2. RFID History
First Bar code patents – 1930s
First use of RFID device – 2nd world war – Brittan used RFID-like technology for Identify- Friend or Foe
Harry Stockman October 1948 Paper – Communication by means of reflected power ( The proceedings
of the Institute of Radio Engineers)
First RFID Patent - 1973
Auto-ID centre founded at MIT – 1999
3. RFID – what is it ?
RFID is an acronym for “radio-frequency identification” and refers to a technology whereby digital
data encoded in RFID tags or smart labels (defined below) are captured by a reader via radio
There is 3 parts of an RFID implementation :
4. What is RFID? -- The Tags
Tags can be read-only or read-write
Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partitionable, and
optionally permanently locked
It is a receiver device, which is placed on the elements to trace (object,
animal ...). They are provided with a chip containing the information
and an antenna to allow the exchange of information.
5. What is RFID? -- The Readers
A reader (now more typically referred as an RFID Interrogator), is basically a
radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver, controlled by a microprocessor
or digital signal processor.
The reader, using an attached antenna, captures data from
tags, then passes the data to a computer for processing.
6. What is RFID? -- The Readers
Receive tag replies
Contains electronics, Tx, Rx and control
Connected to antenna(s)
Commands tags (wake up active tags)
7. What is RFID? -- Host CPU
Do something with the tag information
Once installed it costs virtually NOTHING to read a tag!
Real time data => real time decisions
OHIO (Zero Human Involvement Operations)*
* Term defined by John Greaves, CHEP International
8. An important distinction criterion of different RFID systems is how the
energy supply of the transponder works.
Have their own energy supply,
e.g. in form of a battery or a
solar cell. Here the power supply
is used to provide voltage to the
Do not have any power supply.
Through the transponder antenna,
the magnetic or electromagnetic
ﬁeld of the reader provides all the
energy required for operating the
9. Passive RFID Tags
EXAMPLE: “Traditional” tags used in retail security doors applications
Tag contains antenna and a small data chip
Tag is powered by the electromagnetic field generated in
doorways, reflecting back a weak signal containing data
10. Active Tags
EXAMPLE: the car key
Powered by battery.
Larger in size and expensive.
good identification range and larger capacity.
High Read Range (300 feet).
11. RFID Tag Attributes
Active RFID Passive RFID
Tag Power Source Internal to tag Energy transferred using RF
Tag Battery yes no
Required signal strength Very low Very high
Range Up to 100m Up to 3-5m usually less
Data Storage Up to 128 Kb or read/ write
128 bytes of read/write
12. RFID System Basics RFID System Basics
How far? How fast?
How many? How much?
Attached to and surround by what?
13. Frequency Range Data Speed Comments
125-150 kHz Å 10 cm Low Animal identification
and factory data
13-56 MHz < 1m Low to moderate Popular frequency
for I.C. cards (smart
433 MHz 1 à 10 m Moderate Asset tracking
2450 MHz 1 à 2 m High IEEE 802.11b,
Bluetooth CT , AIAG
many, How far, how fast, many, attached to how
fast, how much, attached to what?
14. RFID today
RFID technology is growing very fast. As technology moves
ahead, Tags and readers sizes are reducing with the increase
According to experts, RFID technology represents a new
approach towards business with an interaction of computers
with wireless technology, sensors and networking
15. Application area of RFID
Corporate offices and industries.
Supply chain and retail industries.
Government, Military and Army.
Many kiosks use RFID to either manage resources or
interact with users.
DVD rental kiosks use RFID DVD tags to make sure
customers receive their selected movie rental.
21. Library Systems
An RFID library solution improves the efficiency of
circulation operations. While barcodes require line of
sight, RFID tags can be read from multiple angles
which means the checkout and check-in process is
RFID system technology solve problems of the contact identification
Advancements in printed electronics have helped create new classes of extremely thin, flexible
RFID tags that can now be combined with printed sensors, printed batteries, thin-film photovoltaic
solar cells, and other technologies.