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Nematodes

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Nematodes

  1. 1. NEMATODES: A LABORATORYPERSPECTIVE
  2. 2. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEMATODES They assume three basic morphologic forms: Egg, Larvae and Adult worms Reproduce sexually with male and female worms Complete digestive tract and complete reproductive systems
  3. 3. TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION Intestinal Species E. vermicularis T. trichura N. americanus A. duodenalePhylum A. lumbricoides Class S. stercoralisNemathelminthes Nematoda Intestinal- Tissue Species T. spiralis D. medinensis
  4. 4. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES Ascaris lumbricoides Common Name Giant Intestinal Roundworm Infective Stage Embryonated Egg Habitat Small Intestine Mode of Transmission Ingestion of contaminated food/ water Diagnostic Specimen Feces
  5. 5. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES 2 A. lumbricoides Adult worms
  6. 6. ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS Enterobius vermicularis Common Name Pinworm Infective Stage Embryonated Egg Habitat Large Intestine Mode of Transmission Ingestion of egg/ autoinfection Diagnostic Specimen Feces/ Cellophane Tape prep
  7. 7. TRICHURIS TRICHURA Trichuris trichura Common Name Whipworm Infective Stage Embryonated Egg Habitat Large Intestine Mode of Transmission Ingestion of egg via contaminated food/ water Diagnostic Specimen Feces
  8. 8. TRICHURIS TRICHURA 2
  9. 9. NECATOR AMERICANUS AND ANCYLOSTOMADUODENALE Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale Common Name Hookworm Infective Stage Third Stage Filariform Larvae Habitat Small IntestineMode of Transmission Skin Penetration of Infective LarvaeDiagnostic Specimen Feces
  10. 10. HOOKWORMS 2 A. duodenale N. americanus
  11. 11. STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS Strongyloides stercoralis Common Name Threadworm Infective Stage Third Stage Filariform Larvae Habitat duodenum and upper jejunum Mode of Transmission Skin Penetration of Infective Larvae/ autoinfection Diagnostic Specimen Feces
  12. 12. TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS Trichinella spiralis Common Name Trichinia worm Infective Stage Encysted Larvae Habitat Striated muscle tissue Mode of Transmission Ingestion of raw/ undercooked contaminated meat Diagnostic Specimen skeletal muscle biopsy/ Blood (LDH, Aldolase, CPK, eo ct)
  13. 13. CAPILLARIA PHILIPPINENSIS Capillaria philippinensis Common Name NA Infective Stage Encysted Larvae Habitat Small Intestine Mode of Transmission Ingestion of raw/ undercooked contaminated fish Diagnostic Specimen Feces
  14. 14. THE FILARIAE- GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Two morphologic forms: Adult worms and Microfilariae Adult worms are usually creamy white and assume a filariform shape Have both male and female forms Females lay live microfliariae Require arthropod vectors Exhibit periodicity (Nocturnal/ diurnal)
  15. 15. WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI Wuchereria bancrofti Common Name Bancrofts Filaria Infective Stage L3 Larva Habitat Lymphatics and blood Mode of Transmission Bite from infected mosquito (Culex, Aedes or Anopheles) Diagnostic Specimen Giemsa stained smear (collected at night)/ Knotts Technique
  16. 16. BRUGIA MALAYI Brugia malayi Common Name Malayan Filaria Infective Stage L3 Larva Habitat Lymphatics and Blood Bite from infected mosquito ( Anopheles, Aedes, Mansonia, Mode of Transmission Amigeres) Diagnostic Specimen Giemsa stained smear (collected at night)/ Knotts Technique
  17. 17. WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI V.S. BRUGIA MALAYI Distinguishing Wuchereria Brugia malayi Characteristics bancrofti Sheath in Giemsa unstained Pink Nuclei Regularly spaced, Irregularly spaced separately situated and overlapping Tail none Single row of nuclei that reach tail’s end Terminal Nuclei None 2 nuclei, which bulge the cuticle; conspicuously placed Appearance in Blood Smoothly curved Kinky film
  18. 18. LOA LOA Loa loa Common Name African Eye Worm Infective Stage L3 Larva Habitat Subcutaneous tissue, the eye and bridge of nose Mode of Transmission Bite from infected Chrysops silacea or C. dimidiata (Deer Fly) Diagnostic Giemsa stained smear (collected at midday 10:15to 2:15)/ Knotts Specimen Technique
  19. 19. ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS Onchocerca volvulus Common Name Blinding Filaria Infective Stage L3 Larva Habitat Subcutaneous tissue, nodules and eyes Mode of Transmission Bite from infected Simulium Blackfly Diagnostic Specimen Giemsa stained smear of skin snips
  20. 20. MANSONELLA OZZARDI AND MANSONELLAPERSTANS Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans Common Name Ozzards Filaria and Perstans Filaria Infective Stage L3 Larva Habitat Blood and various tissue Mode of Transmission Bite from infected Simulium Blackfly or Culicoides (sucking midge fly) Diagnostic Specimen Fresh Giemsa stained blood smear
  21. 21. Long Quiz next meeting?  The End
  22. 22. PART 2: KATO-KATZ, KATO-THICK ANDCONCENTRATION TECHNIQUES
  23. 23. KATO KATZ TECHNIQUE Step 2 Step 1
  24. 24. KATO-KATZ TECHNIQUE CONT’D Step 3
  25. 25. KATO-KATZ TECHNIQUE CONT’D Step 4 Step 5
  26. 26. KATO-KATZ TECHNIQUE CONT’D Step 6
  27. 27. KATO-KATZ TECHNIQUE CONT’D Step 7
  28. 28. KATO-KATZ TECHNIQUE CONT’D
  29. 29. CONCENTRATION TECHNIQUESFlotation SedimentationTechniques Techniques Acid Ether Concentration Zinc Sulfate FT Technique Sheather’s Sugar Formalin-Ether CT FT Brine Flotation T
  30. 30. FORMALIN- ETHER CONCENTRATION TECHNIQUE(FECT) Ethyl Acetate Plug of debris Formalin Sediment
  31. 31. ACID ETHER CONCENTRATION TECHNIQUE(AECT) Ethyl Acetate Plug of debris HCl Sediment
  32. 32. ZINC SULFATE FLOTATION TECHNIQUE Floating Material Zinc Sulfate Sol’n
  33. 33. HARADA MORI CULTURE Culture Tube Strip of filter paper Smear of Feces water

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