Convictions in Select Countries.
  9. 9. 17 Alcohol and Rape > On college campuses, alcohol use is one of the strongest predictors of rape, with up to two-thirds of all rape victims having voluntarily consumed alcohol before an assault. > When a woman experiences a rape while drunk, she is more likely to blame herself and often will not label the attack as a rape even when it clearly was.
  10. 10. 17 Fraternities and Rape > Factors that contribute to coercive sexuality in fraternities are the emphasis on masculinity, inherent secrecy, and protection of the group, along with greater acceptance of rape myths. > Some fraternities have begun to institute education programs and invite guest speakers from rape crisis centers to discuss the problem of date rape.
  11. 11. 17 Athletes and Rape > Participation in athletics has been found to be associated with rape-supportive attitudes and, to a lesser degree, sexually aggressive behavior. > Research suggests that perhaps it is the sense of privilege that contributes to a view of the world in which rape is legitimized.
  12. 12. 17 Psychological and Emotional Reactions > Women who report being raped by strangers experience more anxiety, fear, and startle responses, whereas women who report being raped by acquaintances usually report more depression, guilt, and decreased self-confidence > Rape trauma syndrome (RTS) is a two- stage stress response pattern characterized by physical, psychological, behavioral, and/or sexual problems, and it occurs after forced, non-consent sexual activity
  13. 13. 17 Reaction to Rape > Some victims never discuss the rape with anyone and carry the burden of the assault alone, which has been termed the silent rape reaction and has many similarities with RTS > Couples often avoid dealing with the rape entirely, and even though dealing with a rape in a relationship can be traumatic, it has been found that women who have a stable and supportive partner recover more quickly.
  14. 14. 17 Physical Effect of Rape > Physical symptoms include general body soreness, bruises, nausea, throat soreness, and difficulty swallowing (if there was oral sex), genital itching or burning, and rectal bleeding or pain (if there was anal sex). > Older women are likely to be even more traumatized by rape than younger women because many have conservative attitudes about sexuality, have undergone physical changes that can increase the severity of physical injury, and they have less social support after a rape.
  15. 15. 17 Marital Rape > As of 1993, marital rape is considered a crime in all 50 states; how it is treated in various states differs. > It has been estimated that 10% to 14% of all married women are raped by their husbands. > There is often little social support for wives who are raped, and those who stay with their husbands often endure repeated attacks.
  16. 16. 17 Emotional Reactions and Sexual Orientation > Adult sexual assault is slightly higher in lesbian and bisexual women compared to heterosexual women. > There may be more intense emotional repercussions compared with heterosexual women as lesbians may experience difficulty assimilating the experience of rape into their own self-image.
  17. 17. 17 Women with Disabilities > Women with disabilities are assaulted, raped, and abused at a rate two times greater than women without disabilities. > The impact of a rape may be intense for women with mental disabilities because of a lack of knowledge about sexuality, the loss of a sense of trust, and the lack of knowledgeable staff who can effectively work with these victims.
  18. 18. 17 Prostitutes and Rape > Studies have found that between 68% and 70% of female prostitutes have been victims of rape, and are commonly raped or assaulted by their pimp. > Because of the general disapproval of prostitution, a prostitute who reports rape is often treated with disdain, so believing and trusting her experience is imperative.
  19. 19. 17 Men As Rape Victims > In the U.S., it is estimated that 1 of every 33 men has been a victim of a completed or attempted rape, and account for 8% of all noninstitutional rapes. > Male victims are usually Black and are assaulted for the first time before the age of 18. > The belief that men cannot be raped by a woman serves to make male rape more humiliating and painful for many men. > Many victims of male rape question their sexual orientation and feel that the rape makes them less of a “real man.”
  20. 20. 17 Prison Rapes > In 2003, the Prison Rape Elimination Act went into effect that reduces tolerance for prison sexual assault and mandated the collection of national data on the incidence of prison rape. > Approximately 18% of prison inmates report sexual threats from other prisoners, while 8.5% report sexual assaults in prison. > Prison rape of men has been found to be an act of asserting one’s own masculinity in an environment that rewards dominance and power.
  21. 21. 17 Coping with Rape > Rape is the only violent crime in which society expects a person to fight back. > Escape is the first strategy, followed by screaming, dissuasive techniques, empathy, negotiation, or stalling for time; however, these techniques may cause more harm than good. > Other experts assert that the safest strategy is to attempt to talk to the attacker and try to make yourself a real person to the attacker.
  22. 22. 17 Reporting of Rape > Women are less likely to report if they know the attacker, whereas men are less likely to report if it jeopardizes their masculine self-identity. > Women who report rape to the police have been found to have a better adjustment and fewer emotional symptoms than those who do not report. The decision to press charges is difficult because a victim often feels as if he or she is on trial, court proceedings take up a great deal of time, and they create considerable anxiety
  23. 23. 17 Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) > Child sexual abuse is defined as sexual behavior that occurs between an adult and a minor, with the dominant, powerful position of the adult or older teen that allows him or her to force a child into sexual activity as an important characteristic. > Incest refers to sexual contact between a child or adolescent who is related to the abuser, although specific definitions for incest vary from state to state.
  24. 24. 17 Sexual Abuse of Children – Incidence > Accurate statistics are difficult to come by > Reported incidences increasing over past 30 years > Estimated 25% of girls and 10% of boys are sexually abused as a child > False child abuse reports occur in fewer than 10% of cases
  25. 25. 17 Psychological Effects of CSA > Children who hide their sexual abuse often experience shame and guilt, and fear the loss of affection from family and friends. > Whether they tell someone about the abuse or not, many victims experience psychological symptoms such as depression, increased anxiety, nervousness, emotional problems, low self-esteem, and personality and intimacy disorders. > When they enter adolescence they may begin to show promiscuous and compulsive sexual behavior, which may lead to sexually abusing others in adulthood.
  26. 26. 17 Treatment > Currently, the most effective treatments for victims of sexual abuse include a combination of cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies, which teach victims how to understand and handle the trauma of their sexual assaults more effectively. > Being involved in a relationship that is high in emotional intimacy and low in expectations for sex is beneficial.
  27. 27. 17 Prevention > Teaching children to say “no” to inappropriate adult advances is one educational campaign. > Increasing the availability of sexuality education has also been cited as a way to decrease the incidence of child sexual abuse. > Telling children that abuse is not typical and where they can go to get assistance is important.
  28. 28. 17 Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) > Intimate partner violence (IPV), also known as domestic violence, is found among all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic classes with close to 5 million reported victims each year. > IPV is coercive behavior that uses of threats, harassment, or intimidation that may include physical, emotional, or sexual abuse
  29. 29. 17 Physical and Emotional Reactions to IPV > Common psychological symptoms may include depression, antisocial behavior, increased anxiety, low self-esteem, and a fear of intimacy; PTSD is also common. > Physical symptoms may include headaches, back pain, broken bones, gynecological disorders, and stomach problems. > Battered women’s shelters across the U.S. can provide women with information and a safe haven.
  30. 30. 17 Sexual Harassment > Sexual harassment is a very broad term that includes anything from jokes, unwanted sexual advances, a “friendly” pat, and “accidental” brush on a person’s body, an arm around a person or even unwanted sexual attention online. > Assertiveness is the most effective strategy, either by telling someone about it or confronting the offender. > The first step in reducing the incidence of sexual harassment is to acknowledge the problem.

Notas del editor

  • © Lintra/Shutterstock
  • LO1: Define rape and sexual assault, and explain how certain factors can make defining these crimes difficult.
    Rape is generally defined as forced sexual behavior without a person’s consent, whereas sexual assault is defined as coercion of a non-consenting victim to have sexual contact.
    The lines between definitions of rape and other sexual activity blur because of distinctions between force, coercion, and consensual sex, societal patterns of female passivity and male aggression, and heterosexual norms regarding sexuality.
    In 2013, the FBI’s new definition of rape “the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim”.
    Figure: Reported rapes by sex of victim in the United States, 2008. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2008
  • In 2008, there were 203,830 victims of rape or sexual assault in the U.S., but rape and sexual assault are one of the most underreported crimes.
    Women are by far the majority of victims, and in most cases, the victims know their assailants.
    Victims often do not report because they feel shameful, guilty, embarrasses, or humiliated, and since victims often know their assailants, they may blame themselves for being with them.
  • LO2: Identify five to six of the common myths about rape and sexual assault, and discuss how these myths affect perceptions of these crimes.
    Common rape myths, which may foster justification and rationalization of behavior and blaming of victims, include:
    Only ‘bad’ women get raped
    Women make false reports of rape
    Women fantasize about rape
    Men can’t be raped
    You can tell a rapist by the way he looks
    People can’t be raped against their will
    A man can’t rape his wife
    Table: © Cengage Learning 2013
  • LO3: Describe the profile of the typical individual who commits rape.
    Rapists are primarily male, single, between 15-30 years old, have high levels of impulsivity and aggression, hold sexist views about women, hold high levels of rape myth acceptance, have often experienced interpersonal violence, are likely to re-offend, have different motivations for rape, yet differ little psychologically from non-offenders.
    LO4: Discuss gender, ethnic, and cultural differences in attitudes toward rape.
    Gender – Men are less empathetic and sensitive toward rape and more likely to support rape myths and traditional heterosexual expectations (e.g., expect sex for dinner dates they pay for) than are women, although participation in rape education workshops or college courses in violence against women leads to expressed reduction in men’s support of rape myths.
    Ethnicity – in general, ethnic minorities have been found to have traditional attitudes towards women, and these are associated with greater acceptance of rape myths. This varies by ethnicity (non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks are more sympathetic; Asian Americans are least sympathetic and more likely to hold the rape victim responsible and to excuse the rapist).
    Cultural – One culture may accept sexual behavior that is considered illegal and rape in another. Some cultures support rape as punishment, as normalized behavior of over-powering females, as initiation rites, and as of entitlement.
  • Rapist Psychopathology: A Disease Model
    According to this theory, the rape rate can be reduced by finding these sick individuals and rehabilitating them, which makes people feel safer because it suggests that only sick individuals rape, not “normal” people, though research consistently fails to identify any significant distinguishing characteristics of rapists.
    Victim Precipitation Theory: Blaming the Victim
    By focusing on the victim and ignoring the motivations of the attacker, many have labeled this a blame the victim theory, shifting responsibility.
    Women who wear suggestive clothing and drink alcohol are viewed as being more responsible for a sexual assault; lulling people to feel safe that it could not happen to them because they would not act like “those other women.”
  • Feminist Theory: Keeping Women in Their Place
    Sex-role stereotyping reinforces the idea that men are supposed to be strong, aggressive, and assertive, while women are expected to be slim, weak, and passive, encouraging rape in our culture.
    Sociological Theory: Balance of Power
    When men feel disempowered by society, by changing sex roles or by their jobs, overpowering women with the symbol of their masculinity reinforces men’s control over the world.
    Evolutionary Theory: Product of Evolution
    According to evolutionary theory, men and women have developed differing reproductive strategies, wherein men desire frequent mating to spread their seed, and women are designed to protect their eggs by being selective in choosing their mates, and rape has developed as a consequence of these differences.
  • Because rape is defined differently around the world, the incidence of rape is dependent upon how a culture defines it, where one culture’s acceptable behavior is another culture’s rape.
    In some cultures, rape has been used as a punishment for women, a sign of masculinity, or for initiation purposes.
    Due to the high rates of rape in South Africa (a result of cultural and societal beliefs) an anti-rape female condom was unveiled in 2005.
    Research indicates that the primary cultural factors that affect the incidence of rape in a society include relations between the sexes, the status of women, and male attitudes in the society.
    Societies that promote male violence have higher incidences of rape because men are socialized to be aggressive, dominating, and to use force to get what they want.
    SOURCE: Johnson, H., Ollus, N., & Nevala, S. (2008). Violence against women: An international perspective. New York: Springer Science and Business.
  • LO5: Identify two ways in which alcohol is a strong predictor of rape on college campuses.
    Up to 60% of rape victims voluntarily consumed alcohol on college campuses prior to their assaults.
    For men, alcohol “sexualizes” the college environment, possibly leading to misinterpretation of neutral cues as sexual.
    Photo: © Peter M. Fisher/Corbis
  • LO6: Discuss the ways in which fraternities might create a ripe environment for rape.
    Many fraternities support an ethic of masculinity, supporting values of secrecy, competition, dominance, loyalty to brothers, willingness to drink alcohol, demonstration of sexual prowess, and gaining of respect through sexual behavior.
    Fraternity men have also been found to be more supporting of rape myths than males who are not members of fraternities.
    Photo: © ACE STOCK LIMITED / Alamy
  • LO7: Discuss some of the reasons for the higher rates of rape-supportive attitudes and sexually aggressive behavior among college and professional athletes.
    Researchers suggest that reasons that athletes are more likely to:
    Demonstrate a sense of privilege that legitimizes rape
    Connect aggression and sexuality as a part of sports’ competitive nature
    Foster hypermasculinity, which promotes the idea that violence and aggression are ‘manly’
    Maintain “locker-room-based” views of women
    Photo: Justin S./
  • LO9: Discuss the range of psychological and emotional reactions to rape experienced by victims and by victims’ partners.
    If stranger rape – experience anxiety, fear and startle responses
    If acquaintance rape – experience depression, guilt, decreased self-confidence, and a sense of betrayal
    All may experience rape trauma syndrome symptomology and / or PTSD within 2 weeks of rape
    Some experience the silent rape reaction, never discussing their victimization, sometimes denying or repressing the experience and suffering through a longer recovery period without social support.
    Partners experience anger, frustration, a need for revenge, a sense of loss, guilt, self-blame, jealousy, and different feelings towards men and their partner in general.
    Photo: Talking with a counselor can help rape victims work through their emotional reactions, such as anger, depression, self-blame, guilt, and/or humiliation. © David Buffington/Photodisc/Picturequest
  • See notes.
    Rape Crisis Centers provide services to victims of rape and sexual assault.
  • LO8: Describe and compare the physical effects of rape on younger and older women.
    Older women are likely to experience more physical damage from rape than do younger women because they have undergone physical changes in the genitals (lack of lubrication and / or thinning of vaginal walls) that can increase injury severity. They also may hold more conservative attitudes about sexuality and have less social support after a rape, emphasizing their vulnerability.
    Photo: The majority of women who are raped know their assailant. Mel Curtis/Getty Images
  • LO10: Explain legal exemptions for marital rape and common symptoms in victims of marital rape.
    Marital rape is illegal in all 50 states, yet 30 states have exemptions from marital rape charges when certain conditions are met (while the wife is unconscious, asleep or mentally impaired).
    Symptoms of marital rape victims include:
    Feelings of extreme betrayal
    Inability to trust others, especially men
    Vulnerable given lack of social support
    Fear of re-victimization
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/Christian Martínez Kempin
  • LO11: Explain differences in the emotional reactions to rape in heterosexual and lesbian women.
    Lesbians experience many of the same emotional repercussions as do heterosexual women yet may also experience:
    Difficulty in assimilating the experience into their self-image
    First vaginal intercourse
    Fear of pregnancy
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/Anton Gvozdikov
  • LO12: Describe some of the factors that contribute to the higher frequency of rape in women with disabilities.
    Women with disabilities are assaulted, raped, and abused at a reported rate of two times greater than women without disabilities.
    Factors to contribute to this difference include:
    Vulnerability resulting from an inability to fight back
    Diminished ability to read cues that could alert them to danger
    Lack of understanding that their rights have been violated
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/Diane Diederich
  • LO13: Cite two reasons for the high frequency of rape experienced by prostitutes.
    Because a prostitute is paid for sex, consent is often difficult to judge.
    Because of the general disapproval of prostitution, prostitutes’ voices and needs are not always regarded when reporting rape.
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/Don Bayley
  • LO15: Discuss how men can be raped and common long-term effects of rape in men.
    The majority of male rapes by women use psychological or pressured contact, such as verbal persuasion or emotional manipulation, rather than physical force.
    The most common type of activity in the sexual assault of men by men is anal penetration, followed by oral penetration. Masturbation to ejaculation has also been reported.
    Gay men have been found to be raped at a higher rate than are heterosexual men.
    The most common emotional reactions to rape of men by women are unwillingness to define themselves as victims, non-reporting, and physical and psychological symptoms.
    The most common emotional reactions to rape of men by men are shame, embarrassment, self-blame, hostility, depression, RTS, questioning of sexual orientation, and feelings of emasculation. Fearing others will think they are gay is another barrier for reporting.
    Photo: Enrico Fianchini/Stockphoto
  • LO14: Explain how prisons have worked to reduce the prevalence of rape in prison.
    Congress passed The Prison Rape Elimination Act in 2003 that requires the mandated collection of national data on the incidence of prison rape, and provides funding for research and program development.
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/Eduardo Fuentes Guevara
  • LO16: Debate the pros and cons of different coping strategies for rape.
    Should you fight back?
    Legally, visible proof of a struggle (bruising) seems to support non-consent
    Emotionally, women report feeling frozen with fear and unable to move
    The best strategy is to try to escape:
    May be impossible if the area is deserted, if there are multiple attackers, or if the attacker has a weapon
    If escape is not possible, use other strategies, including:
    Verbal strategies such as screaming
    Dissuasive techniques such as telling the attacker you are menstruating or have an STI
    Using and instilling empathy, negotiation, and / or stalling for time
    Creating a sense of who you are with your attacker to evoke his / her empathy
    If not believed, these strategies could do more harm than good
    Video: Meg’s story of Date Rape (7 min)
  • LO17: Discuss gender differences in the reporting of rape and explore reasons why a victim should consider reporting the rape and pressing charges.
    It is estimated that about 1 in 7 rapes are reported, and the likelihood of reporting is increased if the assailant was a stranger, if there was violence, or if a weapon was involved.
    Women are less likely to report rape if the attackers were known, yet men are less likely to report if it threatens their masculine self-identity.
    Women who report their rapes to police have been found to experience better adjustment and fewer emotional symptoms as contrasted with non-reporters. Additionally, reporting alerts police to the crime and potentially stops other victims’ victimization. Reporting to police and pressing charges begins the legal process and are required for further legal action.
    Photo: Reliving a rape during a legal trial can be emotionally draining. © Rubber Ball/Alamy
  • LO18: Define child sexual abuse and identify the key factor that characterizes the typical child sexual abuser.
    Child sexual abuse is defined as sexual behavior that occurs between an adult and a minor.
    The key factor that characterizes the typical child sexual abuser is the dominant, powerful position of the adult or older teen that allows him / her to force a child into sexual activity.
    LO19: Define incest and discuss the incest taboo.
    Incest is the sexual abuse of a child or adolescent who is related to the abuser.
    The incest taboo, or absolute prohibition of sex between family members, is universally supported and has been recognized in every culture.
  • The increase in the incidence of child sexual abuse may be a reflection of the decreased tolerance for such behavior rather than an actual increase in the number of sexual assaults on children.
    Boys are more likely to be abused by strangers, while girls are more likely to be abused by family members, with the median age of all victims at 8 to 9 years old.
    Reasons why males may underreport include feelings that they should be more self-reliant, stigma of homosexuality and risk of losing freedoms.
    Victims of incest with a biological father delay reporting the longest, while those who are victims of stepfathers or live-in partners told more readily.
  • LO20: Explain the psychological and emotional effects of child sexual abuse.
    Psychological symptoms include depression, increased anxiety, nervousness, emotional problems, personality and intimacy disorders, PTSD, substance abuse, eating disorders, and contemplation of suicide.
    Emotional effects occur most strongly when the abuser was someone trusted.
    LO21: List three or four long-term effects of child sexual abuse.
    Inability to remember past abuse
    Traumatic sexualization during childhood and throughout life, sometimes leading to sexual abuse of others in adulthood
    Gay and bisexual men who experience child sexual abuse are significantly more likely than men without a history of CSA to develop eating disorders
    Problems with substance abuse from ages 10 through adulthood
    Photo: Larisa Lofitskaya/
  • LO22: List and describe two approaches to treating victims of child sexual abuse.
    A combination of cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies that teach victims how to understand and handle the trauma of their assaults more effectively
    Relational counseling regarding intimacy, trust, and individual rights (e.g., the right to say no)
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/Richard Clark
  • LO23: Discuss some of the proposed approaches to preventing child sexual abuse.
    “Just say no” campaigns instruct children how to say no to inappropriate sexual advances by adults. One issue with these is how to appropriately address that children may need to say no to parents or authority figures without creating fear and distrust in children toward these caregivers.
    Increasing the availability of sex education, teaching children that CSA is not “normal” behavior, and informing children of how to report if necessary have been suggested as prevention strategies as children who are from traditional, authoritarian families who have no sex education are at greater risk of sexual abuse.
    One additional strategy is in adequately funding and staffing child welfare agencies in order to facilitate detection of CSA and proper responding to incidents.
    Photo: ©iStockphoto/ Richard Clark
  • LO24: Discuss intimate partner violence and identify racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic issues associated with prevalence rates.
    Intimate partner violence (IPV), also referred to as domestic violence, is coercive behavior between intimate partners that uses threats, harassment, intimidation and / or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse that is often patterned, not incidental.
    IPV is found in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic classes and is experienced by both women and men.
    Women with disabilities are significantly more likely than women without disabilities to experience intimate partner violence, and 1 in 3 men in same-sex relationships has been abused.
  • LO25: Describe the range of physical and emotional reactions to intimate partner violence.
    Physical symptoms of IPV include headaches, back pain, broken bones, gynecological disorders, and stomach problems. Emotional reactions to the violence include excusing of partner’s behaviors, acceptance of apologies, feelings of self-blame for issues, and fear of leaving the relationship (that things could be worse).
    LO26: Discuss two approaches to preventing intimate partner violence and helping victims avoid future abuse.
    Two approaches to preventing intimate partner violence include the provision of education and awareness regarding IPV and its non-normality and providing relational counseling and intervention to survivors in preparation for future, healthier relationships.
    Photo: Women who experience intimate partner violence from other women often experience a wide range of emotional and psychological responses to the assault but may never tell anyone about the violence. © Joel Gordon
  • In the U.S., the courts recognize two types of sexual harassment: quid pro quo harassment (“this for that”) and hostile environment harassment.
    Severe or chronic sexual harassment can cause psychological side effects similar to rape and sexual assault.
    It is estimated that 66% of college students experience sexual harassment, though the majority do not report it.
    In the U.S., sexual harassment has increased in recent years, likely due to more women in the workforce.
    Assertiveness is the most effective strategy, either by telling someone about it or confronting the offender.