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Handicap care

Physiotherapy role in handicap care

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Handicap care

  1. 1. Handicap care Mr. Muthuukaruppan M.
  2. 2. Handicap & Disability  Disadvantage for a given individual in his or her social context, that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal to an individual.  Any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner normal to a individual.  Physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional or combinations are noted.  Disability prevents subjects from being independent. Disabled persons are addressed “Differently Abled” persons.
  3. 3. Rehabilitation  Enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities  Primary prevention, Secondary prevention & Tertiary prevention  Goal is to “Add life to years, not years to life”
  4. 4. WHO Identified 6 Handicap’s  Locomotor handicap: paraplegias  Hearing & speech handicap: loss of hearing & inability to speak  Cardiopulmonary handicap: respiratory & vascular disorders  Visual handicap: blindness  Mental handicap: Conditions like Down’s syndrome, dyslexias  Emotionally disturbed
  5. 5.  Primary disabilities are direct consequences of a disease. eg-spinal cord injury, stroke  Secondary disabilities are those which did not exist at the onset of primary disability but develop subsequently. eg-tight muscles, joints etc.
  6. 6. Result of Decreased Activity due to handicap
  7. 7. Rehabilitation Team  Doctor  Physiotherapist  Occupationaltherapist  Speech pathologist  Prosthetist – Orthotist  Rehabilitation nurse  Psychologist  Music or play therapist  Biomedical engineer  Social worker  Vocational counselor  Special educator  Government agencies
  8. 8. Delivery of Rehabilitation care  Institutional based care (IBR)  Homes  Day care centers  Outpatient clinic  Camps  Community based rehabilitation (CBR)
  9. 9. Therapeutic exercises  Strengthening exercises  Balance training  Coordination exercises  Gait training  Mobilization exercises  Re-education exercises  Massage techniques  Relaxation exercises
  10. 10. Strengthening exercises: Set of exercises to improve the power of the muscle or muscle groups FITT principle – frequency, intensity, time & type Types of contraction – concentric, eccentric or isometric Precautions needed to be taken care. Balance training: Procedures assisting in improving static & dynamic balance are used in training
  11. 11. Coordination exercises: For performing precise smooth and purposeful movement using multiple muscles and a stable posture Volition - Ability to start, maintain or stop an activity Perception – intact centers and areas in brain to retrieve the plans stored prior Motor plans in central nervous system Repetitive exercises, precision & attention are important part of treatment
  12. 12. Gait training: Gait or human locomotion is a translatory progression of the body as a whole, produced by coordinated movements of body segments. Normal gait requires sensory inputs and proper muscular activity. Gait training can be given using assistive devices such as crutches, walkers, sticks etc.
  13. 13. Mobilization exercises: Mobilization is passive movement in such a manner or speed that the patient can stop the movement at his will. It helps in restoring or maintaining joint movement Massage techniques: Manipulation of soft tissues and assisting in circulation of extremities Assists in treating pathological disorders.
  14. 14. Relaxation exercises: Relaxation is a state in which the muscles of the body are relatively free from tension General relaxation & Local relaxation Reeducation exercises: Exercises taught to train a lost or new activity to muscle groups after various pathologies. Done in grades to increase the activity subsequently
  15. 15. Summary  Physical Activity/Exercise can improve disability and handicap  Improvement in quality of life
  16. 16. “Rehabilitation is clearly the only practical means of significantly improving function in Handicap patients” George Kraft, MD The Lancet, December 11, 1999

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Physiotherapy role in handicap care

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