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We know from extensive research, mostly from cardiac rehabilitation, that inactivity causes deconditioning and those who are deconditioned tend to be less active. In addition, we know that the inactivity can cause physical impairment and psychological disturbances such as depression and decreased self-esteem. This vicious circle can cause significant problems with overall health and places individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular diseases.
Mr. Muthuukaruppan M.
Handicap & Disability
Disadvantage for a given individual in his or her
social context, that limits or prevents the
fulfillment of a role that is normal to an individual.
Any restriction or lack of ability to perform an
activity in the manner normal to a individual.
Physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional or
combinations are noted.
Disability prevents subjects from being
independent. Disabled persons are addressed
“Differently Abled” persons.
Enhance and restore functional ability and quality
of life to those with physical impairments or
Primary prevention, Secondary prevention &
Goal is to “Add life to years, not years to life”
WHO Identified 6 Handicap’s
Locomotor handicap: paraplegias
Hearing & speech handicap: loss of hearing &
inability to speak
Cardiopulmonary handicap: respiratory &
Visual handicap: blindness
Mental handicap: Conditions like Down’s
Primary disabilities are direct consequences of a
disease. eg-spinal cord injury, stroke
Secondary disabilities are those which did not
exist at the onset of primary disability but develop
subsequently. eg-tight muscles, joints etc.
Set of exercises to improve the power of the
muscle or muscle groups
FITT principle – frequency, intensity, time & type
Types of contraction – concentric, eccentric or
Precautions needed to be taken care.
Procedures assisting in improving static & dynamic
balance are used in training
For performing precise smooth and purposeful
movement using multiple muscles and a stable
Volition - Ability to start, maintain or stop an
Perception – intact centers and areas in brain to
retrieve the plans stored prior
Motor plans in central nervous system
Repetitive exercises, precision & attention are
important part of treatment
Gait or human locomotion is a translatory
progression of the body as a whole, produced by
coordinated movements of body segments.
Normal gait requires sensory inputs and proper
Gait training can be given using assistive devices
such as crutches, walkers, sticks etc.
Mobilization is passive movement in such a
manner or speed that the patient can stop the
movement at his will.
It helps in restoring or maintaining joint movement
Manipulation of soft tissues and assisting in
circulation of extremities
Assists in treating pathological disorders.
Relaxation is a state in which the muscles of the
body are relatively free from tension
General relaxation & Local relaxation
Exercises taught to train a lost or new activity to
muscle groups after various pathologies.
Done in grades to increase the activity
Physical Activity/Exercise can improve disability
Improvement in quality of life
“Rehabilitation is clearly the only practical means of
significantly improving function in Handicap
George Kraft, MD
The Lancet, December 11, 1999