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1
SOCIAL MARKETING
By
Nazar A. Mahmood
PhD Student
Community medicine department
College of Medicine
Hawler Medical Univer...
Objectives
2
1. Define social marketing.
2. Identify the gaols of social marketing.
3. Describe the major features and dis...
3
 Social Marketing was first explicitly defined in 1971 by Kotler & Zaltman
(1971, p.5) as:
“The application of principl...
4
 The original idea of social marketing is accredited to Wiebe who in 1952 in
an article entitled, “Merchandising Commod...
5
Goals
Social marketing seeks to impact personal
behavior by persuading target audiences to:
 Avoid risky practices (e.g...
6
1. Behavioural change is voluntary i.e. not by coercion or enforcement.
2. It operates on the principle of exchange i.e....
7
 Social marketing covers a wide variety of disciplines including:
o health education,
o advertising,
o economics,
o bus...
Social marketing vs. Commercial marketing
 Aims to change attitudes &
behaviour to a healthier
behaviour.
 Serves intere...
9
Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing
10
Social Marketing consists of four marketing elements (marketing mix) of
(4P...
Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing
11
The Price (The cost of adopting the product)
 what consumers must give up ...
Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing
12
The Place (where users are most likely to find them)
Places in which consum...
Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing
13
Promotion
• Refers to the means and messages by which the benefits of a
par...
Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing
14
Promotion (Visibility & Timing)
• High visibility constantly reminds the us...
Example of a Marketing Mix Strategy
15
As an example, the marketing mix strategy for a breast cancer screening
campaign fo...
16
Image used in the American Legacy Foundation's Truth antismoking campaign
aimed at young people
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
17
1. Identification of health problem & establishing methods for social
marketin...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
18
1. Identification of health problem & establishing methods for social
marketin...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
19
2. Identification of priorities and implementation of affordable efforts:
 Fo...
20
S – MAXIMISE
W –MINIMIZE
O - TAKE ADVANTAGE
T - BE PREPARE
− Situation analysis –factors and forces in external and int...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
21
3. Analysis of marketing activities, including social message:
 The strategy ...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
22
4. Identification of target audience for each marketing component:
 ‘Market s...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
23
5. Analysing each marketing strategy to determine attitudes and potential
resi...
TV videos in Nigeria related to
increased family planning
 Contraceptive use by
Nigerian women in
1993 who had seen
music...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
25
7. Designing and testing the social message:
 pretested on samples of target ...
A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing
26
9. Evaluate the impact of social messages:
 These should be assessed periodic...
LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING
27
1. Scale of intervention
2. Focus on isolated behaviour or products
3. Major structural...
LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING
28
1. Scale of intervention: social marketing is aimed at individual & at
the city, state,...
LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING
29
4. Decision-making: Remain an educational tool rather than a
coercive mechanism, social...
LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING
30
7. Lack of opportunity for educational use of the mass media:
• The channel or times gi...
Challenges that faced social marketing
31
1. Accurate market analysis: is most often not possible.
2. Market segmentation:...
Challenges that faced social marketing
32
5. Strategy for selecting channels for dissemination of social messages.
indirec...
How is social marketing applied to health?
33
• Social marketing is widely used to influence health behaviour.
• Social ma...
Social marketing wheel
34
Social marketing wheel
35
1. Developing plans and strategies using behavioural theory;
2. Selecting communication channels...
References
36
 Anthony S W. A Social Marketing Perspective of Young People’s Sexual Health,
Thesis, School of Health and ...
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Social marketing

  1. 1. 1 SOCIAL MARKETING By Nazar A. Mahmood PhD Student Community medicine department College of Medicine Hawler Medical University 2016
  2. 2. Objectives 2 1. Define social marketing. 2. Identify the gaols of social marketing. 3. Describe the major features and disciplines of social marketing 4. Enumerate the benchmark criteria of social marketing 5. Describe the 4P (marketing mix). 6. Describe how is social marketing applied to health. 7. And finally identify the limitations and challenges that faced social marketing.
  3. 3. 3  Social Marketing was first explicitly defined in 1971 by Kotler & Zaltman (1971, p.5) as: “The application of principles and tools of marketing to achieve socially desirable goals, with benefits for society as a whole rather than for profit or other organizational goals and includes the design, implementation and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involves considerations of product planning, pricing, communications and market research.”  “Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioural goals to improve health and reduce health inequalities” (French & Blair Stevens, 2007, p.33). Definitions
  4. 4. 4  The original idea of social marketing is accredited to Wiebe who in 1952 in an article entitled, “Merchandising Commodities and Citizenship on Television,” he demonstrated how mass media campaigns can motivate people to take action, and challenged the marketing community by asking, “Why can’t you sell brotherhood and rational thinking like you sell soap?” (Weibe, 1952).  The term ‘Social Marketing’ gained popularity when the Journal of Marketing brought out an issue on the topic in July 1971 (Kolter 1971). (It cannot create the behaviour, it can only help to gain acceptance and a willingness to adopt the behaviour). Definitions
  5. 5. 5 Goals Social marketing seeks to impact personal behavior by persuading target audiences to:  Avoid risky practices (e.g., smoking)  Discontinue antisocial actions (e.g., littering)  Take preventive measures (e.g., safety belts)  Join, give or organize for a specific cause
  6. 6. 6 1. Behavioural change is voluntary i.e. not by coercion or enforcement. 2. It operates on the principle of exchange i.e. there has to be a clear benefit for the customer (target group or individual) if change is to occur. 3. Uses marketing techniques such as consumer oriented market research, segmentation and targeting and marketing mix. 4. The ultimate goal is to improve individual and societal welfare not make profit for the organization carrying out the intervention as is the case with commercial marketing. Features of social marketing
  7. 7. 7  Social marketing covers a wide variety of disciplines including: o health education, o advertising, o economics, o business management, o scientific research, o Community organization, o psychology and epidemiology. Disciplines
  8. 8. Social marketing vs. Commercial marketing  Aims to change attitudes & behaviour to a healthier behaviour.  Serves interests of target market without personal profit.  Mostly marketing of ideas and concepts rather than tangible products.  Meets identified needs & wants of target market segment.  Aims to make a profit by serving the interests of target market.  Marketing of products/ services mostly through ideas. 8 Social marketing Commercial marketing
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing 10 Social Marketing consists of four marketing elements (marketing mix) of (4Ps) Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The Product (What we’re offering people?) • Tangible material (for example, contraceptives, Chlamydia test kit or medication). • Intangible/non-standardised service (for example, health education or counselling service). • Product/service branding, packaging, positioning, form, life cycle and product development. Example:- if the packaging and quality of a condom is poor, there is bound to be poor response and low acceptability of such condoms.
  11. 11. Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing 11 The Price (The cost of adopting the product)  what consumers must give up if they are to adopt a certain health behaviour often emotional and psychological. e.g. taking a Chlamydia test which is often stigmatised or practical efforts such as seeking for a screening kit at a sexual health clinic or attending a health talk.  Cost to the target audience of changing behaviour (Barriers to behaviour change) Can be financial, or more often related to other “costs”  Time (Takes more time)  Pleasure  Loss of self esteem  Embarrassment  Life style
  12. 12. Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing 12 The Place (where users are most likely to find them) Places in which consumers can obtain certain products such as contraceptives or services such as screening or counselling. Place includes settings such as working places, homes, schools, colleges, and health institutions Examples • Marketing of STD clinics as a separate entity has largely been a failure because of stigma attached to such clinics, hence poor utilization of such services. • Some countries have very successfully increased utilization of condoms by making them available in areas where the potential users can find them easily, such as in ‘red light’ areas, on bus stands, on highways etc.
  13. 13. Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing 13 Promotion • Refers to the means and messages by which the benefits of a particular product or behaviour change are communicated. • Most common means include advertisement (radio, televisions, billboards), leaflets, posters, dedicated websites and community outreach activities.
  14. 14. Principles & Techniques of Social Marketing 14 Promotion (Visibility & Timing) • High visibility constantly reminds the user of the existence of a product/service. • Timing, on the other hand, pertains to presenting the reminder when the user is most likely to accept the idea, product or the service. For example, • social marketing of (ORS) is best undertaken by doctors in a paediatric OPD or by Village Health Guides during home visits, especially when a child is suffering from diarrhoea. • Educating a woman about ORS when she is about to go into labour would be of no consequence since the felt-need is not present at that time and the woman is thus not receptive to the idea.
  15. 15. Example of a Marketing Mix Strategy 15 As an example, the marketing mix strategy for a breast cancer screening campaign for older women might include the following elements: • The product could be any of these three behaviours: getting an annual mammogram, seeing a physician each year for a breast exam and performing monthly breast self-exams. • The price of engaging in these behaviours includes the monetary costs of the mammogram and exam, potential discomfort and/or embarrassment, time and even the possibility of actually finding a lump. • The place that these medical and educational services are offered might be a mobile van, local hospitals, clinics and worksites, depending upon the needs of the target audience. • Promotion could be done through public service announcements, billboards, mass mailings, media events and community outreach.
  16. 16. 16 Image used in the American Legacy Foundation's Truth antismoking campaign aimed at young people
  17. 17. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 17 1. Identification of health problem & establishing methods for social marketing 2. Identification of priorities and implementation of affordable efforts 3. Analysis of marketing activities, including social message 4. Identification of target audience for each marketing component 5. Analysing each marketing strategy to determine attitudes and potential resistance among target groups 6. Identification of objectives for each target group 7. Designing and testing the social message 8. Selection of marketing/distribution system 9. Evaluate the impact of social messages
  18. 18. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 18 1. Identification of health problem & establishing methods for social marketing:  identification of traditional health measures, demographic & population studies including mortality/ morbidity patterns and economic impact etc. The causes of the problem have to be established clearly.  the required & available resources like mass media, marketing & design expertise should also be identified. − Why are we doing this? − What impact and benefits it would generate?
  19. 19. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 19 2. Identification of priorities and implementation of affordable efforts:  For saving time, energy and money for a social marketer.  The health problem and desired objectives should be assessed.  Cost estimates for media, material & delivery, personnel and other resources should be assessed in advance.  It is essential to project realistic and achievable goals & objectives and prepare realistic budgets.
  20. 20. 20 S – MAXIMISE W –MINIMIZE O - TAKE ADVANTAGE T - BE PREPARE − Situation analysis –factors and forces in external and internal environment anticipated to have impact − Review the composition of the strategy team SWOT
  21. 21. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 21 3. Analysis of marketing activities, including social message:  The strategy of social marketing needs to be evaluated regularly.  adopt different messages and message styles for effectively communicating the message for a particular target group. For example, messages and their style of delivery for HIV prevention would be different for college students, commercial sex workers, truck drivers and housewives.
  22. 22. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 22 4. Identification of target audience for each marketing component:  ‘Market segmentation’: involves accurate identification of the group or individual who is not doing what they should be doing, in terms of health related behaviour.  Audience segmentation is usually based on sociodemographic, cultural, and behavioural characteristics For example, the National Cancer Institute's “five a day for better health” campaign developed specific messages aimed at Hispanic people, because national data indicate that they eat fewer fruits and vegetables and may have cultural reasons that discourage them from eating locally available produce (NCI, 2002)
  23. 23. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 23 5. Analysing each marketing strategy to determine attitudes and potential resistance among target groups:  Identify all possible cultural, social and religious resistance points.  Isolate beliefs and values which offer resistance to healthy behaviour.  Build consensus and strategy to overcome the resistance. 6. Identification of objectives for each target group: − Behavioural objective − Knowledge objectives − Belief objectives For example, we may define our objective as “increasing household use of iodised salt in a given district from 60% to 95% in next 2 years”
  24. 24. TV videos in Nigeria related to increased family planning  Contraceptive use by Nigerian women in 1993 who had seen music videos and TV dramas to promote family planning in 1989-92 Westoff C, Rodriguez G, Bankole A. Family Planning and Mass Media Effects. Unublished paper. Princeton University, 1996. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 none TV/radio %using
  25. 25. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 25 7. Designing and testing the social message:  pretested on samples of target audience for:  acceptability,  comprehension,  believability  conviction.  Revising and retesting of the messages as necessary. 8. Selection of marketing/distribution system  The message should be in a manner which ensures maximum coverage among target audience. Example: Introduction of statutory warnings on tobacco products is one such way to ensure that the anti-smoking message reaches all target audience.
  26. 26. A Step-Wise Approach to Social Marketing 26 9. Evaluate the impact of social messages:  These should be assessed periodically to evaluate the impact of social marketing and mid-term corrections should be made wherever required. For example, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases as ascertained from a busy STD clinic or hospital in a district is a good indicator of the impact of social marketing for condoms in that district
  27. 27. LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING 27 1. Scale of intervention 2. Focus on isolated behaviour or products 3. Major structural barriers 4. Decision-making 5. Funding 6. Lack of support for social marketing programmes 7. Lack of opportunity for educational use of the mass media 8. Poor management and implementation of a social marketing effort
  28. 28. LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING 28 1. Scale of intervention: social marketing is aimed at individual & at the city, state, national and even international level. 2. Focus on isolated behaviour or products: may lead people with limited resources to perceive a need to choose between the idea which is marketed and other health-promoting behaviour. 3. Major structural barriers: unsuitable where major structural barriers exist against change in individuals. These include poverty, lack of health facilities, political pressure, discrimination.
  29. 29. LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING 29 4. Decision-making: Remain an educational tool rather than a coercive mechanism, social marketing must involve the consumer in decision-making. 5. Funding: Social marketing is often labour- and time-intensive. A cost. effective strategy must be drawn up for each case. 6. Lack of support for social marketing programmes: Marketed health programmes are frequently of very low priority within official channels and they therefore lack resources and opportunities.
  30. 30. LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING 30 7. Lack of opportunity for educational use of the mass media: • The channel or times given for transmission may be poor in quality or ineffective due to inappropriate timing. • The mass media are aimed at those with economic means and are less feasible in developing countries due to financial difficulties.
  31. 31. Challenges that faced social marketing 31 1. Accurate market analysis: is most often not possible. 2. Market segmentation: may be detrimental to efforts because of discrimination & stigma attached to such segmented. 3. Product strategy: Difficulty of developing complex behaviour which is acceptable to target audience and which meets their felt. 4. Pricing strategy: Social marketing often has no control over (and cannot address) issues of intangible consumer costs such as cost of personal embarrassment: Examples: − examination by a male doctor for cervical cancer. − fear (as in voluntary testing for HIV).
  32. 32. Challenges that faced social marketing 32 5. Strategy for selecting channels for dissemination of social messages. indirect dissemination of social message is often associated with misinformation. 6. Limitation of communication options: large amount of information needs to be conveyed to target audience before behaviour can be changed. 7. Limitation of health planner knowledge's regarding principles of marketing. Leads to programs failure. Such programs also often face opposition from competing groups (such as baby food manufactures in breast feeding campaigns). 8. Difficulty of impact evaluation: Change in social & individual behaviour & attitude is complex and intangible with very few objective variables.
  33. 33. How is social marketing applied to health? 33 • Social marketing is widely used to influence health behaviour. • Social marketers use a wide range of health communication strategies based on: − Mass media; − Use mediated (for example, through a healthcare provider), − Interpersonal, − other modes of communication; and marketing methods such as message placement (for example, in clinics), − promotion, − dissemination, − and community level outreach.
  34. 34. Social marketing wheel 34
  35. 35. Social marketing wheel 35 1. Developing plans and strategies using behavioural theory; 2. Selecting communication channels and materials based on the required behavioural change and knowledge of the target audience; 3. Developing and pretesting materials, typically using qualitative methods; 4. Implementing the communication programme or “campaign”; 5. Assessing effectiveness in terms of: − Exposure and awareness of the audience, − Reactions to messages, − Behavioural outcomes (such as improved diet or not smoking); 6. The last stage feeds back into the first to create a continuous loop of planning, implementation, and improvement.
  36. 36. References 36  Anthony S W. A Social Marketing Perspective of Young People’s Sexual Health, Thesis, School of Health and Social Care, Brunel University, 2012  Marie B. Social Marketing For Health, World Health Organization (WHO), 1993.  RajVir, B. Textbook of Public Health & Community Medicine, 1st edition. India, Department of Community Medicine in Collaboration with WHO. 2009.  W Douglas E. How social marketing works in health care, BMJ. 2006 May 20; 332(7551): 1207–1210.

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