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The Big Bang

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Contents
The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Phase
Expanding Universe
Testing Big Bang Model
Dark matter & Dark energy
Evidence of dark matter
After time period of Big Bang
Life cycle of star

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The Big Bang

  1. 1. Group Name: Back Bencher Group Members S M Manna (14203083) Sumon Kumar Ghosh (14203098) Imam Uddin (14203071) MD. Sayham Khan (14203123) MD. Yousuf Hassan (14203100) Presentation Day: 12 March 2015 2The Big Bang
  2. 2. Contents • The Big Bang Theory • The Big Bang Phase • Expanding Universe • Testing Big Bang Model • Dark matter & Dark energy • Evidence of dark matter • After time period of Big Bang • Life cycle of star The Big Bang 3
  3. 3. The Big Bang • The universe begins ~13.7 Billion years ago • The universe begins as the size of a single atom • The universe began as a violent expansion – All matter and space were created from a single point of pure energy in an instant. Image 1: Beginning of Big Bang 4The Big Bang
  4. 4. The Big Bang: Phase Phase 1 At the beginning of time, from Complete nothingness, a cosmic Explosion ignites. Phase 2 The thrust from the explosion sends Billions of tons of energy through space And the elements begin to cool. Image 2: Phase 1 Image 3: Phase 2 5The Big Bang
  5. 5. The Big Bang: Phase Phase 3 Galaxies begin to take shape while Still moving away from the initial Point of ignition. Phase 4 The universe continues to expand to This very day. Image 4: Phase 3 Image 5: Phase 4 6The Big Bang
  6. 6. Ever Expanding Universe According to the Big Bang model, the universe expande d from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today. Image 6: Ever Expanding Universe 7The Big Bang
  7. 7. Testing the Big Bang model • Prediction: If the universe was denser, hotter, in past, we should see evidence of left-over heat from early universe. • Observation: Left-over heat from the early universe. (Penzias and Wilson, 1965) Image 7: Left over heat from early universe 8The Big Bang
  8. 8. Testing the Big Bang model • Prediction: A hot, dense expanding universe, should be predominantly hydrogen, helium. • Observation: Universe is ~75% hydrogen, ~25% helium by mass Image 8: The Sun: 74.5% H, 24% He by mass Image 9: Cecilia Payne 9The Big Bang
  9. 9. Testing the Big Bang model • Observation: 90% of matter is an unknown form: Dark Matter. • Refine: A new and unknown form of matter exists. But its gravity • works the same way, and its presence is needed to explain how the universe looks. Image 11: Vera Rubin Image 10: Testing Big Bang 10The Big Bang
  10. 10. Expansion is accelerating A recent discovery and of unknown origin, the concept of Dark Energy is actually an integral part of Einstein’s theory of gravity. Image 12: Science Magazine 11The Big Bang
  11. 11. Dark Energy 73% Normal Matter 4% Dark Matter 23% Figure 1: Materials of Universe 12The Big Bang
  12. 12. Evidence for Dark Energy - supernovae as distance indicators - step 1 Image 12: A dying star becomes a white dwarf. 13The Big Bang
  13. 13. Evidence for Dark Energy - supernovae as distance indicators - step 2 Image 13: The white dwarf strips gas from its stellar companion…. 14The Big Bang
  14. 14. Evidence for Dark Energy - supernovae as distance indicators - step 3 Image 14: ….and uses it to become a hydrogen bomb. Bang! 15The Big Bang
  15. 15. Evidence for Dark Energy - supernovae as distance indicators - step 4 Image 15: The explosion is as bright as an entire galaxy of stars…. 16The Big Bang
  16. 16. Evidence for Dark Energy - supernovae as distance indicators - step 5 Image 16: and can be seen in galaxies across the universe. 17The Big Bang
  17. 17. How Everything Began ~ Several hundred thousand years after Big Bang • ATOMS form (specifically Hydrogen and its isotopes with a small amount of Helium.) • The early Universe was about 75% Hydrogen and 25% Helium. It is still almost the same today. Figure 2: Atom Formation. 18The Big Bang
  18. 18. ~200 to 400 million years after Big Bang • 1st stars and galaxies form Image 17: ~200 to 400 million years after Big Bang 19The Big Bang
  19. 19. ~ 4.6 billion years ago • Our Solar system forms Image 18: Our Solar system forms 20The Big Bang
  20. 20. Misconceptions about the Big Bang • there was no explosion; there was (and continues to be) an expansion – Rather than imagining a balloon popping and releasing its contents, imagine a balloon expanding: an infinitesimally small balloon expanding to the size of our current universe • we tend to image the singularity as a little fireball appearing somewhere in space – space began inside of the singularity. Prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing. 21The Big Bang
  21. 21. Figure 3: Life cycle of a star 22The Big Bang
  22. 22. Big Bang evidence 1) Universal expansion and Hubble’s Law 2) 3 degree background radiation 3) Quasars 4) Radioactive decay 5) Stellar formation and evolution 6) Speed of light and stellar distances 23The Big Bang
  23. 23. Conclusions – Till Now • Big Bang model describes our current understanding of the universe. • New discoveries, such as dark matter and accelerating expansion (Dark Energy), lead us to refine our model, but there is no crisis in our understanding (yet). • Science is an ongoing process - forcing us to test our model through prediction and observation. • The more tests it passes, the greater is our confidence in it. 24The Big Bang
  24. 24. The Future of Cosmology: Beyond Einstein • What powered the Big Bang? • What Is Dark Energy? • How did the Universe begin? 25The Big Bang
  25. 25. LASTLY – we are pretty sure everything has a beginning, right? Image 20: Funny picture about Big Bang 26The Big Bang
  26. 26. Thanks The Big Bang 27

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