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Overview of NASA's Science Mission Directorate

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This presentation provides an overview of NASA's Science Mission Directorate that carries out the agency's missions for Earth science, heliophysics, astrophysics, and planetary sciences.

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Overview of NASA's Science Mission Directorate

  1. 1. NASA Science Science Mission Directorate Overview May 2011
  2. 2. NASA Science <ul><li>Answers science questions of compelling interest to all humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>Extends our nation’s leadership in science while enabling partnerships that strengthen our international standing and relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires and trains the next generation of scientists, engineers, educators and citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information for use in response to national and international disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Develops new technologies that drive innovation and impact the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides objective research and observations to policy-makers and decision-makers in both the public and private sectors </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Journey of Discovery <ul><li>NASA’s science program seeks answers to profound questions that touch or may affect us all: </li></ul><ul><li>How and why are Earth’s climate and the environment changing? </li></ul><ul><li>How and why does the Sun vary and affect Earth and the rest of the solar system? </li></ul><ul><li>How do planets and life originate? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the universe work, and what are its origin and destiny? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we alone? </li></ul>
  4. 4. SMD At A Glance <ul><li>98 spacecraft, 57 missions in operation, 28 more in development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus aircraft, sounding rockets, balloons, and surface networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 94% of every dollar NASA receives goes out the door to universities, commercial entities, and not-for-profits </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10,000 U.S. scientists funded by 3,000 competitively selected research awards </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships with a dozen Federal agencies and 60 other nations </li></ul><ul><li>More than $500M of total SMD funds invested annually in technology development </li></ul><ul><li>Global impact on humanity’s understanding of our place in the universe </li></ul>
  5. 5. SMD Principles <ul><li>Substantial progress on NRC decadal surveys in all four science areas is the measure of success </li></ul><ul><li>Investment choices are based on scientific merit via peer review and open competition </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation by the research community beyond NASA is critical to success </li></ul><ul><li>Effective international and interagency partnerships leverage NASA resources and extend the reach of our science results </li></ul><ul><li>A balanced portfolio of space missions and mission-enabling programs sustains progress toward NASA’s science goals </li></ul><ul><li>The NASA mandate includes broad public communication </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability, transparent processes, accessible results, and capture of lessons learned are essential features of this Federal science enterprise </li></ul>
  6. 6. Recommendations from the U.S. Scientific Community Through NRC Decadal Surveys Astrophysics 2010 (2020) Heliophysics 2003 (2012) Earth Science 2007 (2017) Planetary Science 2002 (2011)
  7. 7. Engaging the Next Generation <ul><li>SMD policy calls for each mission to allocate at least 1% of the mission budget for education and public outreach (E/PO activities </li></ul><ul><li>SMD funds E/PO activities as elements proposed as part of competitively-selected research and research-enabling programs </li></ul><ul><li>Each SMD Division has a Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) to help better connect NASA and the broad national education community </li></ul><ul><li>SMD engages in collaborations with such organizations as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA Museum Alliance for science centers, museums, and planetariums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys Scouts/Girl Scouts, 4-H clubs, and Boy’s and Girl’s Clubs of America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMD’s E/PO programs are coordinated with the NASA Office of Education </li></ul>To share the story, the science, and the adventure of NASA’s scientific explorations of our home planet, the solar system, and the universe beyond…
  8. 8. Science Metrics <ul><li>NASA’s had 8.4% of worldwide scientific discoveries in 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.0% from extended mission (flagships launched in the 1990’s and 1970’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.8% from non-mission science (astrobiology and other grants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.4% from extended missions (small/moderate sized, including series like POES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3% from prime mission science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fermi was the most productive prime mission, with 1.1% of discoveries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Space Science contributions at 7.0% </li></ul><ul><li>NASA Earth Science had 1.4% of discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Astrobiology produced 1.7% of discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>NASA’s non-mission science produces 2.8% of world-wide science </li></ul>
  9. 11. Astrophysics <ul><li>How do matter, energy, space, and time behave under the extraordinarily diverse conditions of the cosmos? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the universe originate and evolve to produce the galaxies, stars, and planets we see today? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of planetary systems orbiting other stars, and do they harbor life? </li></ul>Discover how the universe works, explore how the universe began and evolved, and search for Earth-like planets Visible view of Pillar and Jets HH 901/902 from Hubble Space Telescope Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI
  10. 12. Astrophysics Missions in Operation
  11. 13. Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) First Science Flight December 1, 2010 In-Flight Mission Control Operations Open Door Flight December 18, 2009 Crew Members with FORCAST Instrument 1 st Flight (Aircraft Functional Checks) December 2009 1 st Open Door Flight December 2009 First Light Opportunity May 2010 Envelope Expansion #2 July 2010 Initiation of Science Flights with FORCAST (US-developed imager) December 2010 Science Flights with GREAT begin August 2011 Guest Observation Flights Begin October 2011 Commissioning of HIPO & FLITECAM begins February 2012 End of Development Segment 2; Start of Major System Upgrades June 2012 Commissioning of Fourth Instrument begins July 2013 Full Operational Capability (FOC) December 2014
  12. 14. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) was the #1 priority from the NRC’s 2001 Decadal Survey “Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium” and is the most complex spacecraft ever attempted. JWST is a large infrared space telescope that will look back in time to find the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way Galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. The JWST Project at Goddard Space Flight Center is working with the contractors to establish a baseline budget, expected in late March. Once that work is complete, we will have a better idea of the launch date.
  13. 19. Omega Centauri (NGC 5139)
  14. 20. Hubble’s Deepest View of the Universe The Hubble Space Telescope has acquired the deepest image of the universe ever taken in near-infrared light using the newly installed Wide Field Camera 3. 2009 Infrared Ultra Deep Field
  15. 21. Title Goes Here
  16. 22. Planetary Science <ul><li>What is the inventory of solar system objects and what processes are active in and among them? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Sun’s family of planets, satellites, and minor bodies originate and evolve? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of the solar system that lead to habitable environments? </li></ul><ul><li>How and where could life begin and evolve in the solar system? </li></ul><ul><li>What are characteristics of small bodies and planetary environments that pose hazards and/or provide resources? </li></ul>Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere Victoria Crater from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, July 18, 2009 Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona
  17. 23. Planetary Science Missions in Operation
  18. 24. <ul><li>Hale Crater showing gullies on side of crater wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Crater is approximately 149km across, located in Argyre basin, 38.8 o S, 36.5 o W </li></ul>Gullies on Mars: Are the Flow Features from Water?
  19. 25. Martian Ice Found Just Below the Surface <ul><li>Fresh small impact craters show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice layer ~0.5 – 1m below surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimates over several weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spectral analysis shows ~99% pure water </li></ul><ul><li>Ice more extensive than expected from current climate </li></ul><ul><li>Mars had a wet history </li></ul>35m 88 days 50 days <ul><ul><li>43.3° N 164.2° E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46.2° N 188.5° E </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. Life in Extreme Environments: Yellowstone N.P.
  21. 27. The Icy Surface of Europa
  22. 28. Water Vapor in Geyser-like Jets on Saturn’s Moon Enceladus
  23. 29. Upcoming Significant Events <ul><li>Launches in 2011: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juno (August 5) - Juno will investigate Jupiter’s interior structure, deep atmosphere and magnetosphere, measure the abundance of oxygen on the planet, and monitor localized variations in concentrations of water and ammonia caused by meteorological factors. Juno will also investigate the convection that drives general circulation patterns in Jupiter’s atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAIL (September 8) – GRAIL’s two satellites will fly in tandem to map the gravity field of the Moon to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core, and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. GRAIL is based on the GRACE mission, which has been studying the Earth’s gravity field since 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSL (November 25) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mission Milestones in 2011: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stardust-NExT (February 14) – The mission will encounter Comet Tempel 1 and make observations of the comet’s dust properties. The encounter will provide a comparison of two comets (Tempel 1 and Wild 2) by the same instrument and multiple observations of Tempel 1 before and after a pass around the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MESSENGER (March 18) – MESSENGER will begin the process of orbit insertion around Mercury, becoming the first spacecraft to ever orbit the planet. Once in orbit, MESSENGER will determine Mercury's composition, image its surface, map its magnetic field and measure the properties of its core, explore the mysterious polar deposits to learn whether ice lurks in permanently shadowed regions, and characterize Mercury's tenuous atmosphere and Earth-like magnetosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dawn (August) – Dawn will begin it’s one year orbit of the asteroid Vesta. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Mars Rover Family Portrait <ul><li>MSL “Curiosity” is the largest rover yet…to assess whether Mars ever was, or is still today, an environment able to support microbial life. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet's &quot;habitability. </li></ul>Spirit and Opportunity 2003 Sojourner 1996 Curiosity 2011
  25. 31. Mars Science Laboratory SAM Installation Assembled Spacecraft Descent Stage Rover Driving Test
  26. 33. Heliophysics <ul><li>What causes the Sun to vary? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the Earth and the heliosphere respond? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the impacts on humanity? </li></ul>Understand the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system First light SDO image from March 30, 2010 Credit: NASA/GSFC/AIA
  27. 34. Applications of Heliophysics Science <ul><li>Modern society depends on a variety of technologies susceptible to the extremes of space weather </li></ul><ul><li>Electric power grids and oil & gas pipelines </li></ul><ul><li>High frequency radio communication and GPS navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Satellites and spacecraft in Earth orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Human and robotic explorers across the solar system are also affected by solar activity </li></ul><ul><li>SMD makes its Heliophysics research data sets and models continuously available to all users via Internet sites, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Community Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Center </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Space Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis System </li></ul>STEREO Views a Solar Storm in October 2009
  28. 35. Heliophysics Missions in Operation
  29. 38. 3D Sun App Allows Over A Million Users to Hold the Sun in the Palm of Their Hand This free iPhone and iPad app can be downloaded from . Left: Screenshot of SDO gallery Right: iPad screenshot of recent news items
  30. 40. Earth Science <ul><li>How is the global Earth system changing? (Characterize) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the sources of change in the Earth system and their magnitudes and trends? (Understand) </li></ul><ul><li>How will the Earth system change in the future? (Predict) </li></ul><ul><li>How can Earth System Science improve mitigation of and adaptation to global change? (Apply) </li></ul>Advance Earth System Science to meet the challenges of climate and environmental change Terra satellite image of plume from the Iceland volcano in April 2010 An end-to-end program encompassing space missions, suborbital platforms, data and information systems, fundamental research, data assimilation and modeling, applications research, and technology development.
  31. 41. Earth Science Research and Applications <ul><li>Applications Themes: </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Air Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Science Focus Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Variability & Change </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Water & Energy Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Surface & Interior </li></ul>Observed trends in groundwater levels from GRACE October 2003 – March 2009
  32. 42. Earth Science Missions in Operation
  33. 44. Hurricane Danielle’s Hot Towers from TRMM August 27, 2010
  34. 45. April 7, 2001 April 11, 2001 April 13, 2001 April 16, 2001 China Dust Storm Pollutes the Air in the Eastern US in April 2001
  35. 46. Response to Gulf Oil Spill <ul><li>Satellite instruments: continually monitored the extent of the spill </li></ul><ul><li>Terra & Aqua / MODIS – visible and infrared daily synoptic </li></ul><ul><li>Terra / ASTER – visible, near IR and thermal IR high res </li></ul><ul><li>EO-1 / Advanced Land Imager and Hyperion – highest res </li></ul><ul><li>Terra / MISR </li></ul><ul><li>CALIPSO / CALIOP </li></ul><ul><li>Airborne instruments: measured surface extent and volume </li></ul><ul><li>ER2 / AVIRIS and DCS, MASTER – May, Jul, Aug, Sept </li></ul><ul><li>Twin Otter / AVIRIS (July 1-12) </li></ul><ul><li>B200 / HSRL– 10-11 May; two FOO; CALIOP studies </li></ul><ul><li>UAVSAR– 22-24 June </li></ul><ul><li>Data and provided to USGS for use by first responders; </li></ul><ul><li>NOAA using radiances to initialize trajectory model, USGS for oil concentration </li></ul>UAVSAR 23 June 2010 ASTER 24 May 2010 ER-2 Flights MODIS 31 May 2010 Visible/IR false color Visible
  36. 47. UAVSAR to Measure Deformation of Hispaniola Faults Following the Devastating January 2010 Haiti Earthquake NASA added a series of science over-flights of earthquake faults in Haiti and the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola to a previously scheduled three-week airborne radar campaign to Central America, Jan 25- Feb 14 to study the structure of tropical forests; monitor volcanic deformation and volcano processes; and examine Mayan archeology sites. NASA's UAVSAR airborne radar will create 3-D maps of earthquake faults over wide swaths of Haiti (red shaded area map left) to study post-seismic deformation; and the Dominican Republic (yellow shaded area) to baseline the historically very active fault. Current international spaceborne SAR provides examples of the opportunity, but do not image regions at risk to geohazards on a systematic global basis. Image on the left : JAXA ALOS PALSAR demonstrates L-band coherence over a 10-month period to observe deformation in Haiti, but typically there are only 1-2 observations / yr with a 46-day revisit possible. UAVSAR can supplement temporal coverage, provides higher resolution and optimized viewing geometry. Above: Quicklook Image along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault showing only half the acquired range swath: Acquired on January 27, 2010
  37. 49. Joint Agency Satellite Division <ul><li>JASD was established following the decision to replace the NPOESS program with the NOAA/NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (afternoon orbit) and the DoD Defense Weather Satellite System (morning orbit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds on NASA’s history of successfully executing a number of programs on behalf of other agencies, including POES, GOES, and TIROS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements and budget flows from our customers – NOAA and USGS – while NASA is responsible for the space development and acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JASD program funding is reimbursable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOAA missions include JPSS, GOES-R, Jason 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASA and USGS are exploring a similar reimbursable arrangement for future Landsat satellites beyond LDCM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 50. Sharing NASA Science with Diverse Audiences Through Targeted Outreach
  39. 51. Preview of Coming Attractions…
  40. 52. Dawn Arrives at Vesta on July 16, 2011 Dawn’s goal is to characterize the conditions and processes of the solar system’s earliest epoch by investigating in detail two of the largest protoplanets remaining intact since their formations. Ceres and Vesta reside in the extensive zone between Mars and Jupiter.
  41. 53. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Launch Date: September 8, 2011 GRAIL will place two spacecraft in a low-altitude (50 km)to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. Also, analysis of GRAIL data will extend knowledge gained from the Moon to the other terrestrial planets.
  42. 54. Juno NASA’s 2nd orbital mission to Jupiter Juno will investigate Jupiter’s interior structure, deep atmosphere and magnetosphere, measure the abundance of oxygen on the planet, and monitor localized variations in concentrations of water and ammonia caused by meteorological factors. Juno will also investigate the convection that drives general circulation patterns in Jupiter’s atmosphere. Launch Date: September 8, 2011
  43. 55. Mars Science Laboratory (2011) <ul><li>The largest rover yet…to assess whether Mars ever was, or is still today, an environment able to support microbial life. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet's &quot;habitability. </li></ul>Launch Date: November 25, 2011
  44. 56. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (2012) Measure the particles, magnetic and electric fields, and waves that fill geospace to give scientists the data they need to make predictions of changes in this critical region of space.
  45. 57. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) - 2014 MMS will measure the 3D structure and dynamics of the key magnetospheric boundary regions.
  46. 58. Solar Probe Plus - 2018 SPP will operate within the Sun’s outer atmosphere (or corona) as it extend into space. From a distance of about 9.5 solar radii, SPP will repeatedly sample the near-Sun environment to revolutionize our understanding of coronal heating and the origin and evolution of the solar wind.
  47. 59. Aquarius Launch Date: June 9, 2011 By measuring sea surface salinity over the globe with such unprecedented precision, Aquarius will answer long-standing questions about how our oceans respond to climate change and the water cycle. Monthly sea surface salinity maps will give clues about changes in freshwater input and output to the ocean associated with precipitation, evaporation, ice melting, and river runoff. The Aquarius instrument will fly on Argentina’s SAC-D mission. The science instruments will include a set of three radiometers that are sensitive to salinity (1.413 GHz; L-band) and a scatterometer that corrects for the ocean's surface roughness.
  48. 60. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Launch Date: October 25, 2011 NPP is the bridge between the major Earth Observing System satellites( Terra, Aqua, and Aura) and the forthcoming series of Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites which will compose the civilian polar-orbiting weather satellites. NPP data will be used for both climate research and operational weather prediction.
  49. 61. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) - 2015 SMAP will provide the first global measurements of soil moisture, a key missing element in modeling the global water cycle.
  50. 62. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR) 2012 NuSTAR will be the first focusing high energy X-ray mission, opening the hard X-ray sky for sensitive study for the first time. NuSTAR will search for black holes, map supernova explosions, and study the most extreme active galaxies.
  51. 63. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope. JWST will find the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way Galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System.
  52. 65. The Business of Science
  53. 66. SMD Organization Strategic Integration & Management Division Dir. (D. Woods) Dep. (G. Williams) Heliophysics Division Dir. (R. Fisher) Dep. (V. Elsbernd) Astrophysics Division Dir. (J. Morse) Dep. (G. Yoder) Embeds/POCs Chief Engineer (K. Ledbetter) Safety & Msn Assurance (P. Martin) General Counsel Office (S. Barber) Legislative & Intergvtl Affairs (C. Flaherty) Public Affairs (D. Brown) Resource Management Division Dir. (C. Tupper) Dep. (K. Wolf) Planetary Science Division Dir. (J. Green) Dep. (J. Adams) Earth Science Division Dir. (M. Freilich) Dep. (M. Luce) * Direct report to NASA Associate Administrator ** Co-located from the Front Office Joint Agency Satellite Division Dir. (M. Watkins) Dep. (D. Schurr) JWST Program Office (Rick Howard)* Applied Sciences (L. Friedl - Act) Research (J. Kaye) Flight (S. Volz) November 2010 Mars Exploration (D. McCuistion) Solar System Exploration (J. Adams-Act) Planetary Research (J.Rall) Planetary Protection Officer (C. Conley)**
  54. 67. SMD Programs in FY12 President’s Budget * Science Mission Directorate ($5B) Planetary Science Division ($1.5B) Astrophysics Division ($1.1B) Heliophysics Division ($.6B) Earth Science Division ($1.9B) New Frontiers Mars Exploration Discovery Planetary Science Research Living with a Star Solar Terrestrial Probes Heliophysics Explorer Earth System Science Pathfinder Earth Systematic Missions New Millennium Heliophysics Research Astrophysics Research Cosmic Origins Physics of the Cosmos Exoplanet Exploration Astrophysics Explorer Earth Science Research Applied Sciences Earth Science Technology ESS Multi-mission Ops Outer Planets Planetary Science Technology Lunar Quest Joint Agency Satellite Division* Joint Polar Satellite System Landsat Follow-on GOES Program Climate Sensors James Webb Space Telescope $.375)B Division * JASD programs are funded by other agencies and implemented by NASA on a reimbursable basis Program Office Program
  55. 68. <ul><li>SMD works to implement the priorities defined by the National Academy of Sciences in NRC decadal surveys and other reports </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decadal surveys represent the broad consensus of the nation’s scientific communities, and are the starting point for NASA’s strategic planning process in Earth and space sciences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NASA also receives ongoing tactical-level advice from the science community through the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) and its Science Committee and Subcommittees </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This includes the development of community-based roadmaps that define approaches to implementing the decadal survey science priorities, factoring in technology readiness and synergies among destinations and measurement types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information on the Science Committee and its Subcommittees, including their reports and findings, can be accessed at: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition, NASA receives advice from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee chartered by Congress to convey community input on collaborative program opportunities for NSF, NASA, and DOE </li></ul>External Science Community Advice
  56. 69. Setting Priorities: Space Missions <ul><li>Begin with National Research Council decadal survey priorities, which are founded on scientific importance </li></ul><ul><li>The Plan list includes missions already initiated as well as those in the conceptual stage; missions closer to launch are generally given higher priority for funding than missions further from launch </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors considered in prioritization include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission science interdependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive and legislative branch mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmatic considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, assignment of high priority to a mission does not always mean it goes first; rather it will go as soon as it can be done well, commensurate with the community’s desire for a balanced program </li></ul>
  57. 70. Two Broad Classes of Missions <ul><li>Strategic missions are the backbone of the science roadmaps in each area and are usually large and multi-purpose in scope. Strategic missions are generally assigned to a NASA Center to implement, with science instruments and many platform components selected in open competitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Competed missions are employed to meet focused science objectives via innovative mission proposals. Competed missions are generally solicited as complete missions via open Announcements of Opportunity, and each is led by a Principal Investigator (PI). </li></ul>* Entries under Small, Medium, and Large are Mission Lines from 2010 Science Plan Appendix 2 Small* Medium* Large* Flagship Strategic ES Systematic Lunar Quest ES Systematic Mars Exploration Solar Terrestrial Probes Living With a Star Exoplanet Exploration ES Systematic Mars Exploration Living With a Star Cosmic Origins Physics of the Cosmos e.g, James Webb Space Telescope, Mars Science Lab, NPOESS Preparatory Project Competed ESSP Explorers Discovery New Frontiers
  58. 71. NASA Research Solicitations <ul><li>Announcement of Opportunity (AO) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically a few per year; always used for specific space flight programs </li></ul><ul><li>Invites proposals for research for which space flight hardware may be required to obtain the data needed to achieve the stated science objective, an end-to-end activity called a “science investigation” </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively rare </li></ul><ul><li>Used where research or research-related activity is to be carried out in close cooperation with NASA, (classic example: the formation/operation of a “research institute”) </li></ul><ul><li>NASA Research Announcement (NRA) </li></ul><ul><li>The proposer has considerable freedom to specify specific objectives within the broad program objectives given in the NRA. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to fund supporting research and technology, research and data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Awards typically grants, ~ $50K to ≥$1M (average ~ $100K). </li></ul><ul><li>Grants require Yearly and Final Reports and publication of research results but no other deliverables of goods or services. </li></ul>