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Power Point Lesson 03

  1. 1. Computing Fundamentals Module Lesson 3 — Maintaining and Protecting Hardware Computer Literacy BASICS
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain how to evaluate computer hardware to purchase components or upgrades. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe how input and output devices are connected to the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the routine maintenance tasks necessary to keep your computer in good working condition. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Explain how to use troubleshooting techniques to solve computer-related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to protect the computer system from damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify factors that can damage storage media and learn how to safeguard stored data. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vocabulary <ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Hackers </li></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel ports </li></ul><ul><li>Plug and play </li></ul><ul><li>Serial ports </li></ul><ul><li>Surge protectors </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><li>Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal serial bus (USB) </li></ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evaluating Hardware Components and Upgrades <ul><li>Make a list of the tasks you want to accomplish with a new system or upgrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Check company policies or standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the software you want to use for applications is compatible with the computer’s operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the expected useful life of the components. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Comparing CPUs <ul><li>Different types of computers use different central processing unit (CPU) chips. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of the CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depends on the system clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but one 800-MHz computer system may run faster than another of the same speed because they are designed differently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount of RAM available also affects the processing speed. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Comparing Computer Models <ul><li>What do you want to do with the computer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about peripherals and storage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors, speakers, card readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive storage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD, DVD </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Comparing Models
  9. 9. Upgrading Computer Hardware <ul><li>You can add more RAM to make a processor run faster. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion cards with 128K to 512K or more additional RAM are available on expansion cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit easily into the computer’s motherboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware peripherals, such as a new keyboard, mouse, or printer, are even easier to install with an installation wizard. </li></ul>
  10. 10. “Bundled” Software <ul><li>Software that comes with the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft® Works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other software may be offered on a trial basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must pay a fee to continue to use the program after a certain date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft® Offices (latest edition) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Warranties and Technical Support <ul><li>Most electronic equipment has a limited warranty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ensures defective components will be repaired or replaced during that time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers and retailers offer extended warranties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>additional cost ( Read the terms of a warranty to make sure it is a good value.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Register new equipment so that the manufacturer’s warranty will be in effect. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Connecting Devices to the Computer <ul><li>Input and output devices must be connected to the printer before they can be used. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two ways to connect I/O devices to the computer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug the device into an existing socket or port on the back of the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install a circuit board with the port you need already included. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Typical PC Port Arrangement
  14. 14. Serial and Parallel Ports <ul><li>Serial ports transmit data one bit at a time and are used to connect a mouse, modem, and keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel ports transmit data eight bits at a time and are used for printers and external storage devices. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Special Ports <ul><li>PS/2: Often used to connect a mouse or keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>USB: A newer standard that can be used to replace serial and parallel ports and can handle up to 127 devices </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI: Allows many devices to use a single port </li></ul><ul><li>MIDI: Used to connect recording devices </li></ul><ul><li>PC card: Can be connected to add memory or storage capacity </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cables <ul><li>Different types of cables are required to connect different devices: </li></ul><ul><li>Power cords </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-to-peripheral connections </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone line or cable modem connections </li></ul>A printer cable
  17. 17. Plug and Play <ul><li>Most hardware components available today are called plug and play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They install so simply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer’s operating system recognizes the new device when it is plugged in and takes care of all configuring tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dialog box (Wizard) will appear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>asks you to confirm the type of new hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer takes care of changing all settings and making it ready to use. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Routine Maintenance <ul><li>Make regular visual inspections of the computer system to look for problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the computer components clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform routine “internal” maintenance by running utility programs that clean up the hard disk drive by removing unneeded files and defragmenting the drive. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Routine Maintenance <ul><li>Keep anti-virus software up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Run software to remove “spyware” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-Aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free download ( ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Run disk cleanup to remove temporary files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you space on your hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps your computer run faster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delete “cookies” and temporary files through your browser (Internet Explorer) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Troubleshooting Steps <ul><li>1. Recognize the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Replicate the problem by reproducing the steps that cause the problem consistently. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Attempt basic solutions to correct the problem, such as restarting the hardware or checking cable connections. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Look for available help and advice in manuals, or access a technical support Web site or telephone number. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Troubleshooting Steps (cont.) <ul><li>5. Communicate the problem accurately to the support technician. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Follow the instructions the technician gives you carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Confirm that the problem has been fixed. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Avoid similar problems in the future. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Accessing Technical Support When trouble-shooting a computer problem, you can find advice on a technical support Web site provided by the hardware or software manu-facturer.
  23. 23. Protecting Hardware <ul><li>Protect it from power surges and electrical failures, theft, and environmental damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Use an uninterruptible power source (UPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents damage and data loss during a power failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surge protectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protect against power spikes that can destroy components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use security measures and good sense protect computer hardware from theft or damage. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Protecting Data <ul><li>Saving active files frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Backup procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create files that can be used to restore data if the primary storage system becomes inaccessible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use anti-virus software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses are programs written to corrupt data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Firewalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a combination of software and hardware elements, prevent unauthorized access to a computer on a network (including the Internet). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone Alarm (Free) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Caring for Storage Media <ul><li>Keep disks away from magnetic and electrical fields, such as those contained in televisions and monitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid extreme temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Never touch the surface of the media itself. Hold optical media, such as CDs and DVDs, at the edges. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove media from drives and store them properly when not in use. </li></ul><ul><li>Never remove a disk from a drive when the drive indicator light is on. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep disks in a sturdy case when transporting. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Decisions about what kind of computer to buy should be based on what you want a computer to do. </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of software you want to run should also help you decide what kind of computer to buy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to register new equipment to activate the warranty and technical support. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Input and output devices are connected to the computer through serial and parallel ports. </li></ul><ul><li>The Universal Serial Bus is a newer standard that is beginning to replace serial and parallel ports. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several types of ports: USB, SCSI, MIDI, parallel, and serial. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Cables connect peripherals to the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Many hardware devices today are designed to be plug and play, so the operating system recognizes the new hardware and configures the system for it to work correctly. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>A regular visual inspection of your computer system can help you find loose cables and other potential problems before they affect how the computer runs. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping your computer system clean is another way to avoid serious problems. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Troubleshooting involves analyzing problems to correct faults in the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Power outages and power surges can both damage hardware and corrupt data, so it is important to protect your computer system from fluctuations in the power supply. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Protect your computer from theft, viruses, and hackers by taking basic security precautions. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain a permanent copy of data, you must store it on some type of storage medium. These may include floppy diskettes, hard drives, CDs, magnetic tape cartridges, and WORM disks. </li></ul>

Notas del editor

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