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3 - The Major Philosophies

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3 - The Major Philosophies

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 The Major Philosophies
  2. 2. Overview of Chapter 3 <ul><li>Defining philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Three branches of philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional philosophies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealism, realism, and neo-theism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contemporary philosophies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism and existentialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytic Philosophy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining Philosophy <ul><li>“ Study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Oxford American Dictionary, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps us better understand who we are, why we are here, and where we are going. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational philosophy helps define views about learners, teachers, and schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Major philosophies include idealism, realism, and theistic realism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Branches of Philosophy <ul><li>Metaphysics – What is the nature of reality? </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology – What is the nature of knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology – What is the nature of values? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Metaphysics <ul><li>One of the key concepts in understanding philosophies </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with reality and existence </li></ul><ul><li>Asks: What is the nature of reality? </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided into two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology: what is the nature of existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmology: origin and organization of the universe </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Epistemology <ul><li>Raises questions about the nature of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Logic is a key dimension to epistemology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive logic: from general to specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive logic: from specific facts to generalization </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Axiology <ul><li>Explores the nature of values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics: study of human conduct and examines moral values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics: values beauty, nature, and aesthetic experience (often associated with music, art, literature, dance, theater, and other fine arts) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Major Traditional Philosophy: Idealism <ul><li>Considered oldest philosophy of Western culture </li></ul><ul><li>The world of mind, ideas and reason is primary </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics- stresses mind over matter (nothing is real except for an idea in the mind) </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology- all knowledge includes a mental grasp of ideas and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology- values are rooted in reality </li></ul><ul><li>Idealists believe that values can be classified and ordered into a hierarchy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Leading proponents of Idealism <ul><li>Plato- Greek philosopher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered father of idealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Allegory of the Cave” from The Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Augustine- theologian of 4 th & 5 th centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied Plato’s assumptions to Christian thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descartes, Kant & Hegel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descarte: “I think, therefore I am” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kant: certain universal moral laws- categorical imperitives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hegel: approached reality as “contest of opposites” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Major Traditional Philosophy : Realism <ul><li>The antithesis of Idealism </li></ul><ul><li>Universe exists whether mind perceives it or not </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics- reality composed of matter (body) and form (mind) </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology- sense realism (knowledge comes through senses) </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology- values derived from nature </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leading proponents of Realism <ul><li>Aristotle- father of realism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student of Plato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued that knowledge can be acquired through senses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced a rigorous form of inductive reason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of tabula rasa (no such thing as innate ideas) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comenius, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi </li></ul>
  12. 12. Major Traditional Philosophy: Neo-Thomism <ul><li>Dates to the time of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as theistic realism </li></ul><ul><li>“ God exists and can be known through faith and reason” </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics- God gives meaning to universe </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology- hierarchy of knowing God </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology- unchanging moral laws </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contemporary Philosophies: Pragmatism <ul><li>Also known as experimentalism- experience or things that work </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of 20 th century developed by John Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics- regard reality as an event or process. Meaning is derived from experience in environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology- truth is not absolute but determined by consequences. Arrived at by inquiry, testing, questioning, retesting, ect. </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology- primarily focused on values. Determined by own experiences </li></ul>
  14. 14. Leading Proponents of Pragmatism <ul><li>Auguste Comte </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested science could solve social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving was key </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of natural selection implied reality was open ended, not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Americans: Charles Pierce, William James and John Dewey </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contemporary Philosophies: Existentialism <ul><li>Appeared as a revolt against the mathematical, scientific philosophies that preceded it. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on personal and subjective existence </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics- no purpose or meaning to universe. No world order or natural scheme of things </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology- we come to know truth by choice. The authority is found in self. </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology- choice to determine value. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Leading Proponents of Existentialism <ul><li>Soren Kierkegaard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danish philosopher/ theologian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of existentialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected scientific objectivity for subjectivity and choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martin Buber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish philosopher/ theologian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I/Thou” relationship- divine and human are related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Husserl and Heidegger </li></ul><ul><li>Jean- Paul Sartre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We construct our own existence </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other Proponents of Existentialism <ul><li>Siberman & Kozol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of open schools, free schools, and alternative schools of 1960’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neill- Summerhill school </li></ul><ul><li>Nel Noddings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational model that includes caring </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Analytic Philosophy <ul><li>Sought out to clarify, and define philosophies </li></ul><ul><li>Began in post WWI era- Vienna Circle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied the alienation between philosophy and science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the concept of logical positivism : there are logical and empirical types of scientific expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifted to Analytic philosophy in 1950’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic philosophy has recently focused on political philosophy, ethics and philosophy of human sciences </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Review Questions for Chapter 3 <ul><li>What is a philosophy and why is it important for teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>Define the three branches of philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>What is idealism and name a proponent of it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is realism and someone who supports it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is neo-Thomism and who is it named after? </li></ul><ul><li>What are two contemporary philosophies? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some key differences between the two contemporary philosophies? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain philosophic analysis. </li></ul>

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