2. • An Operating System (OS) is an interface
between a computer user and computer
hardware. An operating system is a software
which performs all the basic tasks like file
management, memory management, process
management, handling input and output, and
controlling peripheral devices such as disk
drives and printers.
5. An operating system is a program
that acts as an interface between
the user and the computer
hardware and controls the
execution of all kinds of programs.
6. • Following are some of important functions of an
– Memory Management
– Processor Management
– Device Management
– File Management
– Control over system performance
– Job accounting
– Error detecting aids
– Coordination between other software and users
7. Memory Management
• Keeps tracks of primary memory, i.e., what
part of it are in use by whom, what part are
not in use.
• In multiprogramming, the OS decides which
process will get memory when and how much.
8. Processor Management
• Keeps tracks of processor and status of
process. The program responsible for this task
is known as traffic controller.
• Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process.
9. Device Management
• Keeps tracks of all devices. Program
responsible for this task is known as the I/O
• Decides which process gets the device when
and for how much time.
10. File Management
• Keeps track of information, location, uses,
status etc. The collective facilities are often
known as file system.
• Decides who gets the resources.
11. Other Important Activities
• Security − By means of password and similar other
techniques, it prevents unauthorized access to programs and
• Control over system performance − Recording delays
between request for a service and response from the system.
• Job accounting − Keeping track of time and resources used by
various jobs and users.
• Error detecting aids − Production of dumps, traces, error
messages, and other debugging and error detecting aids.
• Coordination between other softwares and users −
Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters,
assemblers and other software to the various users of the
13. Types of Operating System
Batch operating system
• The users of a batch
operating system do not
interact with the computer
directly. Each user prepares
his job on an off-line device
like punch cards and
submits it to the computer
operator. To speed up
processing, jobs with
similar needs are batched
together and run as a
14. Time-sharing operating systems
• Time-sharing is a technique
which enables many people,
located at various terminals, to
use a particular computer
system at the same time. Time-
sharing or multitasking is a
logical extension of
time which is shared among
multiple users simultaneously
is termed as time-sharing.
15. Distributed operating System
• Distributed systems use
multiple central processors to
serve multiple real-time
applications and multiple users.
Data processing jobs are
distributed among the
• The processors communicate
with one another through
various communication lines
(such as high-speed buses or
telephone lines). These are
referred as loosely coupled
systems or distributed systems.
16. Real Time operating System
• A real-time system is defined as
a data processing system in
which the time interval
required to process and
respond to inputs is so small
that it controls the
environment. The time taken
by the system to respond to an
input and display of required
updated information is termed
as the response time. So in this
method, the response time is
very less as compared to online
17. Get ready to explore the top
operating systems that are used
18. #1) MS-Windows
Windows is the most popular and familiar operating system on this list. From Windows 95, all
the way to the Windows 10, it has been the go-to operating software that is fueling the
computing systems worldwide.
20. #2) Ubuntu
Ubuntu is a Linux based OS that comes with everything that you are looking for in an operating
system. It is perfect for organizations, schools, and home use.
21. #3) Mac OS
The Mac OS has been the staple of almost all Apple devices as we can remember. It has
evolved with time to include the features that first and foremost define innovation.
22. #4) Fedora
Fedora is another Linux based system which gives Ubuntu’s open-source features a run for
the money. Fedora is reliable, user-friendly and makes for a powerful operating system for
any laptop and desktop computer.
23. #5) Solaris
Solaris is a UNIX based operating system which was originally developed by Sun
Microsystems in the mid-’90s. In 2010 it was renamed as Oracle Solaris after Oracle
acquired Sun Microsystems. It is known for its scalability and several other features
24. #6) Free BSD
FreeBSD, as the name suggests is a free UNIX based open-source software. It is
compatible with a variety of platforms and mainly focuses on features such as speed,
and stability. The most fascinating part about this software is its origin. It was built in
the University of California by a large community.
25. #7) Chrome OS
Chrome OS is another Linux-kernel based operating software that is designed by Google. As it
is derived from the free chromium OS, it uses the Google Chrome web browser as its
principal user interface. This OS primarily supports web applications.
26. #8) CentOS
The CentOS is another community-driven open source free software that allows robust
platform management. It is best for developers who are looking for an operating system
that simply helps them to perform their coding tasks.
27. #9) Debian
Debian is again a Linux kernel-based free open-source OS. It comes with over 59000
packages and is a pre-compiled software bundled in a nice format. It is easy to install
and offers a user-friendly interface.
28. #10) Deepin
Deepin is an open-source operating system based on Debian’s stable branch. It features
DDE, (Deepin Desktop Environment built on QT. It has been praised for its beautiful
aesthetics and very appealing interface.