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Citizen Science – between passive and
assertive inclusiveness
Muki Haklay, Extreme Citizen Science group
Department of Geo...
• The spectrum of citizen science
• Inclusiveness in citizen science?
• Passive and assertive inclusiveness
Outline
CITIZEN SCIENCE
Volunteer computing
Volunteer Thinking
Biodiversity/Ecology
• Ecological observations of
plants and animals (esp.
birds)
• Big Garden Birdwatch – 1
hour, end of ...
Mapping for Change
Participatory Sensing
DIY Science
Imane Baiz, CRI Paris
DIY/Civic Science
Extreme citizen science
Towards Intelligent Maps
INCLUSION IN CITIZEN SCIENCE
• Among the general
population of EU 28, the
education attainment is 27%
tertiary education
(university).
• Variability: U...
OpenStreetMap (2010)
High School
or lower
(5%)
Some
College
(17%)
Undergraduate
(49%)
Masters
(21%)
Doctoral
(8%)
Budhatho...
Galaxy Zoo (2013)
High School or
unknown
35%
Undergraduate
33%
Masters
22%
Doctoral
10%
Raddick, M.J., Bracey, G., Gay, P....
Transcribe Bentham (2012)
High School or
unknown
3%
Undergraduate
34%
Masters
39%
Doctoral
24%
Causer, T, and Wallace, V.,...
• OpenStreetMap (2010) survey by Budhathoki – 97%
male
• Transcribe Bentham (2012) survey by Causer and
Wallace – almost 2...
Zooniverse volunteers (2014)
7/6/2018Page 20
Daily checklists eBird (2017)
RANGE OF ACTIVITIES & INCLUSION
64M UK population
8.5M BBC Attenborough & the Giant Dinosaur
520,000 in RSPB Big Garden Birdwatch
40,000 in British Trust ...
Everyone
Consumption of science (passive/active)
Opportunistic or highly limited participation
Data collection and analysi...
• Passive inclusiveness – “we’ll build it and they’ll
come”. Websites, events, and processes that do not
intentionally put...
Passive & Assertive inclusiveness
Assertive inclusiveness
• High costs per participants
• Attention for “universal
usabili...
• Citizen science offers a wide range of case studies
for inclusions
• Tensions exist in the meaning of participation and
...
Acknowledgement
This talk would not be possible without the generosity of
the many people and communities that we have wor...
Acknowledgement
… and the funders, project partners, and sponsors that
we’ve worked with (and will work with in the future)
Digital Geographies Working Group - citizen science - passive and assertive inclusiveness 2018 haklay
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Digital Geographies Working Group - citizen science - passive and assertive inclusiveness 2018 haklay

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Reviewing citizen science and positioning concepts of passive and assertive inclusion

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Digital Geographies Working Group - citizen science - passive and assertive inclusiveness 2018 haklay

  1. 1. Citizen Science – between passive and assertive inclusiveness Muki Haklay, Extreme Citizen Science group Department of Geography, UCL Twitter: @mhaklay / @ucl_excites
  2. 2. • The spectrum of citizen science • Inclusiveness in citizen science? • Passive and assertive inclusiveness Outline
  3. 3. CITIZEN SCIENCE
  4. 4. Volunteer computing
  5. 5. Volunteer Thinking
  6. 6. Biodiversity/Ecology • Ecological observations of plants and animals (esp. birds) • Big Garden Birdwatch – 1 hour, end of January, structured reporting, and over 500,000 participants Participating in Big Garden Birdwatch (source: RSPB)
  7. 7. Mapping for Change Participatory Sensing
  8. 8. DIY Science Imane Baiz, CRI Paris
  9. 9. DIY/Civic Science
  10. 10. Extreme citizen science
  11. 11. Towards Intelligent Maps
  12. 12. INCLUSION IN CITIZEN SCIENCE
  13. 13. • Among the general population of EU 28, the education attainment is 27% tertiary education (university). • Variability: UK 37.6%, France 30.4%, Germany 23.8%, Italy 15.5%, Romania 15% Educational attainment 27% 46% 27% Education Attainment EU 28 (2015) Up to Lower Secondary Upper secondary Tertiary education
  14. 14. OpenStreetMap (2010) High School or lower (5%) Some College (17%) Undergraduate (49%) Masters (21%) Doctoral (8%) Budhathoki, N.R. and Haythornthwaite, C., 2013. Motivation for open collaboration crowd and community models and the case of OpenStreetMap. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(5), pp.548-575.
  15. 15. Galaxy Zoo (2013) High School or unknown 35% Undergraduate 33% Masters 22% Doctoral 10% Raddick, M.J., Bracey, G., Gay, P.L., Lintott, C.J., Cardamone, C., Murray, P., Schawinski, K., Szalay, A.S. and Vandenberg, J., 2013. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of citizen scientists. arXiv preprint arXiv:1303.6886.
  16. 16. Transcribe Bentham (2012) High School or unknown 3% Undergraduate 34% Masters 39% Doctoral 24% Causer, T, and Wallace, V., 2012. Building a volunteer community: results and findings from Transcribe Bentham. Digital Humanities Quarterly , 6
  17. 17. • OpenStreetMap (2010) survey by Budhathoki – 97% male • Transcribe Bentham (2012) survey by Causer and Wallace – almost 2/3 are female. Super volunteers 7/8 female • IBM World Community Grid (2013) – 90% male • Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) annual survey of Florida beaches for turtle nests (2004) - older, well-educated, white females Gender
  18. 18. Zooniverse volunteers (2014)
  19. 19. 7/6/2018Page 20 Daily checklists eBird (2017)
  20. 20. RANGE OF ACTIVITIES & INCLUSION
  21. 21. 64M UK population 8.5M BBC Attenborough & the Giant Dinosaur 520,000 in RSPB Big Garden Birdwatch 40,000 in British Trust of Ornithology surveys 500 in BioHacking & DIY Science 60,000 in Oxford ClimatePrediction.net UK Engagement Escalator
  22. 22. Everyone Consumption of science (passive/active) Opportunistic or highly limited participation Data collection and analysis High engagement in DIY science Joining volunteer computing or thinking 7 Levels of Engagement
  23. 23. • Passive inclusiveness – “we’ll build it and they’ll come”. Websites, events, and processes that do not intentionally put obstacles to the participation of under-represented groups (most contributory citizen science) • Assertive inclusiveness – reaching out to under- represented groups, considering what obstacles they will face and taking them into account in the design and implementation of a project Passive vs Assertive inclusiveness
  24. 24. Passive & Assertive inclusiveness Assertive inclusiveness • High costs per participants • Attention for “universal usability”, accessibility, and inclusive training • Social benefit through engagement with marginalised groups • Can lead to personal and group empowerment Passive inclusiveness • Low recruitment costs • Focus on the task and use of jargon or complex technology possible • Social benefit through engagement of highly educated participants • Can lead to personal empowerment
  25. 25. • Citizen science offers a wide range of case studies for inclusions • Tensions exist in the meaning of participation and inclusiveness • By looking at passive and assertive inclusiveness, we can notice benefits and limitations of different positions across the spectrum Summary
  26. 26. Acknowledgement This talk would not be possible without the generosity of the many people and communities that we have worked with over the years…
  27. 27. Acknowledgement … and the funders, project partners, and sponsors that we’ve worked with (and will work with in the future)

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