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Muhammad naseem e portfolio

M.NASEEM M.PHIL EDUCATION SPRING 2015
RESEARCH PROPOSAL /E-PORTFOLIO DEFENSE WITH DR GULAB KHAN , DR RIAZ, SIR BOJRAJ ,& DOCTORS FROM ALHAMD ISAMABAD UNIVERSITY (1ST BATCH OF ALHAMD ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY QUETTA MPHIL EDU)
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Muhammad naseem e portfolio

  1. 1. Sunday, October 22, 2017
  2. 2. General Information / Research Interest  Resume  Philosophy  Research Interest  Professional Highlights  Volunteering in Pakistan Coursework Research Methods & Technology Ed-701 Professional Development of Teachers Ed-702 Techniques of Educational Assessment Ed-703 Qualititative Research Methods in Education Organizational Theories Ed-707 Report Writing Ed-708 Data Management and Analysis Ed-710 Educational Research Collaborative Leadership Ed-711 Educational Administration & Leadership Ed-710 Portfolio Policy Studies Ed-704 Quantitative Research Methods in Education Ed-705 Contemporary Issue in Education Ed-706 Educational change and Development  Program Insights  Words of Wisdom Future Plans Search by Professor Gratitude
  3. 3.  Professionally serving duties as Secondary School Teacher .  Numerous professional development trainings . Ie by PEADS (Disaster Risk Management)USAID (Hygiene Training)etc  Volunteer work for the USAID vision test at Secondary Schools .  Anti Malaria Awareness Campaign organized by health Department of Baluchistan. Professional Trainings Professional Activities / Tasks for content improvements/ volunteer works.
  4. 4. Diploma Associate Engineer (Mechanical & instrumentation ) 2007 Master English Literature 2015 Master International Relation 2011 Bachelor Economic , Sociology 2009 Master of Education 2014 Bachelor of Education 2012 Anticipated THESIS -Educational Administration and Leadership (2018) My Formal Education Matriculation (Science ) 2004
  5. 5. “The first step - especially for young people with energy and drive and talent, but not money - the first step to controlling your world is to control your culture. To model and demonstrate the kind of world you demand to live in. To write the books. Make the music. Shoot the films. Paint the art.” ― Chuck Palahniuk.“ Happiness, wealth and success are byproduct of goal setting they can not be goal themselves. Denis waitley Racism is taught in our society, it is not automatic. It is learned behavior toward persons with dissimilar physical characteristics. Alex Haley A good education involves an Ethics of Caring Nel Noddings Education is to surpass those cultures, tradition ,norms and values which are obstacle toward the goal of advancement or streamline movement of society or nation or awakening the spirit of sensualizing diversities toward unified theme. That we have observed in our circumference . Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Nelson Mandela
  6. 6. There were many reasons to perpetuate M.Phil study program . Meanwhile being through this program i had been made a proficient in the multiple study and oral skills that would not only assisted me in my personal life but also in my professional live with peer ,immediate, and friends etc.
  7. 7. Having a cardial close integration with my people I had been always a part of Developing ,Non Developing programs that are public oriented had really carried out each programs for the benevolence society and humanity. As Such As I : • Conducted the multiple Health Training Programs for the awareness of students , and communities from Health Department Cooperation . • An other vision assessment test of the students of multiples classes of our school Government Technical Model High School held out by USAID. • I do voluntarily worked out for the hygiene improvement coordinator in Kachi Baig ,Saryab Road Quetta ,Baluchistan. Program developed by Kachi Baig High School Staff. Finally I’m more eagerly ready with enthusiastic spirit to conduct and execute activities for the benevolence of humanity .
  8. 8.  An aspiration to perpetuate my study after ward for PhD and thereafter would strive for significant influence-able leadership position where I could exercise and let other to utilize their practice apart from malfunctioning traditional, cultural , norms and values which are driving our nation apart from our national and Islamic goals .i have apprehended to greater extent to determine those irrational themes which are co-morbided with our educational system . I would like to: • devote time, energy, and passion to help improve the quality of teacher’s education removing irrational contents from pedagogical practices and students mind sets. • Making a circumference where all have same people will attain same education with same mood beyond distorting someone’s inner self or belief but a real rational education . Where fosters harmony ,enthusiasm for carrying out the soothed entity of real life to achieve succession.
  9. 9. Search By Professor Dr. Gulab Khan Khilji, Ph.D. Dr. Riaz Ahmed, Ph.D. Dr. Rani Gull, Ph.D. Dr. Khansa, Ph.D. Dr. Sheikh Tariq Mehmood, Ph.D. Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Cheema Ph.D. Dr. Javeed Rana Ph.D. Dr. Shahid Ahmed Ph.D.
  10. 10. Presentation :- Philosophy and its branches with its composition with reference to education Assignment:- Baluchistan Educational issues and their remedial Ms.Khansa The key purpose of this subject is to evaluate the key traits of teacher and understanding the previous philosophies of education to and built one streamline move for them to prospers. Search by Professor Applications Some Basic Information:-  Teacher and His Role  Teacher’s leading traits and  features Major philosophies of Education  Perennialism  Essentialism  Progressivism  Existentialism  Cognitivism/Constructivism  Bloom Taxonomy  Major & Modern areas Teacher Development John W.Best James v.Kahn
  11. 11. Presentation :- Standardize test & Class Test and shortly describe the advantages and disadvantages of standard Test measurement ,scale and types of scaling Dr. Shahid To Differentiate Between: Assessment & Evaluation Standardize Test and Class Test  Validity & Reliability To Understand :-  Purpose of Evaluation  Types of evaluation  Test preparing basic & Its Basic Principles  Scoring and Grading The course would enable the student to apprehend the standardized procedures while designing instrument for assessing students or teachers through technical procedure with its abided terms.  San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Search by Professor Applications Assignment:-
  12. 12. Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Cheema Novice researchers to design research problems, collect information about, analyzing and interpreting qualitative data and then present their results It stresses the importance of ethics in qualitative research Search by Professor To understand about :-  Research  Qualitative Research  Characteristic of Qualitative Research  Difference between Qty & Qlty R  Types of Qualitative Research  Case study  Grounded Theory  Phenomenology  Ethnography  Historical Applications Presentation :- Qualitative research ethics and its objective Assignment:- Define ensuring term for qualitative research Credibility/ trustworthiness Transferability Dependability Confirmability •Sherri L Jackson •Pearson
  13. 13. Novice researchers to design research problems, collect information about, analyzing and interpreting qualitative data and then present their results It stresses the importance of ethics in qualitative research To understand about :-  Research  Quantitative Research  Qty/ Research process  Qty Research Types  Characteristic of Qty R  Sample  Sampling Process  Sampling types Dr. Javeed Rana  Best & James Search by Professor Applications Presentation :- Experimental and Qausi- Experimental Research and its advantages and disadvantages Assignment:- Most common errors of sampling while collecting sample
  14. 14. Presentation :- Conflict Resolution The subject would enable the novice to apprehend the close view of the cotemporary issues in education system of Pakistan and the rational model to resolve those through strategically tactics. • David Seth Preston Search by Professor Dr.Khansa To Understand About :-  Technology in education  Gender disparity  Conflict its types levels  Conflict Resolution  Peace Johan Galtung Peace Model Knowledge for Peace Education Major Challenges Schools in Pakistan To overcome Applications Assignment:-
  15. 15. Presentation:- Change Process , Steps And Types Of Changes. Assignment:- Change and Major Benefits for individual and system. Would enable the novice to apprehend the comprehensive means of change through set themes of SWOT analysis and bringing educational change for prosperity and development of pupils and system. To Understand About :-  Change & Need for Change  Education as a tool for change  types of changes Role of school manager Competencies of H.O.D Major barriers for change Social Change & Education Relationship  Types of social change • Christopher M. Branson Search by Professor Dr. Sheikh Tariq Mehmood Applications
  16. 16. The syllabus would enable the student to apprehend writing reports its purposes to appropriate mean with compact references indexation. Dr .Gulab Khan • Dr. Margrat Greenhall Search by Professor To Understand About :- REPORT WRITING PURPOSE OF REPORT WRITING (Types) FORMAT FOR REPORT WRTING STEPS IN REPORT WRTING CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE REPORT WRITING IN-TEXT CITATION (APA STYLES) REFERENCE APA STYLE BOOK REFERENCE APA STYLE PERIODIC/INTERNET INFORMATION SOURCES OF INFORMATION Applications Assignment:- BALOCHISTAN ENGLISH CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT VS NATIONAL CURRICULUM Presentation:- REPORT WRITING PURPOSE AND ITS FORMAT
  17. 17. The book we had been through have thoroughly helped us out to evaluate the outcome of the research from SPSS. To Understand About:-  SPSS & Its Uses  Layout understanding of Statistical package for social science  Data View  Variable View  Descriptive Statistic  Inferential Statistic  T-test  ANOVA( Analysis of Variance  Linear/Multi-regression Dr. Riaz Green & Salkind Search by Professor Applications Presentation:- Assignment:- In this course we had been through numerous assignments that we executed
  18. 18. Dr. Rani Gull The content would enable the novice to propose the rationally clear, concise and prompted descriptions to a purport outcome. To Understand About :-  Synopsis  Literature Review  Structure of Literature Review  Principles and steps of Writing Literature Review  Research Proposal its Importance  Component of Research Proposal  Interviewing and types of interviews Search by Professor Applications Presentation:- SAMPLING TYPES OF SAMPLING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Assignment:- LITERATURE REVIEW OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PAK-STUDY A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR CORE ISLAMIC VALUES •Dimitra Hartas
  19. 19. The course would enable the novice to apprehend the multiple dimensions of any administrative, teaching faculty and students to assess ,evaluate and bring in a reforms in-unison. Leadership and Administration differences leading features Dr. Gulab Khan Search by Professor To understand about :- Leadership Styles of leadership Educational Administration Main functions Communication Process of communication Step for effective listening Main common barriers of listening Emotional Intelligence(E.I) Leaders: “Do the right thing!” Managers:“Do things right!” Applications Presentation:- Assignment:- A short interview that holds principal role function and confronting of challenges•David Burgess & Paul Newton
  20. 20. Dr. Riaz The electronic portfolio would enable the student about the use of MS OFFICE 2016 and specially Power Point .and on the other hand the quality of effective presentation. Search by Professor Applications Computer Based Knowledge:- MS OFFICE 2016 A SPECIAL DEDICATIVE EFFORT FOR DEVELOPING ELECTRONIC PORTFOLIO THROUGH POWER POINT , PREZI , EXCEL ETC. Presentation:- MULTIPLE TIME DELEVERANCE OF DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF M. NASEEM
  21. 21. Title: RATIONAL CORE VALUES AT SECONDARY EDUCATION TO REMOVE SOCIAL ,PERSONAL AND TRADITIONAL BARRIERS Rationale: Research Questions: Methodology:
  22. 22. Dr. Gulab Khan, Ph.D. Dr. Riaz Ahmed, Ph.D. Dr. Rani Gull, Ph.D. Ms. Khansa, Ph.D. Dr. Tariq, Ph.D. Dr.Cheema Ph.D. Shaqeeb Ahmed Ali Sheerani Abdul Wahid Tahir Shah Rafeeq Ahmed Khalid Shah Dr shakeel Roshan Naeem Ahmed Urwa Javeed The Faculty Cohort University correspondents Miss Shagufta Mr. Aimal Khan SUPPORTING STAFF
  23. 23. Controller (class ,activities) Organizer Engage,Instruct ,initiate,organize) Participant (enrich student enjoyment) Assessor (correct grade various activities) Prompter (encourage, motivate) Resource (available ,helpful, equip) Tutor (more personal contacts) Observer (feedback)
  24. 24. 1. Adaptability 2. Confidence 3. Communication 4. Team Player 5. Continuous Learner 6. Imaginative 7. Leadership 8. Organization 9. Innovative 10. Commitment 11. Ability to Engage 12. Understanding of Technology 13. Ability to Empower
  25. 25. • A person's score on the same test given twice is similar • Test/retest: get the same patterns of score on test 1 & on test 2 • Consistency of measurement (stability,Equivalence,I nternal consistency) • “the degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring” (Brown, 1996, p. 231). • Internal Validity: Content regarding cause- effect or causal relationships • Construct Validity: relates to generalizing (content, Criterion Related, Construct )
  26. 26. • Assessment is the process of describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting information about learning. • Evaluation is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing data in order to determine whether and to what degree objectives have been or are being, achieved. (criterion based)
  27. 27. Search by Professor • Accountability • Validating our hypothesis • Comparison • Knowing Status • Knowing Needs • Planning further • PURPOSE……...........
  28. 28. Search by Professor • As per Quality of Evaluation – Quantitative :- Provide a quantifiable objective measure, Expressed in proportions Example: • How many students have got >60% – Qualitative :- – Communicate general expectations ,Expressed in grading ,Open to interpretation – Examples: • What about status of students morality ? • As per Time of Evaluation – Formative :- – Ongoing evaluation during an instructional period – To know the perceptions of the students in comparison to instructor – Summative :- – Conducted at the end course. – Purpose is to form a judgment about – Performance of student – Effectiveness of an instructor – Effectiveness of the course – Regularly scheduled at the end of academic terms. – Pre – Post Evaluation
  29. 29. Search by Professor It is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical performances, or classification in many other topics.  Validity Practicality and Scoring  Reliability Usability  Objectivity  Discrimination  Comprehensiveness  Ease of Administration
  30. 30. Search by Professor To get marks or score To get overall grade Marks scored in test, quizzes, assignment, exams etc. Grades of overall marks in subjects Denoted by numbers, eg. 23 / 50 Denoted by Letters, eg. A / B / C Scoring Grading
  31. 31. Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events.’ Best and Kahn (1989) Qualitative research is “…the interpretive study of a specified issue or problem in which the researcher is central to the sense that is made” (Banister et al., 1994) Search by Professor
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  33. 33. Search by Professor l 37 • The aim is a detailed description. • Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for. • The design emerges as the study unfolds. • Researcher is the data gathering instrument. • Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. • Subjective - individuals’ interpretation of events is important • Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and not generalizable. • Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. • The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. • Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for. • All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. • Researcher questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. • Data is numerical in nature. • Objective – seeks measurement & analysis of target concepts. • Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses. • Researcher tends to remain separated from the subject matter.
  34. 34. Search by Professor Attempts to shed light on a phenomena by studying in depth a single case example of the phenomena. The case can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution. Theory is developed inductively from a corpus of data acquired by a participant-observer. Describes the structures of experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines Focuses on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of socio-cultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community. Systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events.
  35. 35. Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events.’ Best and Kahn (1989) Quantitative research is "a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are utilised to obtain information about the world" Cited by Cormack 1991. Quantitative research is inclined to be deductive. (Test) Search by Professor
  36. 36. Search by Professor 1. Theory 3. Research Design 4. Devise measures of concepts 2. Hypothesis 5. Select research site / Respondents 6. Data Collection 7. Preparation of data 10. Report Writing 9. Drawing Conclusions 8. Analysis and interpretations Experimental Research Quasi-Experimental Research Correlation Studies Surveys
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  39. 39.  increase student attention and interest in the matter  Increase standardized test score  Increase higher-order thinking in student  Increase student future success  Enhance teacher pedagogical practice  Enhance students learning  Remove the barriers of limitation  Develop the broad spectrum approach in students and teachers  Develop globalization  It trains the students for their later life too . It may they use in their professions.  An excitement for learning new things and mode of creativity is being developed .  In short it build student independency of self learning. Search by Professor
  40. 40. Search by Professor http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405883116300247
  41. 41. Search by Professor https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2013/08/05/gender-disparity-in-balochistan- jeopardises-girls-education/ https://www.dawn.com/news/1292347
  42. 42. Search by Professor It is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about. Types of conflict – support the goals of the group and improves its performance – conflict that hinders group performance
  43. 43. Search by Professor   A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
  44. 44. Search by Professor -A renowned peace theorists and researcher, argues that structural violence occurs when the wealth of affluent nations, groups or individuals is based on the labor and the essential resources drawn from nations,, groups or individuals who, as a consequence, are required to live diminished lives of deprivation. --he formulates “Peace as the absence of violence and the presence of social justice”
  45. 45. Search by Professor Absence of direct/physical violence (both macro and micro) e.g., war, torture, child and woman abuse Presence of conditions of well-being and just relationships: social, economic, political, ecological e.g., poverty, hunger e.g., racism, sexism, religious intolerance e.g., pollution, overconsumption
  46. 46.  Holistic Concept for Peace  Conflict and Violence  Some Peaceful Alternatives  Disarmament  Nonviolence  Conflict Resolution  Human Rights  Human Solidarity  Development Based on Justice  Democratization  Sustainable Development Search by Professor  Self respect  Respect for Others  Respect for Life  Gender Equality  Compassion  Global Concern  Ecological Concern  Cooperation  Openness/Tolerance  Justice  Social Responsibility  Positive Vision  Reflection  Critical Thinking and analysis  Decision-Making  Imagination  Communication  Conflict Resolution  Empathy  Group building
  47. 47. Search by ProfessorSearch by Professor “If reforms are to be successful, individuals and groups must find meaning concerning what should change as well as how to go about it” (Fullan, 2001 p.xi) The current world is changing at very high rate and without innovations and inventions educational institutions will lag behind.
  48. 48. Search by ProfessorSearch by Professor
  49. 49. Search by ProfessorSearch by Professor  Focused on creating a shared vision. This aligns with much of the general research.  Developed a climate of high expectation  Guided the continuous improvements of the school  Monitored the curriculum and students learning outcomes  Created and communicated the school vision  Arranged Staff development  Became a visible presence in the school by modeling the share values of the school’s culture
  50. 50. A professional A builder of relationships A good communicator A good listener A positive person A motivator Excellent leader Search by ProfessorSearch by Professor
  51. 51.  Lack of clear scope/definition  Too many other changes competing for resources  Poor implementation history  No sustained leadership support  Major employee resistance  Weak motivation  Poor communications  Unclear and/or undisciplined governance structure  Use of multiple approaches reinforces the silo (un- uniformed structure for boost) mentality Search by ProfessorSearch by Professor
  52. 52. Types of change Search by ProfessorSearch by Professor Reactive change Proactive change Revolutionary change Evolutionary change Remedial change Transitional change Transformational change Development Radically innovative change Radical change Planned Unplanned Growth Organizational Culture Perceptions of Stake Holders Lack of Holistic Approach (Perceive as a whole) Absence of Follow-up (future evaluated procedures) Absence of Support and Change Process
  53. 53. Search by Professor  Education initiates the social change and gives them direction and purpose.  Education determines the nature of social changes, which ought to be brought about.  Education prepares the individual for social changes. It brings a change in the need of the society.  Civilization change  Cultural change  Change in social relationship
  54. 54. Search by Professor
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  57. 57. Search by Professor Determine the objective of the report, i.e., identify the problem Collect the required material (facts) for the report Study and examine the facts gathered Plan the facts for the report Prepare an outline for the report, i.e., draft the report Edit the drafted report Distribute the draft report to the advisory team and ask for feedback and recommendations Clear Complete & self-explanatory Comprehensive But compact Accurate Formal format Facts based Proper date & signature Relevant Reference Essential technical details Reliable document Arranged with logic
  58. 58. Search by Professor • Above than 40 word with new paragraph • Less than 40 word within the paragraph. • Example: John (2010) has advanced the idea of combating social sciences and mathematics to s within the series or paragraph. • One study has advanced the idea of combatting social sciences and mathematics to … (Verma, 2010). Or
  59. 59. Search by Professor • Use References. Should be double spaced throughout and Alphabetize the entries letter by letter. • Align Left first line indented five spaces. • Italicize name of books, periodicals, and volume numbers. • Template: Book • Author Surname, Author Forename. (Year). 'Title: Subtitle. Place: Publisher. • Khilji, G. K. (2017). Library services in digital age. Quetta: PPA.
  60. 60. Search by Professor • Journal Article • Chaudhary, R. (2010). Total quality management in libraries. Library Herald, 35 (1), 75-80. • Magazine Article • Boyle, T. C. (2017, October) What separates us from animals. Time, 23-28. • E-Book • Author, A. (date). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx
  61. 61. Search by Professor Sources of information PRIMERY SOURCES:- Autobiographies Email, letters Descriptions of travel Diaries, Eyewitnesses Oral histories Literary works Interviews Personal narratives Legal cases, treaties scientific data, transcripts Journal articles Records of organizations and government agencies SECONDARY SOURCES :-  Biographies, Encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks  Textbooks & monographs on a topic  Literary criticism & interpretation  history & historical criticism  political analyses  reviews of law and legislation  essays on morals and ethics  analyses of social policy  study and teaching material  Articles, such as literature reviews,  Commentaries, research articles in all subject disciplines  Criticism of works of literature, art and music TERTIARY SOURCES:- Chronologies Classifications Dictionaries Encyclopedias Directories Guidebooks and manuals Population registers statistics Fact books Abstracts Indexes Bibliographies Manuals/Guide books
  62. 62. SYNOPSIS INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY IMPLICATIONS OF STUDY DICUSSION CONCLUSION Search by Professor OBJECTIVE OF SYNOPSIS :- Starting point for looking toward the Research Indentifying the worthiness / Potential of Research Point of Decision (Research look Forward / Not)
  63. 63.  Discusses published information .  The effective evaluation of selected documents on topic.  A critical synthesis of previous research. Search by Professor Structure Of Literature Review Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern. Contains your discussion of sources. Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
  64. 64. Do not be biased (it’s not persuasive) Present both sides of an argument and show why your side is more important Mix argument with explanations Write at the level of your audience Move from general to specific Steps for Writing a Literature Review Planning • What Type of Literature Review . /Am I Writing? Reading and Research • What Materials /Am I Going to Use? Analyzing • How Do I Assess Existing Research? Drafting • What Am I .Going to Write? Revising • How Can I Fine-tune My Draft?
  65. 65. • Research proposal is a blue print of the study that simply outlines the steps that researcher will undertake during the conduct of his/her study. • Proposal is a tentative plan so the researcher has every right to modify his proposal on the basis of his reading, discussion and experiences gathered in the process of research. Research Proposal
  66. 66. • Problem proposed to investigate is significant enough. • It serves as a plan for conducting the research. • Research is a team work and you have opinion of others • For finalization of a research plan. • for applying grants to an agency. • The method plan to use is suitable and feasible. • Results are likely to prove fruitful and will make an original contribution. • To convince the peoples (reader or audience) regarding selected problem.
  67. 67. Main Components Of a Research Proposal • Topic of a research • Introduction  Background for the problem  Relevant literature & researches  Significance of the study • Statement of the problem • Objectives • Questions of the study/ hypothesis • Research design  Population and sample  Research tools  Procedures for data collection  Statistical techniques for data analysis • Time schedule/ Plan of the study • Cost estimate and budgeting • References
  68. 68. Purposeful conversation (between two or more people) directed by one person to get information from another . (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998)
  69. 69. . • Change actions and attitudes, organizational structures, cultures, motivation, decision making, curriculum, teaching and learning, etc… • Focus change of group member to achieve specific goals. • You can’t lead without people to lead. TYPES OF LEADERS - FORMAL INFORMAL
  70. 70. l Autocratic Democratic Strategic Transformational Transactional Team Leadership Cross-Cultural Leadership Facilitative Leadership Laissez-faire Charismatic Leadership No Flexibility .Leaders make decisions on their own without consulting subordinates Flexible .Subordinates are involved in making decisions The strategic leader fills the gap between the need for new possibility and the need for practicality by providing a prescriptive set of habits is all about initiating change in organizations, groups, oneself and others leadership that involves an exchange process, whereby followers get immediate, tangible rewards for carrying out the leader’s orders Team leadership is about working with the hearts and minds of all those involved leadership normally exists where there are various cultures in the society. group is high functioning, the facilitative leader uses a light hand on the process. leadership gives authority to employees It actually involves a transformation of followers’ values and beliefs
  71. 71. Functions of an Educational Administrator ADMINISTERING MEANING ADMINISTERING COMMUNITY ADMINISTERING EXCELLENCE To provide opportunities for the students to discover meaning in their world. Learn beyond memorizing superficial knowledge Attuned to the realities of everyday life Traditional separation into Essential union. Cooperative learning and teamwork. organic management (commitment rather than control) administrator promotes and encourages high quality of performance in/out school and community.
  72. 72. Source Encoding (the process of giving physical shape to one’s idea) Message (coded idea of the sender. Written script etc.) Channel (medium) Decoding (retranslati on of the message) Receiver
  73. 73. Step 1: Face the speaker and maintain eye contact. Step 2: Be attentive, but relaxed. Step 3: Keep an open mind. Step 4: Listen to the words and try to picture what the speaker is saying. Step 5: Don't interrupt and don't impose your "solutions.“ Step 6: Wait for the speaker to pause to ask clarifying questions. Step 7: Ask questions only to ensure understanding. Step 8: Try to feel what the speaker is feeling. Step 9: Give the speaker regular feedback. Step 10: Pay attention to what isn't said—to nonverbal cues.
  74. 74. 1 - Knowing the answer 2 - Trying to be helpful 3 - Treating discussion as competition 4 - Trying to influence or impress 5 - Reacting to red flag words 6 - Believing in language 7 - Mixing up the forest and the trees 8 - Over-splitting or over-lumping Strategy for overcoming this barrierMain Barriers Wait for three seconds after the speaker finishes before beginning your reply. Proverb:- When walking, walk. When eating, eat." Where you truly disagree avoid dismissing statements completely The only way is to make notes of your internal motives. Try to stop the conversation, if possible, so that you don't miss anything that the speaker says Cross verification for the point at nothing.ie data,delta Listener can explicitly ask, for specific exemplary details Ask questions to determine more precisely where you agree or disagree
  75. 75. With SPSS we can analyze data with three following ways: Describe Data using Descriptive statistic which is meant for Frequency, mean, median ,mode, minimum and max. Examine Relationship which is meant Regression and Correlation etc Compare groups to determine if there are significant difference between these groups T-Test
  76. 76. The Data Editor window has two views that can be selected from the lower left hand side of the screen. Data View is where you see the data you are using. Variable View is where you can specify the format of your data when you are creating a file or where you can check the format of a pre- existing file. The data in the Data Editor is saved in a file with the extension .sav. The other most commonly used SPSS Information from the Output Viewer is saved in a file with the extension .spo. SPSS LAYOUT
  77. 77. DATA VIEW Data view is used to enter data and view a data In data view Row Represent the individual cases. It can be id , name , sex , education etcetera Column represent the particular variable in your data file.
  78. 78. Descriptive Statistics Mean Mode: The most repeated magnitude in series . Median : is the center of all magnitude Descriptive statistics
  79. 79. inferential statistics allows you to make predictions (“inferences”) from that data. With inferential statistics, you take data from samples and make generalizations about a population. For example, you might stand in a mall and ask a sample of 100 people if they like shopping at Millennium. You could make a bar chart of yes or no answers (that would be descriptive statistics) or you could use your research (and inferential statistics) to reason that around 75-80% of the population (all shoppers in all malls) like shopping at Millennium Mall. There are two main areas of inferential statistics: Estimating parameters. This means taking a statistic from your sample data (for example the sample mean) and using it to say something about a population parameter (i.e. the population mean).
  80. 80. The Independent Samples t Test compares the means of two independent groups in order to determine whether there is statistical evidence that the associated population means are significantly different. OR Its is used when there are two experimental condition and different participant have been used in each condition while paired with same variable Dependent variable, or test variable Independent variable, or grouping variable The Independent Samples t Test is commonly used to test the following: Statistical differences between the means of two groups Statistical differences between the means of two interventions Statistical differences between the means of two change scores Note: The Independent Samples t Test can only compare the means for two (and only two) groups. It cannot make comparisons among more than two groups. If you wish to compare the means across more than two groups, you will likely want to run an ANOVA
  81. 81.  Test variable is normal distributed in the population  Random sample from population  Effect size statistics:  d = Mean Differences SD  Repeated-Measures Design with No Intervention:  30 participants: job security or pay (2 variables)  Pre & Post test  Evaluates the difference between the mean of two independent groups- (is differs significant?)  50 depressed men, 50 not depressed- do depressed men eat less of equally given food- test variable- portion of food eaten  Compares the mean score of a sample to a known value  Usually, the known value is a population mean pre post
  82. 82. .
  83. 83. Linear /Multiple Regression Allow to statistically the model of variables relationship it also determine the one unit of independent variable impact while multiple regression denote the two or more variable and affects or impact on other variable. Keep in mind that regression does not prove any causal relations from our predictors on job performance. However, we do find such causal relations intuitively likely. If they do exist, then we can perhaps improve job performance by enhancing the motivation, social support and IQ of our employees. Such as
  84. 84. Linear Regression on SPSS
  85. 85. Multiple Regression • The multiple linear regression model is an extension of a simple linear regression model to incorporate two or more explanatory variable in a prediction equation for a response variable. It helps to estimate very complicated models with large numbers of variables. • Which variables are significantly contributing to the dependent variable?

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