Ms. Ayesha Sarwar and Mr. Shoaib
Ms. Ayesha Sarwar is ORIC officer and Mr. Shoaib
is a Research Associate at Riphah School of Business
and Management (RSBM) Lahore.
Objectives for the Course
•Identify problem area
•Do library research
•Make research design
•Analyze & interpret data
•Discuss findings &
good and bad research
WHAT IS RESEARCH
• What kind of images does this word have ?
• Do we visualize a lab with scientist at work
It is simply the process of finding solutions to a problem
after a thorough study and analysis of the situational
• If a performance of the people during a project is not satisfactory, or
they leave the project due to any reason, will you conduct a research
to solve this problem.
• Finding a cure of Corona is a also possible through research.
WHAT IS RESEARCH
• Managers in organizations constantly engage themselves in
studying & analyzing issues(?)
• They are involved in some form of research activity
• They make decisions at the work place on the basis of
• When employees came late to the office, manager may try
to solve the problem using research.
“Research is the process of finding solutions to a
problem after a thorough study and analysis of
the situational factors.”
Series of steps designed and executed with the goal
of finding answers to the issues that are of concern to
the manager in the work environment
What is Research?
Managers in organizations constantly engage
themselves in studying and analyzing issues and
hence are involved in some form of research activity
as they make decisions at the workplace.
What is Research?
Sometimes managers make good decisions and the
problem gets solved.
Sometimes managers make poor decisions and the
The difference between making good decisions and
poor decisions, lies in how managers go about the
Good decisions always depend upon the answers of the
• Do managers identify where exactly the problem lies?
• Do they correctly recognize the relevant factors in the
situation need investigation?
• Do they know what type of information are to be gathered
• Do they know to make use of the information so correct?
• And draw appropriate conclusions to make the right
• Do they know to implement the results of this process to
solve the problem?
What is Research?
This is the essence of research and to be successful
manager it is important for you to know
how to go about making the right decisions by being
knowledgeable about the various steps involved in
finding solutions to problematic issues.
This is what we talk about.
Fundamental Types of Research
Basic Research - generating and fills in scientific
knowledge for future use
Basic Research attempts to expand the limits of
knowledge. It does not directly involve the solution to
a particular pragmatic problem
Applied Research - Undertaken to solve existing real
Applied Research is undertaken to answer questions
about specific problems or to make decisions about a
particular course of action or policy.
Examples of Basic Research
University professors engage in basic research in an effort to
understand and generate more knowledge about various
aspects of businesses, such as:
- How to improve the effectiveness of information systems.
- How to integrate technology into the overall strategic
objectives of an organization.
- How to increase the productivity of the employees.
- How to curtail spread of Crona Virus.
Examples of Applied Research
Apple’s iPod sales increased by 200% from 2001 to
2008. but the sales decreased by 6% in 2009. What
is the reason for this decrease?
The question is: what will Apple do about this
Applied Research Example
Should McDonald’s add Italian pasta dinners to
Business research told McDonald’s it should not
Should McDonalds add a “Whopper Stopper”
burger to its menu?
Now being researched
Types of Research Studies
When little or no information is available from case to
case basis. Gaps in info. Completely uncertain, secondary
data, surveys, pilot studies
When, where & who type of studies, need to find certain
characteristics of a phenomena
Explanatory or Causal or Predictive
When certain about problem and its causes, like cause
and effect btw 2 variables & relationship
The analysis and interpretation of empirical
evidence (facts from observation or
experimentation) to confirm or disprove prior
A procedure to produce
knowledge i.e discovering
uniformities/ principles, laws
in this universe
Application of procedures,
tools, & methodologies to
analyze empirical evidence
Research follows a Scientific
A scientific approach is necessary for investigations when
systematic research by simply collecting and analyzing
data would produce results that can be applied to solve the
So the results will be less prone to errors and more
confidence can be placed in the findings because of the
greater rigor in application of the design details. This also
increases the replicability and generalizability of the
Determining When to Conduct Business Research
Is sufficient time
must be made?
Is the infor-
Is the decision
Does the value
of the research
exceed the cost
Do Not Conduct Business Research
Data Nature of the Decision
No No No No
Reasons for not Conducting Research
Lack of resources.
Research Results would not be useful.
Decision has already been made.
Managers cannot agree on info. required
•Increased likelihood of a
resulting higher profits
•Delay of business
decision and possible
information to rivals
Value Should Exceed
Major Topics for Research in Business
General Business Conditions and Corporate
Financial and Accounting Research
Project Management and Engineering
Organizational Behavior Research
Sales and Marketing Research
Information Systems Research
Corporate Responsibility Research
Business Research is increasingly global
Growth of the Internet and other information
Market knowledge is essential
A.C. Nielsen - more that 67% international
General information about country - economic
conditions and political climate
Cultural and consumer factors
Market and competitive conditions - demand
Is Transforming Society
Time is collapsing.
Distance is no longer an obstacle.
Crossing oceans is only a mouse click away.
People are connected 24 hours a day, seven
days a week.
"Instantaneous" has a new meaning.
What is Good Research?
Following the standards of the scientific method
Purpose clearly defined
Research process detailed
Research design thoroughly planned
Limitations frankly revealed
High ethical standards applied
Adequate analysis for decision-maker’s needs
Findings presented unambiguously
Researcher’s experience reflected
Role of Research in Business Decision
Understand the marketplace and identifying
problems and opportunities (SWOT)
Diagnosis and Assessment
Selecting and Implementing a course of Action
(Improved decision making)
Monitor/Evaluate performance and correct
Examples of External Research
Business and industry trends
Market share analysis
Inflation and pricing studies
Studies of Global Environments