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  1. 1. 1. Introduction2. Fact or Fiction?3. Defining Development4. Four Characteristics of Development5. Developmental Study as a Science6. Cautions from Science7. Closing Thoughts 2
  2. 2. Introduction [Video: Introduction to Human Development] 3
  3. 3. Developmental Fact or Fiction? Fiction Fact1. The science of human development is the study of how andwhy people change as they grow older, as well as how and whythey remain the same.2. An experiment is always the best way to investigate adevelopmental issue.3. Developmental psychologists almost never base their researchon the study of one group of people over a long period of time.4. When two variables are correlated, it means that onecaused the other. 4
  4. 4. Science What causes people to change or remain the same over time? science of human development: Seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time. 5
  5. 5. InfluencesIs the question of nature or nurture moreabout how much rather than which factor? nature: Traits, capacities, limitations each individual inherits genetically from parents (at conception). nurture: All environmental influences that affect development (after conception). 6
  6. 6. Influences [Video: Albert Bandura’s classical experiment]
  7. 7. Connections Between Change and Time What happens when a potentially harmful agent — a teratogen — is introduced at a critical period of prenatal development? Teratogen Effects Timing Disrupted development of central nervous system. 8 to 15 weeks most critical Radiation Radiation Growth and developmental retardation 3 to 8 weeks most critical Microcephaly 3 to 38 weeks Limb malformation Tobacco use by mother 4 to 6 weeks Urinary tract damage Tobacco Tobacco use by father Low birthweight Late pregnancy (second-hand smoke) Reduction in weight by an average of 2 oz. critical period: When a Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 3 to 8 weeks most critical particular type of Fetal Alcohol Effect Alcohol Alcohol development growth (in body Growth and developmental retardation 3 to 38 weeks Craniofacial dysmorphism or behavior) must happen if it Growth retardation is ever going to happen. 3 to 8 weeks Small head size sensitive period: When a Cocaine Premature birth certain type of development is Cocaine Problems with placenta After 17 weeks Low birth weight most likely, although it may Attention difficulties still happen later. for several years After birth Emotional regulation 8
  8. 8. Dynamic Systems Theory dynamic-systems theory: A view of human development as an ongoing, How do people interact with other ever-changing interaction between people, and do so continuously the physical and emotional being over time, each interaction and between the person and every affecting the other? aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society. 9
  9. 9. MultidirectionalHow do human characteristicschange in every direction to reflectdevelopment as multidirectional? life-span perspective: Study of human development that takes into account all phases of life. 10
  10. 10. Multidirectional [Video: Making the Most of Life During Adulthood] 11
  11. 11. Multicontextual How does the ecological- systems approach work? ecological-systems approach: The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. 12
  12. 12. Multicontextual culture ethnic group race A group of people who are regarded byThe enduring behaviors, People whose themselves or by othersideas, attitudes, and ancestors were born in as distinct from othertraditions shared by a the same region and groups on the basis oflarge group of people and who often share a physical appearance.transmitted from one language, culture, and (Social scientists thinkgeneration to the next. religion. race is a misleading concept.) 13
  13. 13. Multidisciplinary When monkey sees, why does monkey do? mirror neurons: Cells in an observer’s brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action. 14
  14. 14. PlasticityHow plastic (moldable) are the brain and personality? The brain Change may Brain is plastic, occur, some damage/ able to functions injury reassign may be neurons restored. plasticity: Human traits can be molded (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity (as plastic does). 15
  15. 15. Steps of the Scientific MethodWhat is the five-step procedure used to answer questions with empirical researchand data-based conclusions? Curiosity 1 Develop hypothesis 2 Test hypothesis 3 Design and conduct A prediction that research; gather Raise a question can be tested empirical evidence Draw conclusions 4 Report results 5 Support or refute Share data, conclusions, hypothesis alternate explanations scientific method: A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions. 16
  16. 16. Scientific Observation as a Way to Test HypothesesWhere do scientific observation: A method of testingscientific a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching andobservations recording participants’ behavior in atake place? systematic and objective manner. 17
  17. 17. The Survey as a Way to Test HypothesesWhat happens when a survey is taken? Randomly selected Information is collected from a Survey large number of people Acquiring valid survey data is not easy Survey answers are Some people influenced by wording lie and some and sequence of change their questions minds survey: A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questions, or some other means. 18
  18. 18. The Experiment as a Way to Test Hypotheses independent variable: In an dependent variable: In an experiment, the variable that is experiment, the variable introduced to see what effect it has that may change as a result of on the dependent variable. whatever new condition or (Also called experimental variable.) situation the experimenter adds.How Do You Design an Experiment? Experimental Special treatment Significant change Many participants, group (independent in the dependent measured on many variable) variable characteristics, including the (two equal dependent groups) (predicted outcome) variable (the behavior being studied) Comparison No special No change in the (or control) group treatment variable 19
  19. 19. Studying Change Over Time Does one of these patterns T = Score cross-sectional research: accurately represent intelligence A research design that as people age? compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics. 65 Longitudinal longitudinal research: A 60 research design in which the 55 same individuals are followed over time and their 50 development is repeatedly 45 assessed. Cross-Sectional 40 cohort: A group defined by the 35 shared ages of its members. 30 25 32 39 46 55 60 67 74 81 88 Age Source: Schale, 1988 20
  20. 20. Studying Change Over Timecross-sequential research: A hybrid research design in which researchers first study severalgroups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groupsover the years (a longitudinal approach). (Also called cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research.)How are cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs combined? Cross-sequential Total time: 16 years, plus double and triple analysis 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds 14-year-olds 18-year-olds [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] For cohort 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds 14-year-olds effects compare [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] groups on the diagonals (same age, 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds different years). [4 years later] [4 years later] Time 1 Time 1 + 4 years Time 1 + 8 years Time 1 + 12 years Time 1 + 16 years 21
  21. 21. Correlation and Causationcorrelation: How do variables correlate?A numberbetween +1.0 Quiz on Correlationand -1.0 thatindicates thedegree of Positive, Negative, Why? Two Variablesrelationship or Zero Correlation? (Third Variable)between twovariables, 1. Ice cream sales third variable:expressed in and murder rate Positive heatterms of theirlikelihood thatone variable 2. Learning to read and third variable: Negativewill (or will not) number of baby teeth ageoccur when theother variable no third variable: 3. Sex of adult and each child mustdoes (or does their average number Zeronot). have a parent of of offspring each sex 22
  22. 22. Quantity and Quality How is quantitative and qualitative research used? quantitative research: Research data expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales. qualitative research: Research that considers qualities instead of quantities. 23
  23. 23. Ethics How do we ensure that research is done ethically? code of ethics: A set of moral and specific guidelines principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow. Institutional Review Board (IRB): A group that exists within most educational and medical institutions whose purpose is to ensure that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical. 24
  24. 24. Closing Thoughts How does science make the study of human development possible? 25