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Citizen science - theory, practice & policy workshop

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These slides are from a 3.5h workshop, as part of the Israeli Geographical Association, Jerusalem, 14 Dec 2015. The workshop provided knowledge of the field of citizen science and current trends that influence it; Helped participants to understand the principles and practical aspects of designing a citizen science project; Included a session with hands-on experience of citizen science activity; Learn about additional resources that can be used to design and run citizen science projects; Understand the policy trends that are influencing the field.
Many of the slides are from previous talks with organisation and ordered in a way that they are suitable for the workshop

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Citizen science - theory, practice & policy workshop

  1. 1. Citizen Science: theory, practice and policy (with case studies from UK & Germany) Muki Haklay UCL, Extreme Citizen Science group
  2. 2. Plan • 9:00-9:45 introduction to citizen science: history, trends that facilitate it, types of citizen science activities, examples of projects • 9:45-10:00 Q&A about introduction, and the role of citizen science in projects • 10:00-10:15 Designing and choosing Citizen Science activity • 10:15-10:30 Introduction to citizen science activity – Environmental sensing: WideNoise, NoiseWatch, AirCasting or nature observation: iNaturalist, Anymals+Plants • 10:15-11:00 data collection in the botanical garden or in the open areas of the university, working in groups of 2 or 3 • 11:00-11:15 discussion in group of 5 on the lessons from data collection • 11:15-11:45 feedback from all groups and a discussion about implications for designing citizen science activities: data quality, difference between observers, overview of resources that are available for designing and evaluating citizen science activities • 11:45-12:15 Policy aspects of citizen science across the world
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes • Knowledge of the field of citizen science and current trends that influence it • Understand the principles and practical aspects of designing a citizen science project • Experience of citizen science activity • Learn about additional resources that can be used to design and run citizen science projects • Understand the policy trends that are influencing the field
  4. 4. Introduction to Citizen Science • Citizen Science in a historical perspective – underlying trends • Current activities in the area of citizen science online and offline • Typology of engagement in citizen science
  5. 5. Citizen Science (OED 2014) citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions. citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community (now rare); (b) a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an amateur scientist.
  6. 6. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s)
  7. 7. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – earl 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High- school Higher Education
  8. 8. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High- school Higher Educatio n Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Mary Anning (1799-1847)
  9. 9. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High- school Higher Educatio n Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Citizen Science diminishing © WMO–No. 919 Volunteer rainfall observer Rick Grocke checks the rain gauge at Tanami Downs cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia
  10. 10. William Whewell, tides and volunteers • William Whewell, Trinity College, Cambridge • 1833: coined the term “scientist” • 1835: tides observation • Thousands of “subordinate labourers” assisting the scientist in his tasks Source: Caren Cooper, NCMNS, http://bit.ly/WhewellCitSci
  11. 11. The era of professional science • Involvement continued: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology, conservation, meteorology … • No recognition, viewing volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’ contributors, that are better replaced by automated instruments Shoemaker-Levy 9 on 17 May 1994
  12. 12. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High- school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Citizen Science diminishing Citizen Science as open & inclusive science
  13. 13. Citizen Science: why Now? • Societal trends: • Education and qualifications • Leisure • Sharing economies / peer production systems • Technological trends: • Internet access (broadband) • Mobile devices • Collaborative Web • DIY electronics
  14. 14. Increased level of education 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Millions Enrolment in tertiary education, all programmes, both sexes (number)
  15. 15. 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 Israel - Students enrolled at public and private tertiary education institutions.
  16. 16. Years of school completed by population 25+ years 1940-2009
  17. 17. Leisure Source: the Atlantic
  18. 18. Sharing economies • In many areas, especially in production and sharing of information
  19. 19. Active mobile-broadband subscriptions, 2007- 2013*
  20. 20. Collaborative Web
  21. 21. DIY electronics
  22. 22. Why trends matter? • Considerations of who participates and what is the potential for participation • Technology – enabler as well as barrier for participation (e.g. access to smartphones) • Identifying emerging opportunities for projects (e.g. DIY electronics sensing)
  23. 23. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Community Science DIY Science Participatory sensing Civic Science
  24. 24. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Community Science DIY Science Participatory sensing Civic Science
  25. 25. Passive Sensing
  26. 26. Volunteer computing You can join World Community Grid at http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
  27. 27. Volunteer thinking See Zooniverse projects at http://www.zooniverse.org/
  28. 28. Volunteer thinking mmos.chNathan Prestopnik
  29. 29. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Community Science DIY Science Participatory sensing Civic Science
  30. 30. Biodiversity/Ecology
  31. 31. iSpot
  32. 32. Biodiversity/Ecology Participating in Big Garden Birdwatch (source: RSPB) Participating in BioBlitz (source: OPAL)
  33. 33. Astronomy
  34. 34. Ecology/Public Health • Mückenatlas and Atrapa el Tigre – mosquito monitoring in Germany and Spain • General mosquito classification in Germany, specific to Asian Tiger mosquito in Spain Source: Mückenatlas
  35. 35. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Community Science DIY Science Participatory sensing Civic Science
  36. 36. Source: P. Boeing, Bento Lab
  37. 37. More information at http://publiclaboratory.org DIY/Community Science
  38. 38. DIY/Community Science
  39. 39. Participatory Sensing
  40. 40. Scrap yard Community Centre School Noise mapping
  41. 41. Mapping for Change LCY noise mapping study at http://bit.ly/LCYNoise
  42. 42. Distribution of Survey Points
  43. 43. 50m Squares - Averages Numbers indicate how Many readings in each 50m square
  44. 44. Community-led air quality studies
  45. 45. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  46. 46. Engagement: Free, Prior Informed Consent
  47. 47. Participatory Software design
  48. 48. Training and support
  49. 49. Ashaninka village “Apiwtxa” José Frank Melo
  50. 50. Community based monitoring
  51. 51. Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Community Science DIY Science Participatory sensing Civic Science
  52. 52. After Cooper, Dickinson, Phillips & Bonney, 2007, Citizen Science as tool for conservation in residential ecosystems. Ecology and Society 12(2) Question Study Design Data Collection Data Analysis and Interpretation Understanding results Management Action Geographic scope of project Nature of people taking action Research priority Education priority Traditional Science Scientific Consulting* Citizen Science* Collaborative Citizen Science Participatory Action Research Variable Narrow NarrowBroad Broad Managers Community Groups Managers Individuals Community Groups Highest Medium High High Medium Low Medium High High High *often called Science Shops Community Science Co-created Citizen Science Narrow High High All √ √√√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Public Scientists √ √ √
  53. 53. Participation in citizen science • Collaborative science – problem definition, data collection and analysis Level 4 ‘Extreme/ Up-Science’ • Participation in problem definition and data collection Level 3 ‘Participatory science’ • Citizens as basic interpreters Level 2 ‘Distributed intelligence’ • Citizens as sensors Level 1 ‘Crowdsourcing’ Haklay. 2013. Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: Overview and typology of participation, Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  54. 54. Types of citizen science: summary • The impacts of the societal & technological trends are visible across the spectrum of citizen science – online only (cyberscience), traditional, and community based • Citizen science is relevant to many disciplines and knowledge areas • Projects do not fall into one category, it is possible for a project to have multiple levels of participations and tools • Projects should consider what are the capabilities of the participants and needs for engagement
  55. 55. Plan • 9:00-9:45 introduction to citizen science: history, trends that facilitate it, types of citizen science activities, examples of projects • 9:45-10:00 Q&A about introduction, and the role of citizen science in projects • 10:00-10:15 Designing and choosing Citizen Science activity • 10:15-10:30 Introduction to citizen science activity – Environmental sensing: WideNoise, NoiseWatch, AirCasting or nature observation: iNaturalist, Anymals+Plants • 10:15-11:00 data collection in the botanical garden or in the open areas of the university, working in groups of 2 or 3 • 11:00-11:15 discussion in group of 5 on the lessons from data collection • 11:15-11:45 feedback from all groups and a discussion about implications for designing citizen science activities: data quality, difference between observers, overview of resources that are available for designing and evaluating citizen science activities • 11:45-12:15 Policy aspects of citizen science across the world
  56. 56. Designing Citizen Science project
  57. 57. Why do citizen science? • Excellent Engagement with Science • Cost-effective data collection • Geographic coverage that is not possible otherwise • Scale of observations (number of participants) not possible otherwise • Encouraging volunteering for a wider goal • Raising awareness of environmental/scientific issue • Education in science, technology, engineering & mathematics (STEM) • Developing new skills and insights • Linking to place and local community • Adapting to different types of learning
  58. 58. ECSA’s 10 principles 1. Citizen science projects actively involve citizens in scientific endeavour that generates new knowledge or understanding. 2. Citizen science projects have a genuine science outcome. 3. Both the professional scientists and the citizen scientists benefit from taking part. 4. Citizen scientists may, if they wish, participate in multiple stages of the scientific process. 5. Citizen scientists receive feedback from the project. 6. Citizen science is considered a research approach like any other, with limitations and biases that should be considered and controlled for. 7. Citizen science project data and meta-data are made publicly available and where possible, results are published in an open access format. 8. Citizen scientists are acknowledged in project results and publications. 9. Citizen science programmes are evaluated for their scientific output, data quality, participant experience and wider societal or policy impact. 10.The leaders of citizen science projects take into consideration legal and ethical issues surrounding copyright, intellectual property, data sharing agreements, confidentiality, attribution, and the environmental impact of any activities.
  59. 59. What do they learn? 1. Task/game mechanics 2. Pattern recognition 3. On topic learning 5. Off topic knowledge and skills 4. Scientific process 6. Personal development Participation as volunteer Source: Laure Kloetzer, University of Geneva
  60. 60. IBM World Community Grid: Aug 2013 survey (15,000 responses)
  61. 61. Zooniverse – Feb 2014
  62. 62. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School University/College Postgraduate PhD Literacy ‘Default’ Citizen Science
  63. 63. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School University/College Postgraduate PhD Literacy
  64. 64. Plan • 9:00-9:45 introduction to citizen science: history, trends that facilitate it, types of citizen science activities, examples of projects • 9:45-10:00 Q&A about introduction, and the role of citizen science in projects • 10:00-10:15 Designing and choosing Citizen Science activity • 10:15-10:30 Introduction to citizen science activity – Environmental sensing: WideNoise, NoiseWatch, AirCasting or nature observation: iNaturalist, Anymals+Plants • 10:15-11:00 data collection in the botanical garden or in the open areas of the university, working in groups of 2 or 3 • 11:00-11:15 discussion in groups on the lessons from data collection • 11:15-11:45 feedback from all groups and a discussion about implications for designing citizen science activities: data quality, difference between observers, overview of resources that are available for designing and evaluating citizen science activities • 11:45-12:15 Policy aspects of citizen science across the world
  65. 65. Experiencing Citizen Science
  66. 66. iNaturalist • Started in 2008, providing a place to share observations and link to other people with common interests
  67. 67. Anymals+plants • Use information from GBIF to predict what are the likely observations in your area • Demonstration application that also allow submitting observations
  68. 68. WideNoise • Developed as a demonstration for the Internet of Things • Then used in EveryAware project (2011-2014) • Measure sound level with an element of gamification (guess the noise) and qualitative information
  69. 69. NoiseWatch • Developed by Microsoft in collaboration with the European Environment Agency in 2011 • Provide a simple form of recording level of sound and indicating what was recorded
  70. 70. AirCasting • Created as part of a wider set-up that include air quality sensor to provide detailed personal health, air quality, and noise levels
  71. 71. Experiencing citizen science • Decide in your group if you want to do biological recording or environmental sensing (record why) • Look at the applications that you are planning to use, try them in class for 5 minutes • Go out to the botanic garden or the road near the university and carry out recording with each app for 5-10 minutes • Write down impressions about the process
  72. 72. Plan • 9:00-9:45 introduction to citizen science: history, trends that facilitate it, types of citizen science activities, examples of projects • 9:45-10:00 Q&A about introduction, and the role of citizen science in projects • 10:00-10:15 Designing and choosing Citizen Science activity • 10:15-10:30 Introduction to citizen science activity – Environmental sensing: WideNoise, NoiseWatch, AirCasting or nature observation: iNaturalist, Anymals+Plants • 10:15-11:00 data collection in the botanical garden or in the open areas of the university, working in groups of 2 or 3 • 11:00-11:15 discussion in groups on the lessons from data collection • 11:15-11:45 feedback from all groups and a discussion about implications for designing citizen science activities: data quality, difference between observers. overview of resources that are available for designing and evaluating citizen science activities • 11:45-12:15 Policy aspects of citizen science across the world
  73. 73. How was it for you?
  74. 74. Discussion points • What have you noticed about the process of data collection? • What do you think about the clarity of the data collection protocol? How comparable are the observations? • What feedback have you received? What will be the influence on participants? • What is the data quality of the observations that wwere produced?
  75. 75. Data Quality Assurance • Crowdsourcing - the number of people that edited the information • Social - gatekeepers and moderators • Geographic - broader geographic knowledge • Domain knowledge - the knowledge domain of the information • Instrumental observation – technology based calibration • Process oriented – following a procedure http://wp.me/p7DNf-j7
  76. 76. Evaluation • Evaluating the learning from citizen science (Cornell Lab of Ornithology)
  77. 77. Design/evaluation • Using the framework of ‘Science Capital’ to assess citizen science activities and enhance the outcomes
  78. 78. Useful resources • Citizen Science Association http://citizenscienceassociation.org/ • European Citizen Science Association http://ecsa.citizen-science.net/ • US Federal Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science toolkit https://crowdsourcing-toolkit.sites.usa.gov/ • UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Citizen Science resources http://www.ceh.ac.uk/citizen-science • German Citizen Science resources http://www.buergerschaffenwissen.de/en
  79. 79. Plan • 9:00-9:45 introduction to citizen science: history, trends that facilitate it, types of citizen science activities, examples of projects • 9:45-10:00 Q&A about introduction, and the role of citizen science in projects • 10:00-10:15 Designing and choosing Citizen Science activity • 10:15-10:30 Introduction to citizen science activity – Environmental sensing: WideNoise, NoiseWatch, AirCasting or nature observation: iNaturalist, Anymals+Plants • 10:15-11:00 data collection in the botanical garden or in the open areas of the university, working in groups of 2 or 3 • 11:00-11:15 discussion in groups on the lessons from data collection • 11:15-11:45 feedback from all groups and a discussion about implications for designing citizen science activities: data quality, difference between observers. overview of resources that are available for designing and evaluating citizen science activities • 11:45-12:15 Policy aspects of citizen science across the world
  80. 80. Citizen Science and Policy
  81. 81. First era: 1969-[1987-92] Expert Public Decision Makers Expert http://wp.me/p7DNf-gx
  82. 82. First era: 1969-[1987-92] • Experts responsible for creating environmental information and using it to advise government • Top-down attitude to environmental decision making • ‘Information Deficit’ model towards the public • Environmental information by experts, for experts http://wp.me/p7DNf-gx
  83. 83. http://wp.me/p7DNf-gx Second era: 1992 – [2005-12]
  84. 84. Second era: 1992 – [2005-12] • Rio Principle 10, Aarhus Convention • Public access to environmental information is a prerequisite to participation, civil society organisations as intermediaries • The Web as the dissemination medium • Information by experts, for experts and the public (but in expert form) http://wp.me/p7DNf-gx
  85. 85. © WMO–No. 919 © Audubon Cal. Jennifer Jewett / USFWS Participating in Christmas Bird Count CoCoRaHS Volunteers in the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network (CoCoRaHS)
  86. 86. http://wp.me/p7DNf-gx Third era: since 2005-2012 Government Experts Citizens
  87. 87. Citizen Science in the 3rd Era • Benefiting from societal transition and technological changes • Citizen Science increasingly accepted by scientists & decision makers • Integrated in legislations and operational programmes
  88. 88. European Environment Agency • Prof. Jacquie McGlade, head of European Environment Agency, 2008 (Aarhus + 10): ‘Often the best information comes from those who are closest to it, and it is important we harness this local knowledge if we are to tackle climate change adequately… people are encouraged to give their own opinion on the quality of the beach and water, to supplement the official information.’
  89. 89. EEA Work Programme 2014-18 • As Part of Strategic Area 3 activities: ‘to widen and deepen the European knowledge base by developing communities of practice and engaging in partnerships with stakeholders beyond Eionet, such as business and research communities, Civil Society Organisations (CSO), and initiatives concerning lay, local and traditional knowledge and citizen science’
  90. 90. Eye on Earth • Started in 2008 as joint initiative of EEA, Esri & Microsoft – aiming to make environmental information accessible in Europe • By 2011, morphed into a global summit by AGEDI & UNEP “Eye on Earth builds networks and capacity across diverse knowledge communities to improve decision-making for sustainable development.” • After an interim meeting in 2013, a summit in 2015, with continued focus on acting as ‘Network of Networks’ • Evolving into an alliance with AGEDI, UNEP, GEO, WRI & IUCN in the core, with an aim to extend it
  91. 91. Eye on Earth Alliance 2015 • An alliance with AGEDI, UNEP, GEO, WRI & IUCN : information for sustainable development. … Citizen Science was a major focus area within the Summit agenda and there was general consensus that reporting against SDGs must include citizen science data. To this end, a global coalition of citizen science groups will be established by the relevant actors and the Eye on Earth Alliance will continue to engage citizen science groups …
  92. 92. More Policy indicators • Scotland Environmental Protection Agency strategic commitment • UK Environmental Observation Framework Working group • UK Government Tree Health Strategy • German Citizen Science Strategy 2020 • USA Federal toolkit for citizen science • USA proposed Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science Act • Citizen Science Association, European Citizen Science Association, Australian Citizen Science Association …
  93. 93. Our Vision: In 2020, citizens in Europe are valued and empowered as key actors in advancing knowledge and innovation and thus supporting a sustainable development of our world. Our Mission: Connecting citizens and science through fostering active participation
  94. 94. ECSA Strategy • Promoting Sustainability through CS • Implementing EU-wide CS programmes • Linking CS to politics • Building a Think Tank for Citizen Science • Sharing knowledge & skills • Providing expertise & fostering excellence • Linking to international CS community • Developing Participatory Methods for Cooperation, Empowerment and Impact • Carrying out synthesis & research on CS
  95. 95. ECSA Working Groups Standards, Principles, Best Practice & Capacity Building Policy, Strategy, Governance & Partnerships > Fundraising & Marketing > Communication & Events > International Conference Projects, Data, Tools & Technology
  96. 96. The road ahead… • Networking & Capacity Building • International Conference, Workshops, Papers, etc. • EU-wide CS Programmes • E.g. Tree Health, Lichens • CS-Policy Interface • CS supporting EU Environment & Climate Policy, RRI, Open Science • CS Data Infrastructure • Synthesis of available tools, metadata standards, service provision
  97. 97. Summary • Citizen Science is a rapidly expanding field that touch many areas of science • Growing knowledge of best practice, practitioners networks and policy awareness • Provide multiple benefits – but they can’t be all achieved in one project, so require careful design • Finally, don’t reinvent the wheel – join the existing networks and learn from others…

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