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Lect -male reproductive organs

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Lect -male reproductive organs

  1. 1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS SMS ?????? Dr. Mohanad r. alwan
  4. 4. PENIS • Male organ of copulation • Outlet for urine and semen
  5. 5. PENIS • male organ through which the urethra passes • and is necessary for urination and sexual intercourse.
  6. 6. PENIS • Root • Body • Glans Penis • Anterior – Dorsal surface • Posterior – Ventral surface
  7. 7. ROOT OF THE PENIS • The root is attached to the abdominal and pelvic wall. • Crura – a pair • Bulb
  8. 8. ROOT OF THE PENIS • midline • urogenital diaphragm • traversed by urethra
  9. 9. BODY : 3 ERECTILE CAVERNOUS TISSUE 2 corpus cavernosum 1 corpus spongiosum tunica albuginea in buck’s fascia (superficial fascia)
  11. 11. Ischial tuberosity Corpus cavernosum Corpus spongiosum Fig. : A. Penis. B. Cross section through the body of penis BackBack BODY
  12. 12. BODY
  13. 13. GLANS PENIS  Distal end of the corpus spongiosum  2 Corpus cavernosum do not reach the glans  Base – Corona of Glans  Neck of penis Corpus cavernosum Corpus spongiosum
  14. 14. GLANS PENIS  external urethral meatus  prepuce connected to the glans by the frenulum  prepuce sac  prepuce glands (sebaceous glands)  smegma
  15. 15. GLANS PENIS Fossa navicularis – part of urethra in the glans penis
  17. 17. Lymphatic drainage - Penis  Skin into the medial group of the superficial inguinal LN  Deep structures into the internal iliac nodes
  18. 18. Male Urethra A tubular structure which conducts urine from the bladder to the exterior at the external urinary meatus at the tip of the penis In male it is a common pathway for the flow of urine and semen Parts Internal urethral meatus Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra – the shortest and narrowest – from the prostate gland to the bulb of the penis, after passing through the perineal membrane The penile urethra lies in the corpus spongiosum of the penis and terminates at the external urethral orifice in the glans penis
  19. 19. Two urethral sphincters The internal sphincter – smooth muscle at the neck of the bladder above the prostate gland The external sphincter – striated muscle fibres surrounding the membranous part
  20. 20. » Outpouching of the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall » Contains testes, epididymis, lower ends of the spermatic cord
  21. 21. •The scrotum is a loose pouch of skin that hangs outside the body from the lower abdominal region behind the penis. •The testes sit inside the scrotum. What is the scrotum?
  22. 22. The Testes (two egg- shaped structures) remain in the Scrotum, outside the body, where the temperature is about 3 degrees C Cooler than the body internal temperature (37 degrees C). Sperm development in the Testes Requires the Lower Temperature.
  23. 23. 1. Scrotal skin 2. Superficial or Dartos fascia 3. External spermatid fascia 4. Cremaster muscle & fascia 5. Internal spermatid fascia 6. Parietal layer of tunica vaginalis 7. Visceral layer of tunica vaginalis 8. Tunica albuginea of testis Fig. : Cross section through scrotum & testis 8 layers covering the testis : (External oblique apo) (Internal oblique muscle & fascia) (Transversalis fascia) (Peritoneum) (Peritoneum)
  24. 24. Spermatid cord Contents - Ductus deferens - Testicular artery - Artery of the ductus deferens - Cremasteric artery - Pampiniform plexus - Sympathetic nerve fibres - Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve - Lymphatic vessels
  25. 25. Lymphatic drainage -scrotum  Skin and fascia including the tunica vaginalis into the Medial group of the Superficial inguinal LN  Deep structures into the internal iliac nodes
  26. 26. Firm, mobile organ In the scrotum (3° lower) Left testis is lower Surrounded by tunica albuginea Testis
  27. 27. BackBack TESTIS - CAPSULE  visceral layer of tunica vaginalis  tunica albuginea  tunica vasculosa
  28. 28. Dense fibroelastic conn. tissue Network of blood vessels TESTIS – CAPSULE
  29. 29. BackBack Accumulation of urine & blood (straddle injury) in the cavity of tunica vaginalis
  30. 30. TESTIS Lobules Seminiferous tubules Straight tubules Rete Testis Efferent Ductules
  31. 31. BackBack TESTIS –PAMPINIFORM PLEXUS  Venous plexus (posterior border of the testis)  level of deep inguinal ring – a single testicular veins  left into left renal vein & right into IVC
  33. 33. Lymphatic drainage - testis  para-aortic lymph nodes  anastomosis with para-aortic intrathoracic LN  cervical LN TESTIS NECK
  34. 34. EPIDIDYMIS All sperm must pass through the epididymis when they leave the testis and undergo an important 'maturation' process that allows them to swim and fertilize the egg.
  35. 35. What is the epididymis? Highly coiled tube (or duct) that lies at the back of the testes (POSTEROLATERAL) Connects the seminiferous tubules in the testis to another single tube called the vas deferens.
  36. 36. Lies posterolateral to the testis Head, body, tail Sinus epididymis - laterally (groove between the testis and epididymis) EPIDIDYMIS
  37. 37. What is the vas deferens? • the tube that connects the epididymis to the urinary tract (urethra) at the back of the bladder, via the ejaculatory duct. • The main function of the vas deferens and ejaculatory duct is to transport the mature sperm and seminal fluid to the urethra.
  38. 38. Vas deferens – scrotal portions • Anatomical location: scrotal, inguinal and reproperitoneal portions. • ascends along the posterior border of the testis and medial side of the epididymis (posteromedial to the testis)
  39. 39. Vas deferens – inguinal portion • curves around the lateral side of the inferior epigastric artery • and ascends for about 2.5 cm. in front of the external iliac artery
  40. 40. Vas deferens – pelvic cavity • Descends on the medial side of the obliterated umbilical artery and the obturator nerve and vessels
  41. 41. VAS DEFERENS
  42. 42. VASECTOMY
  43. 43. » a tube that is formed by the joining of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle. » empties into the urethra.
  44. 44. Seminal vesicles Fibromuscular pouches lined with columnar epithelium Lie on the posterior aspect of the bladder Lower end : a duct  joins vas deferens and forms an ejaculatory duct Ejaculatory ducts pass through prostatic urethra carrying seminal fluid and spermatozoa to the urethra The seminal vesicles secrete and expel a viscous fluid that helps to keep the spermatozoa alive
  45. 45. » main function is to produce a fluid which protects and enriches sperm. » Secretions from the prostate contribute to approximately 40% of the fluid volume ( SEMEN) of the ejaculate however the functions of the substances in the prostatic fluid are not entirely known. » a small yet important organ (or gland) found only in the male reproductive system.
  46. 46. LOCATION OF THE PROSTATE Urinary bladder PROSTATE Urogenital diaphragm * Lies in the lesser pelvis (pelvic cavity) * Surrounds the prostatic urethra * Beneath the urinary bladder and above the urogenital diaphragm Fig. : Sagittal section Fig. : Posterior view
  47. 47. LOBES OF THE PROSTATE  Anatomically, prostate are divided into 5 lobes : 1) One anterior lobe 2) One posterior lobe 3) One median or middle lobe 4) Two lateral lobes
  48. 48. PROSTATE GLAND LOBES • 1 anterior lobe • 1 posterior lobe • 1 median lobe • 2 lateral lobes Anatomically divide Prostatic urethra & ejaculatory duct
  49. 49. CAPSULES OF THE PROSTATE  Prostate is surrounded by 2 capsules  They are the true capsule and false capsule Prostatic urethra Glands of urethra Prostatic sinus Urethra crest Prostatic venous plexus True capsule False capsule • Inner layer • A thin strong layer of connective tissue at the periphery of the gland • Outer layer • A condensation of pelvic fascia • between the 2 capsules Horizontal section
  50. 50. ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION OF THE PROSTATE  Prostate consists of: 1) Peripheral zone 2) Central zone  The glandular tissues is distributed in 3 separated groups: a) Mucosal glands b) Submucosal glands c) Main or principal glands
  51. 51. Fig. : Cross section of the prostate CENTRAL ZONE PERIPHERAL ZONE • account for 25% to 75% of glandular tissues • duct of the glands mainly open into prostatic sinuses • surrounded by peripheral zone • duct of the glands open into prostatic sinuses and colliculus seminalis BackBack
  52. 52. Mucosal glands Submucosal glands Main/Principal glands Fig. : Cross section of the prostate
  53. 53. Mucosal glands • inner periurethral glands • lies in the mucosal layer of the urethra • open directly into the urethra • situated in the middle lobe Fig. : Cross section of the prostate
  54. 54. Submucosal glands • outer periurethral glands • surrounds the mucosal glands Fig. : Cross section of the prostate
  55. 55. Main or principal glands • lies peripherally • constitute the bulk of the glands Fig. : Cross section of the prostate
  56. 56. •Site of origin for carcinoma of the prostate • Main glands •Benign prostatic hyperplasia • Mucosal and submucosal glands Clinical significance :Clinical significance : PERIPHERAL ZONE CENTRAL ZONE
  57. 57. • The tubuloalveolar glands of the prostate are formed by a cuboidal or a columnar pseudostratified epithelium. • An exceptionally rich fibromuscular stroma surrounds the glands. • The prostate is surrounded by a fibroelastic capsule rich in smooth muscle. Septa from this capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobes that are indistinct in adult men.
  58. 58. Prostatic urethra - verumontanum Transurethral resection – verumontanum (colliculus seminalis) is an important landmark Most distal landmark of the prostate during TURP procedure
  59. 59. Venous drainage of the prostate dorsal veins of the penis Deep Superficial Fascia of the penis False capsule Internal iliac vein Vesicoprostat e venous plexus Sacral venous plexus Vertebral venous plexus
  60. 60. VENOUS DRAINAGE OF THE PROSTATE Vesicoprostatic venous plexus • located between the true and false capsules • run at the groove between bladder and prostate Deep dorsal veins of the penis b) Vertebral venous plexus ‘No valve’ (also communicate) a) Internal iliac vein (receive) (drain backward) C/I : Spread of prostate cancer Vertebral column, Thoracic cavity, Skull and Brain
  61. 61. The importance of Denonvilliers’s fascia in surgery : • Demarcation line between the prostate and the rectum • Prevents the spread of cancer cells between the prostate and the rectum