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Sleep and Health

  1. ©2009 Zeo, Inc. All Rights Reserved. An Argument for Sleep: Connecting Sleep and Health
  2. Health Impacts Sleep Diabetes Obesity Heart Disease Poor Sleep Cancer Mental Health
  3. Sleep Impacts Health Diabetes Obesity Heart Disease Poor Sleep Cancer Mental Health Immune Function Mortality
  4. Mortality 110-126% Risk of mortality over the long term for short sleepers1,2. 131-139% Risk of mortality over the long term for short sleepers who use hypnotics/ tranquilizers2.
  5. Immune Function “Sleep should be considered a vital part of the immune system” (Bryant, Trinder, & Curtis 2004)6. 3x Short sleepers’ susceptibility to rhinovirus (the common cold)3. ½ Immune response of the sleep deprived versus those who sleep enough4,5.
  6. Diabetes 50-150% Greater risk of short sleepers for developing type 2 diabetes7,8. Sleep Insulin Resistance Glucose Tolerance Risk of Diabetes Mechanism that links sleep deprivation and type 2 diabetes9,10.
  7. Obesity More sleep debt = greater risk11-13 “Replacing 1 h of inactive wakefulness (e.g. watching TV), with sleeping is likely to result in a substantial reduction in caloric intake” (Sivak 2006)14. 125-193% Risk of future obesity in short sleepers11.
  8. Heart Disease 2x Short sleepers’ risk of developing cardiovascular disease7 and hypertension16,17. Sleep Blood Pressure Sympathetic Activity Risk of Heart Disease Mechanism that links sleep deprivation and heart disease18.
  9. Cancer “Exposure to light-at-night [is] associated with an increased risk of breast cancer” (Davis & Mirick 2006)19. Light at Night Sleep Deprivation Circadian Disruption Risk of Cancer Mechanism that links sleep disruption and cancer20. Melatonin Suppression A WHO agency recently concluded that shift work is carcinogenic due to circadian disruptions and their link to cancer21.
  10. Mental Health 40% Amount of mood disorder cases with patients presenting pre-existing insomnia22. 4x Depression relapse risk after treatment for patients with insomnia23. Sleep Risk of Depression24
  11. Conclusion “Sleep is an indicator of health, and sufficient sleep quantity and good quality should be considered as an essential component of a healthy lifestyle, as much as exercise and nutrition” (Zee & Turek 2006)25. Sleep ExerciseNutrition Health
  12. The Cutting Edge of Research • Interventions in sleep to improve health outcomes are the next step in sleep research12,14,26,27. • Researchers are already calling for interventions in the population28,29. • Zeo’s SoftWave™ technology is well positioned to play a major role in the research30 and potential intervention efforts31.
  13. References 1.Gallicchio L, Kalesan B. Sleep duration and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of sleep research. 2009;18(2):148-58. 2.Hublin C, Partinen M, Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J. Sleep and mortality: a population-based 22-year follow-up study. Sleep. 2007;30:1245-1253. 3.Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Janicki-Deverts D, Turner RB. Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Archives of internal medicine. 2009;169(1):62-7. 4.Lange T. Sleep Enhances the Human Antibody Response to Hepatitis A Vaccination. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2003;65(5):831-835. 5.Spiegel K, Sheridan JF, Van Cauter E. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Response to Immunizaton. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002;288(12):1471-1472. 6.Bryant Pa, Trinder J, Curtis N. Sick and tired: Does sleep have a vital role in the immune system? Nature reviews. Immunology. 2004;4(6):457-67. 7.Gangwisch JE, Heymsfield SB, Boden-Albala B, et al. Sleep duration as a risk factor for diabetes incidence in a large U.S. sample. Sleep. 2007;30(12):1667-73. 8.Gottlieb DJ, Punjabi NM, Newman AB, et al. Association of sleep time with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. Archives of internal medicine. 2005;165(8):863-7. 9.Spiegel K, Knutson K, Leproult R, Tasali E, Van Cauter E. Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2005;99(5):2008-19. 10.Spiegel K, Leproult R, Cauter EV. Early report Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999;354:1435-1440. 11.Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, Heymsfield SB. Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep. 2005;28(10):1289-96. 12.Hasler G, Buysse DJ, Klaghofer R, et al. The association between short sleep duration and obesity in young adults: a 13- year prospective study. Sleep. 2004;27(4):661-6. 13.Kohatsu N, Tsai R, Young T, VanGilder R. Sleep duration and body mass index in a rural population. Archives of internal medicine. 2006;166:1701-1705. 14.Sivak M. Sleeping more as a way to lose weight. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2006;7(3):295-6. 15.Ayas NT, White DP, Manson JE, et al. A prospective study of sleep duration and coronary heart disease in women. Archives of internal medicine. 2003;163(2):205-9. 16.Cappuccio FP, Stranges S, Kandala N, et al. Gender-specific associations of short sleep duration with prevalent and incident hypertension: the Whitehall II Study. Hypertension. 2007;50(4):693-700. 17.Gangwisch JE, Heymsfield SB, Boden-Albala B, et al. Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension: analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hypertension. 2006;47(5):833-9.
  14. References 18.Kato M, Phillips BG, Sigurdsson G, et al. Effects of sleep deprivation on neural circulatory control. Hypertension. 2000;35(5):1173-5. 19.Davis S, Mirick DK. Circadian disruption, shift work and the risk of cancer: a summary of the evidence and studies in Seattle. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2006;17(4):539-45. 20.Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Erren TC, Fuentes-Broto L, Paredes SD. Light-mediated perturbations of circadian timing and cancer risk: a mechanistic analysis. Integrative cancer therapies. 2009;8(4):354-60. 21.Blask DE. Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. Sleep medicine reviews. 2009;13(4):257-64. 22.Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2003;37:9-15. 23.Breslau N, Roth T, Rosenthal L, Andreski P. Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. Biological Psychiatry. 1996;39:411-8. 24.Cole MG, Dendukuri N. Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta- analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;160:1147-56. 25.Zee PC, Turek FW. Sleep and health: Everywhere and in both directions. Archives of internal medicine. 2006;166(16):1686-8. 26.Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Cappuccio FP, et al. A prospective study of change in sleep duration: associations with mortality in the Whitehall II cohort. Sleep. 2007;30(12):1659-66. 27.Knutson KL, Ryden AM, Mander Ba, Van Cauter E. Role of sleep duration and quality in the risk and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Archives of internal medicine. 2006;166(16):1768-74. 28.Egan BM. Sleep and hypertension: burning the candle at both ends really is hazardous to your health. Hypertension. 2006;47(5):816-7. 29.Malhotra A, Loscalzo J. Sleep and cardiovascular disease: an overview. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2009;51(4):279- 84. 30.Drake C, Gumenyuk V, Jefferson C, Kick A, Coaker M, Roth T. Extending time in bed in short sleepers: effects on objective sleep parameters measured in the home. Sleep. 2010;33 (Suppl.):A107. Abstract 0306. 31.Maas JB, Fabregas SE, Kopynec RM, Haswell DR, Fortgang RG, Shambroom J. Putting sleep to the test: a collegiate sleep study. Sleep. 2010;33 (Suppl.):A77. Abstract 0221.
  15. Additional Resources Hall MH, Muldoon MF, Jennings JR, et al. Self-reported sleep duration is associated with the metabolic syndrome in midlife adults. Sleep. 2008;31(5):635-43. Ikehara S, Iso H, Date C, et al. Association of sleep duration with mortality from cardiovascular disease and other causes for Japanese men and women: the JACC study. Sleep. 2009;32(3):295-301. Kripke D, Garfinkel L, Wingard D, MR. Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2002;59:131-136. Mullington JM, Haack M, Toth M, Serrador JM, Meier-Ewert HK. Cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2009;51(4):294-302. Schoenborn CA, Adams PF. Sleep Duration as a Correlate of Smoking, Alcohol Use, Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity, and Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2004-2006. NCHS Health E-Stat. 2008:1-13. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet public health problem. (Colten HR, Altevogt BM). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006. Spiegel K, Leproult R, L'hermite-Balériaux M, et al. Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2004;89(11):5762-71. Steptoe A, Peacey V, Wardle J. Sleep duration and health in young adults. Archives of internal medicine. 2006;166(16):1689- 92. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Bixler O, et al. Adverse Effects of Modest Sleep Restriction on Sleepiness, Performance, and Inflammatory Cytokines. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004;89(5):2119-2126. Wilson JF. Is Sleep the New Vital Sign? Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005;142(10):877-880. Zhong X, Hilton HJ, Gates GJ, et al. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic cardiovascular modulation in normal humans with acute sleep deprivation. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2005;98(6):2024-32. And Much More…

Notas del editor

  1. “Public health messages to emphasize the health benefits of adequate sleep and the risks of short sleep duration may be useful” (Egan 2006)28. “Public education of the health effects of sleep deprivation should be a priority” (Malhotra & Loscalzo 2009)29. Drake et al 201030, extending sleep in short sleepers leads to more creativity. Maas et al 201031, using Zeo as a tool for intervention in college students’ poor sleep.