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Developing Surface and Deep Level Knowledge and Skill through Project Based Learning

29 de Jun de 2015
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Developing Surface and Deep Level Knowledge and Skill through Project Based Learning

  1. Developing Surface and Deep Level Knowledge and Skill through Project Based Learning Michael McDowell, Ed.D.
  2. How do we codify the most substantial research-based practices to support our learners in substantially progressing towards and reaching mastery in the economic, social, and civic demands of the 21st Century? And, how do we ensure that learners are engaged & motivated in their learning? #AnnualVL2015
  3. Expectations
  4. Hypothesis A problem or project based approach is “the great codifier” combining the beliefs and actions necessary to engage, motivate, and substantially enhance student learning in a breadth of outcomes.
  5. Learning Intentions By the end of the session, you will… 1. Understand specific practices that have a high probability for enhancing student learning 2. Understand specific theories that underpin such practices 3. Collect potential means for applying such understanding to your classroom (and site/district) #AnnualVL2015
  6. Success Criteria By the end of the session, you will… Building Knowledge • identify high impact strategies in PBL. • recognize key factors in project design and implementation that are important to enhancing learning. Making Meaning • relate the VL research to PrBL and PBL practices Applying Understanding • Evaluate tools, processes, or protocols that will (may) enhance your practice #AnnualVL2015
  7. Know Need to Know
  8. • “Its unbelievable how much you don’t know about the game you’ve been playing all your life” - Mantle
  9. Face the Brutal Facts Face the Brutal Facts
  10. Effect sizes for teacher as activator and teacher as facilitator Reciprocal Teaching (.74) Feedback (.72) Direct Instruction (.59) Problem Solving teaching (.61) Mastery Learning (.57) Goals-Challenging (.56) Average activator (.63) Simulations and gaming (.32) Inquiry-based teaching (.31) Individualized instruction (.20) PBL (.15) Web-based learning (.09) Whole language-reading (.06) Average facilitator (.17) What are the key difference between these methods? The key is the role of the teacher…We go back to the story
  11. Effect sizes for teacher as activator and teacher as facilitator Reciprocal Teaching (.74) Feedback (.72) Direct Instruction (.59) Problem Solving teaching (.61) Mastery Learning (.57) Goals-Challenging (.56) Average activator (.63) Simulations and gaming (.32) Inquiry-based teaching (.31) Individualized instruction (.20) PBL (.15) Web-based learning (.09) Whole language-reading (.06) Average facilitator (.17) What about at “deeper levels of learning?
  12. #AnnualVL2015 Good News! Surface Deep Transfer
  13. #AnnualVL2015 Good News! Surface Deep Transfer
  14. #AnnualVL2015 Challenging News! Surface Deep Transfer
  15. - Where is the learner now?
  16. #AnnualVL2015 Good News! Surface Deep Transfer
  17. Teachers need to be directive, influential, caring, and actively engaged in the passion of teaching and learning
  18. 3 Key Ideas for Implementation
  19. Right Time
  20. Right Intervention
  21. Balanced Approach
  22. Expectations
  23. THE NAIROBI DECISION
  24. Problem Statement How will you advise the Kenyan national government in approaching“Nairobi Proposal”?
  25. • Task: Present a solution, including a submitted literature review, to a committee that represents the interests of local communities, business, tourism, and science and technology. • Expectations: The presentation will be held on________ and the government expects the following guidelines are adhered to_________.
  26. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts
  27. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts Transfer Expectation s Surface- Deep- Transfer
  28. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts
  29. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts • Establishes High expectations up front • Provides the opportunity for “intellectual dilemmas” • Right Time for Intervention through the progression of surface-deep-transfer • Requires substantial utilization of feedback and vocalization of student learning
  30. The Microbial Jungle
  31. Program Goal I • Genetics, Traits and Evolution: Groups of living organisms change over time. These evolutionary changes occur at both the molecular/genetic and organismal levels of organization. Students will interpret evidence from each level of organization to explain a specific example of evolutionary change.
  32. Program Goal II • Levels of Organization: Living organisms are complex structures with interconnected levels of organization. Students will analyze the interactions between the biochemical and cellular levels of organization in a specific organism.
  33. Program Goal III • Chemistry of Life: Living systems are made of carbon-based molecules and have fundamental structures. Students will be able to identify and describe the important structures, properties and uses of molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
  34. What does the student need to know?• The student: • Explains the relationship between changes in DNA structure, an organism’s traits, and evolution. • Analyzes differences in DNA and protein sequences to infer evolutionary relationships. • Analyzes structural differences from both living and extinct organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. • Constructs cladograms to represent evolutionary relationships.
  35. What does the student need to know? • The student: • Describes protein synthesis and its relationship to cellular activity. • Describes photosynthesis and its relationship to cellular activity. • Describes cellular respiration and its relationship to cellular activity. • Demonstrates how cellular organelles and macromolecules work to accomplish specific functions within a cell.
  36. • 5 Key Messages to consider
  37. Learning Schemas
  38. Learning Centered Culture and Climate Learning Networks
  39. Enduring Understandings related to cognition • Social Learning Theory: Human learners benefit enormously from social examples, from directed instruction, and from corrective feedback. Learning from exposure to the information provided by other people represents a fundamental aspect underpinning human adjustment and evolution; the more expert these ‘other people’ are in understand the progression of learning, the more effective is the learning. • Hattie and Yates (2014)
  40. Designing the Learning experience
  41. Outcome Identification Rubric Development Driving Question Development Assessment Development Entry Event Planning Exit Event Planning
  42. Enduring Understandings related to cognition • Role of Prior Knowledge: We naturally learn from exposure to information detected by our senses. But to increase our knowledge base, this information has to possess a level of organization which matches how our minds are structured and organized. • Hattie and Yates (2014)
  43. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts
  44. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts Surface Deep
  45. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts Surface Deep
  46. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts Creating intellectual dilemmas
  47. Score Description 4 Extension Applying Understanding 3 Relational Making Meaning 2 Single/Multiple Building Knowledge 1 Direct Support DEEP SURFACE
  48. Assessment Types Unobtrusive Obtrusive Student Generated Applying Understanding Making Meaning Building Knowledge
  49. Differentiation
  50. Impact on PrBL/PBL: Intervention Practitioner • Facilitate the problem solving process, direct the learning unapologetically. • Access and utilize student’s prior knowledge in daily practice. • Students learn from experience, but that experience perceived differently by all students. • Design the learning experience to focus on the cognitive aspects of the work.
  51. Building Blocks of Pedagogy • Content/Skill Development (Workshops) - How do I develop student content knowledge and skill over time? • Routines- What patterns of practice to I/we infuse in the classroom to enhance student learning over time? • “Just in Time” Responses- When situations emerge in the classroom how I do/we respond to enhance student learning over time?
  52. Project-Based Learning Unit: Project Launch Entry Event and Rubric Create “Need to Knows” and Next Steps Activities Workshops Lectures Homework Benchmark Research Labs Simulations Discussions Modeling Reading Benchmark Interviews Quiz Reflectionon Learning P R E S E N T Creating Feedback Building Writing Preparing Drafts Surface Deep
  53. Aligning “High Probability Strategies” from the Art and Science of Teaching to Progression Levels. Outcome Questions Activities Applying understanding (Transfer) What do I typically do to engage students in cognitively complex tasks involving hypothesis generation and testing? Experimental-inquiry tasks Problem-solving tasks Making meaning (Deep) What do I typically do to organize students and deepen knowledge? Venn diagrams Comparison matrix Building knowledge (Surface) What do I typically do to identify critical information? Identifying critical input experiences
  54. Single/Multiple Ideas- What instructional approaches will support students in understanding foundational knowledge (e.g. facts, vocabulary terms) related to learning outcomes? Relating ideas- What instructional approaches support students in connecting and contrasting ideas? What are generalizations and principles that can be made about these ideas? Extending ideas- What instructional approaches support students in applying the learning outcomes to other contexts Next Steps- Teachers
  55. Progression Level
  56. Single/Multiple Ideas- What strategies am I using that will support me in building knowledge and skills (e.g. facts, vocabulary terms) related to learning outcomes? Relating ideas- What approaches appear to be working or I should attempt to connect and contrast ideas? How am I going as related to making generalizations and principles? Extending ideas- What approaches support me in applying the learning outcomes to other contexts? Next Steps- Students
  57. Project Management
  58. Assessment for Learning
  59. Systemic Professional Learning Community Framework
  60. Progress Proficiency
  61. What do we want all students to know and be able to do? How do we know when students are learning? What do we do based on such results? How do we work together to review and respond to student learning?
  62. What do we want all students to know and be able to do? What do we do based on these results? How do we work together to review and respond to student learning? Common Outcomes Common Scales Common Intervention Criteria Common Culture and Work How do we know when students are learning?
  63. Common Outcomes Customized Instruction Customized Assessment Customized Collaborative Structures Customized Intervention Common Scales Common Intervention Criteria Common Culture and Work
  64. Impact on PrBL/PBL: Intervention Practitioner • Facilitate the problem solving process, direct the learning unapologetically. • Access and utilize student’s prior knowledge in daily practice. • Students learn from experience, but that experience is perceived differently by all students. • Design the learning experience to focus on the cognitive aspects of the work.
  65. Six Key Factors Learning Schema Assessment Capable Learners (1.44) Learning Partnerships and Networks Classroom Discussions (.82) Teacher Student relationships (.72) Designing the Learning Experience Teacher Clarity (.75) Goals (.56) Mastery Learning (.57) Problem Solving Teaching (.61) Differentiation Spaced v. Massed Practice (.71) Direct Instruction (.59) Metacognitive Strategies (.67) Assessment for Learning Feedback (.72) Systemic Professional Learning Community Framework Teacher PLC (.93) Providing Formative Evaluation (.90)
  66. Research Guidance Strategy Effect Teachers working together to evaluate their impact and responding to that impact 0.93 Teachers conduct pre-assessments, utilizing data to inform instruction, and providing students with a clear understanding of expectations for meeting learning outcomes (Where are we going?, where are we now?, and what’s next? 0.77 Teachers using practices in the classroom that values errors and trust 0.72 Teachers receive feedback on their impact on student learning 0.72 Teachers are providing an appropriate proportion of surface and deep level knowledge 0.71 Providing students with challenge and practice at the right level 0.60
  67. What do you need to know?
  68. Learn more about Visible Learningplus at www.corwin.com/visiblelearning

Notas del editor

  1. The following presentation explores problem and project learning as a potentially high yield instructional approach that enhances students learning in content and cognitive domain areas. The presentation illustrates the potential impact problem and project learning can have on surface and deep level learning when applying the visible learning research to project design, implementation, inspection, and classroom management. The workshop unravels the specific steps teachers can take in the classroom to substantially enhance student learning in the PBL environment.
  2. Theory of Action If Problem and Project Based Learning practitioners integrate the key findings of VL into their practice, then students will substantially progress in their learning, and enhance their motivation and engagement?
  3. It turns out its not about who teachers are, its not about what teachers do, its not who the students are, what really matters think about their impact on their students.
  4. E.g. Problem Solving Teaching E.S. .61 (221 studies, 15,235 students) Problem-based learning E.S. .15 (285 studies, 38,090) Powerful moderators are found in the literature; these moderators are predicated on the cognitive elements discussed prior.
  5. Myriad of expectations- Content, conate, and cognitive Motivation, engagement, “Thrill, Will, and Skill” Inquiry based programs have a low effect at surface level; much higher effect at deeper levels of learning.
  6. The story changes E.g. Problem Solving Teaching E.S. .61 (221 studies, 15,235 students) Problem-based learning E.S. .15 (285 studies, 38,090) Powerful moderators are found in the literature; these moderators are predicated on the cognitive elements discussed prior.
  7. Extended- Requires a learner to transfer their understand of single, multiple, and relational content to outside contexts. Relational- Requires a learner to relate single/multiple ideas together to further understand core content Single/Multiple- Requires a learner to understand single or multiple ideas related to the core content standards
  8. Right Time for intervention, right intervention tools, balance of surface and deep level knowledge.
  9. Right Time for intervention, right intervention tools, balance of surface and deep level knowledge.
  10. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of data on the impacts of human activities could include the quantities and types of pollutants released, changes to biomass and species diversity, or areal changes in land surface use (such as for urban development, agriculture and livestock, or surface mining). Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (such as reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale geoengineering design solutions (such as altering global temperatures by making large changes to the atmosphere or ocean).]
  11. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of data on the impacts of human activities could include the quantities and types of pollutants released, changes to biomass and species diversity, or areal changes in land surface use (such as for urban development, agriculture and livestock, or surface mining). Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (such as reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale geoengineering design solutions (such as altering global temperatures by making large changes to the atmosphere or ocean).]
  12. Nex-Gen Standards Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of data on the impacts of human activities could include the quantities and types of pollutants released, changes to biomass and species diversity, or areal changes in land surface use (such as for urban development, agriculture and livestock, or surface mining). Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (such as reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale geoengineering design solutions (such as altering global temperatures by making large changes to the atmosphere or ocean).]
  13. Inside a project, there is a process that helps the students be successful. It all starts with the project launch where students are introduced to the challenge with an entry event and told how they will be measured with a rubric. After organizing their group, students will jump into researching the topic. Teachers create a wide variety of activities to guide student learning … it could be a whole group discussion, homework assignment, small differentiated workshops or any of a thousand things that teachers regularly use in their classrooms. The difference is …. Now the students know why they are doing them. The unit is also designed to have specific benchmarks to let the teacher know if a group is falling behind. This could be submitting their research summary, creating a story board, writing a rough draft … any sub-task that feeds into the larger project. Near the end of the unit, the student work moves from information gathering to assimilation and application as they prepare to present. The best PBL units require student to present to an authentic audience … someone who know something about the topic being studied. Lastly, all the research shows that true learning happens when the student reflects on what they learned. So, at the end of project, it is important to spend at least a day in formal reflection activities like asking students what they would do differently next time. Teachers also use this time to gather information on improving the project for next year.
  14. Inside a project, there is a process that helps the students be successful. It all starts with the project launch where students are introduced to the challenge with an entry event and told how they will be measured with a rubric. After organizing their group, students will jump into researching the topic. Teachers create a wide variety of activities to guide student learning … it could be a whole group discussion, homework assignment, small differentiated workshops or any of a thousand things that teachers regularly use in their classrooms. The difference is …. Now the students know why they are doing them. The unit is also designed to have specific benchmarks to let the teacher know if a group is falling behind. This could be submitting their research summary, creating a story board, writing a rough draft … any sub-task that feeds into the larger project. Near the end of the unit, the student work moves from information gathering to assimilation and application as they prepare to present. The best PBL units require student to present to an authentic audience … someone who know something about the topic being studied. Lastly, all the research shows that true learning happens when the student reflects on what they learned. So, at the end of project, it is important to spend at least a day in formal reflection activities like asking students what they would do differently next time. Teachers also use this time to gather information on improving the project for next year.
  15. Inside a project, there is a process that helps the students be successful. It all starts with the project launch where students are introduced to the challenge with an entry event and told how they will be measured with a rubric. After organizing their group, students will jump into researching the topic. Teachers create a wide variety of activities to guide student learning … it could be a whole group discussion, homework assignment, small differentiated workshops or any of a thousand things that teachers regularly use in their classrooms. The difference is …. Now the students know why they are doing them. The unit is also designed to have specific benchmarks to let the teacher know if a group is falling behind. This could be submitting their research summary, creating a story board, writing a rough draft … any sub-task that feeds into the larger project. Near the end of the unit, the student work moves from information gathering to assimilation and application as they prepare to present. The best PBL units require student to present to an authentic audience … someone who know something about the topic being studied. Lastly, all the research shows that true learning happens when the student reflects on what they learned. So, at the end of project, it is important to spend at least a day in formal reflection activities like asking students what they would do differently next time. Teachers also use this time to gather information on improving the project for next year.
  16. Inside a project, there is a process that helps the students be successful. It all starts with the project launch where students are introduced to the challenge with an entry event and told how they will be measured with a rubric. After organizing their group, students will jump into researching the topic. Teachers create a wide variety of activities to guide student learning … it could be a whole group discussion, homework assignment, small differentiated workshops or any of a thousand things that teachers regularly use in their classrooms. The difference is …. Now the students know why they are doing them. The unit is also designed to have specific benchmarks to let the teacher know if a group is falling behind. This could be submitting their research summary, creating a story board, writing a rough draft … any sub-task that feeds into the larger project. Near the end of the unit, the student work moves from information gathering to assimilation and application as they prepare to present. The best PBL units require student to present to an authentic audience … someone who know something about the topic being studied. Lastly, all the research shows that true learning happens when the student reflects on what they learned. So, at the end of project, it is important to spend at least a day in formal reflection activities like asking students what they would do differently next time. Teachers also use this time to gather information on improving the project for next year.
  17. Learners understand and utilize a learning process, have tools to enable such an understanding, and a process for evaluating their progress and proficiency towards reaching mastery of core content literacy and non-cognitive outcomes so they may substantially improve their learning and that of others. Single/Multiple Ideas- What strategies am I using that will support me in building knowledge and skills (e.g. facts, vocabulary terms) related to learning outcomes? Relating ideas- What approaches appear to be working or I should attempt to connect and contrast ideas? How am I going as related to making generalizations and principles? Extending ideas- What approaches support me in applying the learning outcomes to other contexts?
  18. Learners require an environment that iterates high expectations, provides multiple venues to express perspectives, offers feedback, incorporates collaboration, and respects each learner in their learning process. to form strong relationships, articulate expectations, identify current progress, and enable learners and teachers to co-construct next steps in the learning process. to actualize the strength in our relationships, to articulate our expectations, identify current progress, and enable learners and teachers to co-construct next steps in the learning process.
  19. Hattie and Yates (2014)
  20. Learners must have a clear sense of the expectations of their learning through an understanding of surface and deep level outcomes, success criteria, and driving questions that focus them on transfer or application level problems and sends the explicit message that they can and will progress towards such mastery based outcomes.
  21. Resource New Tech Network
  22. Khan Academy
  23. Learners require a series of intentional experiences that address content and skills outcomes and that are directly tailored to the learner’s prior understanding and skill set. Identify ‘lessons’ or activities and products that are anchored in the content Align to the learning process Establish routines that engage learners on the cognitive aspects of a problem or project “Just in Time” and routines are anchored in your cultural agreements Teams are put together to enhance learning through dialogue not for the sole purpose of work flow efficiency
  24. Learners are constantly involved in seeking to understand through advocacy and inquiry the expectations of learning, their current progress, and identifying next steps in the learning process with others.
  25. Khan Academy
  26. Khan Academy
  27. Khan Academy
  28. Establishes High Expectations up front Provides the opportunity for “intellectual dilemmas” Right Time for Intervention through the progression of surface-deep-transfer Requires substantial utilization of feedback
  29. PBL is the “great codifier”
  30. PBL is the “great codifier”
  31. PBL is the “great codifier”
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