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5 Theories About Motivation: Why We Do What We Do

Motivation is the force that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional, or cognitive in nature. In this presentation, we cover what motivation is as well as 5 theories of motivation.

While no single theory can adequately explain all human motivation, looking at the individual theories can offer a greater understanding of the forces that cause us to take action. In reality, there are likely many different forces that interact to motivate behavior.

Thanks to Psychology.about.com for the references for this presentation. For more insights, tips and a free video to help overcome motivations to binge eat, check out www.BingeEatingBreakthrough.com.

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5 Theories About Motivation: Why We Do What We Do

  1. 1. 5WHY DO WE DO WHAT WE DO ?
  2. 2. What is ?
  3. 3. Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviours. Motivation is what causes us to Act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. For example, you might say that a student is so motivated to get into a psychology program that she spends every night studying. Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory. (Reference: http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm)
  4. 4. Components of Anyone who has ever had a goal (like wanting to lose ten pounds or wanting to run a marathon) probably immediately realizes that simply having the desire to accomplish something is not enough. Achieving such a goal requires the ability to persist through obstacles and endurance to keep going in spite of difficulties. There are three major components to motivation: Activation, Persistence, and Intensity.
  5. 5. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy, and resources. Intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might coast by without much effort, while another student will regularly participate in discussions and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class.
  6. 6. Motivation So what are the things that actually motivate us to act? Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories to explain motivation: . Drives and Needs: Many of our behaviors, such as eating, drinking, and sleeping, are motivated by biology. We have a biological need for food, water, and sleep, therefore we eat, drink, and sleep. Drive theory suggests that people have basic biological drives and that our behaviors are motivated by the need to fulfill these drives. Arousal Levels: The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are motivated to engage in behaviors that help them maintain their optimal level of arousal. A person with low arousal needs might pursue relaxing activities, while those with high arousal needs might be motivated to engage in exciting, thrill-seeking behaviors. Instincts: The instinct theory of motivation suggests that behaviors are motivated by instincts, which are fixed and inborn patterns of behavior. Psychologists including William James, Sigmund Freud and William McDougal have proposed a number of basic human drives that motivate behavior.
  7. 7. EXTRINSIC INTRINSIC Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.
  8. 8. 5THEORIES of
  9. 9. Instinct Motivation According to instinct theories, people are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so. An example of this in the animal world is seasonal migration. These animals do not learn to do this, it is instead an inborn pattern of behavior. The main problem with this theory is that it did not really explain behavior, it just described it. By the 1920s, instinct theories were pushed aside in favor of other motivational theories, but contemporary evolutionary psychologists still study the influence of genetics and heredity on human behavior.
  10. 10. Incentive Motivation The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. For example, you might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetary reward of being paid. Behavioral learning concepts such as association and reinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation.
  11. 11. DRIVE THEORY According to this theory of motivation, people are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension that is caused by unmet needs. For example, you might be motivated to drink a glass of water in order to reduce the internal state of thirst. This theory is useful in explaining behaviors that have a strong biological component, such as hunger or thirst. The problem with the drive theory of motivation is that these behaviors are not always motivated purely by physiological needs. For example, people often eat even when they are not really hungry.
  12. 12. Arousal Motivation This theory suggests that people take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal. When arousal levels get too low, for example, a person might watch an exciting movie or go for a jog. When arousal levels get too high, on the other hand, a person would probably look for ways to relax such as meditating or reading a book. According to this theory, we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal, although this level can vary based on the individual or the situation.
  13. 13. Humanistic Motivation Humanistic theories of motivation are based on the idea that people also have strong cognitive reasons to perform various actions. This is famously illustrated in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which presents different motivations at different levels. First, people are motivated to fulfill basic biological needs for food and shelter, as well as those of safety, love, and esteem. Once the lower level needs have been met, the primary motivator becomes the need for self-actualization, or the desire to fulfill one's individual potential.
  14. 14. While no single theory can adequately explain all human motivation, looking at the individual theories can offer a greater understanding of the forces that cause us to take action. In reality, there are likely many different forces that interact to motivate behavior. Thanks to Psychology.about.com for the references for this presentation: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-motivation.htm http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
  15. 15. For more insights, tips and a free video to help overcome motivations to binge eat, www.BingeEatingBreakthrough.com.

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