3. Electricity is a natural phenomenon
that occurs throughout nature and
takes many different forms.
Electricity is briefly defined as the flow
of electric charge.
Electrons always carry a negative
charge, while protons are always
positively charged. Neutrons (true to
their name) are neutral, they have no
charge. Both electrons and protons
carry the same amount of charge, just a
5. Is one aspect of the combined electromagnetic force. It
refers to physical phenomena arising from the force caused
by magnets, objects that produce fields that attract or repel
It is a phenomenon associated with magnetic fields, which
arise from the motion of electric charges. It can be
an electric current in a conductor or charged particles
moving through space, or it can be the motion of
an electron in an atomic orbital.
Magnetism is also associated with elementary particles,
such as the electron, that have a property called spin.
8. According to the treatise of Aristotle
entitled “De Anima” or “On The
Soul”, believed that everything has
some “soul” and “is filled with gods,”
and that the soul is the cause of
Thus, for Thales, the loadstone had a
soul since it caused the movement of
10. He is an American inventor who was most noted for his kite
One of the famous scientific experiments in history, it was
said that Franklin flew a kite (with a key dangling at the end
of the string) one stormy night to prove that lightning is an
Franklin also came up with the idea of the lightningrod.
Franklin’s interest in electricity began when his friend Peter
Collinson(1694-1768) gave him an electricity tube.
Lightning rod- a metal pole used to divert lightning away from a
structure such as a building by providing a direct path to the
12. Today, this invention is usually
mounted on tall buildings to
protect such structures from
13. Among Benjamin Franklin’s contribution to the
study of electricity is the concept of conservation
According to him, an object may acquire a
negative charge and eventually lose it but
another object will acquire the negative charge;
thus, electrical charged is conserved in a system.
Franklin also coined the term battery to describe
an array of charged glass plates, as well as the
terms plus, minus, and conductor, among
14. A French physicist and engineer, was known for
his work on electricity and magnetism.
He invented the torsionbalance.
His balance can detect forces equal to about
of a gram.
Coulomb’s Law describes the electrostatic
interaction between charged particles.
Torsion Balance- a device that can measure very small
charges to determine the approximate experimental
values of attractive or repulsive force between two
15. Rod 1 acquires the charge of an object near it.
It induces the same charge to Rod 2 which
Coulomb concluded that the measured
tension force is directly proportional to the
forces of the charges.
The torsion balance helped him came up with
Coulomb’s law states that electrostatic force (𝐹𝑒),
between charged particles is directly proportional
to the product of the charges and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between
16. Mathematically , it expressed as:
Where q is the magnitude of the charge(in Coulombs, C), d is the distance
between the charges (measured in meters, m), and k is the Coulomb’s
constant . .
17. Example Problem:
The force between two identical charges separated by 1
cm is equal to 90 N. What is the magnitude of the two
F= 90 N
𝑞1 = charge of the first body
𝑞2 = charge of the second body
r= 1 cm
18. A Danish physicist and chemist.
It was the galvanic battery of Alessandro Volta(1745- 1821)
that inspired Oersted to learn about the nature of
Oersted made an “accidental” discovery that showed
electricity and magnetism are interrelated .
19. In 1820, He was setting up
his apparatus for his
lecture when he noticed
that when he turned on the
electric power source(a wire
connected to both ends of
the battery), the needle of
the compass held nearby
deflected away from the
20. A French physicist and mathematician who was
credited for establishing the basis for electrodynamics.
He was the first to describe this relationship
mathematically and provide a theoretical explanation
It has already observed that two magnets can affect
Ampere thought that maybe two currents can also
affect each other.
21. Two parallel wires with currents (black arrow) flowing on (a) the same direction
and (b) opposite directions.
He used two parallel wires and let
current flow through them.
He observed that the wires became
attracted to each other when
currents run in the same direction.
Otherwise, the wires repelled.
He also found out that the circular
motion of the current results in the
22. He was a French physicist and mathematician.
In 1804, he accompanied Joseph Louis Gay-
Lussac (1778-1850) on a hot air balloon ascent.
23. He collaborated with Biot and made use of the
discovery of Oersted to explore electricity and
In 1820, they calculated the magnetic field that a
current- carrying wire generates.
They proposed the Biot-Savart Law which shows the relationship
of the magnetic field to the magnitude, direction, length, and
proximity of the current.
25. He was an English physicist and inventor.
He was the first to discover the principles of
electromagnetic induction in 1831.
In his experiment, he placed a galvanometer (an
instrument used to detect electric current) near a coil.
He formulated the Faraday’s lawof electromagnetic
induction which states that the induced voltage or
electromagnetic force in a coil is directly proportional
to the magnetic flux or the rate of change in the
strength of magnetic field on a surface.