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Basic computer fundamentals

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Basic computer fundamentals

  1. 1. Basic ComputerFundamentals
  2. 2. What Is a Computer? A computer is a programmable machinewith two principal characteristics:• Computer.. Latin word.. Compute• Calculation Machine• It responds to a specific set of instructions in awell-defined manner.•It can execute a prerecorded list ofinstructions (a program). A computer system includes a computer,peripheral devices, and software
  3. 3. Introductions to ComputerA computer has four (4)functions:a. accepts data Inputb. processes data Processingc. produces output Outputd. stores results Storage
  4. 4.  Input (Data):is the raw information entered into a computer from theinput devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers,images etc. Process:is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totallyinternal process of the computer system. Output:is the processed data given by computer after dataprocessing. Output is also called as Result. We can savethese results in the storage devices for the future use. Storage:is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis.Four Functions:
  5. 5. Elements of A Computer People:They run and operate the computer. Procedure:are normally written in manuals of hardware andsoftware manufacturers. Software:is to do process data into useful information forpeople. Hardware:the physical equipment that you can feel andtouch.
  6. 6. Elements of A Computer Data:include texts and numbers, sounds, images,and videos that you input into the computerfor processing. Connectivity:- a computer must be connected to othercomputers especially through the internet.- using the internet, people can share andaccess data from all over the world.
  7. 7. Capabilities of Computers Speed:computer operates on data and commands at incrediblyfast speed. Storage:computer can store enormous amount of data andinformation in its memory. Reliability:computers made of modern technology rarelybreakdown and when they do, they are easily repaired. Consistent:if you input the same data into the computer using the sameprogram, it will give you the same result all the time. Communicate:people can connect with others by the use of computers.
  8. 8. Ten Commandments ofComputer Ethics Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. Thou shalt not interfere with other peoples computer work. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s files. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have notpaid. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources withoutauthorization. Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of theprogram you write. Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show considerationand respect.
  9. 9. Disadvantages of using Computers Safety and Security:people have to be careful in sharing photos andpersonal information on the computer andinternet. Health Risks:long and improper use of the computer can leadto injuries and hazards to the user. Environment:old computers must be disposed off properly.
  10. 10. Disadvantages of using Computers Use of Power:computers need electricity to run. Computers onlyneed a small amount of electric power but withmany computers around, this results to high totalrequirement. Privacy Violation:personal information when stored in a computercan be viewed and stolen.
  11. 11. SoftwareSoftware exists as ideas,concepts, and symbols, but it has nosubstance.- are sets of instructions that tellthe computer what to do to fulfill itstask.
  12. 12. Kinds of Software System Software:- are programs that the computer uses.- is a collection of programs which includes theoperating system, utilities and drivers.o Operating System:is a program that is basically responsible for thecoordination, management and sharing ofhardware resources and tasks in the computer.o Utility Software:is a program that performs maintenance tasks for thecomputer resources, such as clean up and organizing files andprograms so they would load and work faster.
  13. 13. Kinds of Softwareo Device Driver:is a program that allows a particular hardware deviceto work and with the computer system. Applications Software:are the programs that people use for their day to daytasks on the computero Basic application software:includes word processor, spreadsheet, databaseand presentation software.oSpecialized application software:includes software for graphics, multimedia,audio, video, web designing and many other app.that focus on a certain discipline or profession.