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Module iii individual in the group fs

  1. Module III Individual in the Group
  2. GROUP PROCESSES
  3. NATURE OF GROUPS • Group refers to a collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationships between them, who share common goals & who percieve themselves as being a group. • Group possesses 4 common characteristics: a) Interaction among members b) Common interests or goals c) People see themselves as members d) 2 or more people are needed to form groups.
  4. TYPES OF GROUPS
  5. Formal Group • Deliberately created to perform a specific task. • A number of people assigned to a specific task form a formal group. • A distinctive feature of formal groups is that a hierarchy of authority exists, with specified member rules & regulations.
  6. STANDING TASK GROUP • Also known as command group. • Consists of a supervisor who exercises formal authority over subordinates.
  7. TASK GROUP • It is a temporary formal group that is created to solve specific problems. • The group comprises employees who work together to complete a particular task or project, but who do not necessarily report to the same supervisor. • The employees belong to different departments. • They stay together till the task is completed 7 once the work is completed, the task group usually disbands & members return to their respective task groups.
  8. INFORMAL GROUP • Also called a clique. • It is an alliance that is neither formally structured nor organisationally determined. • Informal groups are natural formations in the work enviroment which appear in response to the need for social contact. • They often develop within formal groups & may also develop outside formal groups.
  9. Interest group • It is made up of individuals who affiliate to achieve an objective of mutual interest that may have nothingto do with their formal task group memberships.
  10. FRIENDSHIP GROUP • Develops on common characteristics such as martial status, political views, college affiliations, & sports. • Friendship groups are important bbecause they satisfy affiliation needs of their members.
  11. REFERENCE GROUP • It is any group with which an individual identifies for the purpose of forming opinions or making decisions.
  12. why do people join groups ? • Interaction & influence • Security • Esteem • Affiliation • Power • Identity • Huddling (executives make use of informal get togethers )
  13. The Stages of Group Development
  14. Stages of Group Development • Forming – Group members get to know each other and reach common goals. • Storming – Group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused. • Norming – Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.
  15. Stages of Group Development • Performing – The group begins to do its real work. • Adjourning Separation, satisfaction
  16. ALTERNATIVE THEORY OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • Consists of 4 stages – a) Mutual Acceptance b) Communication & Decision Making c) Motivation & Productivity d) Control & Organisation
  17. USEFULNESS OF GROUPS IN ORGANISATIONS • Organisational Task Accomplishment Social Loafing also known as Ringlemann Effect acknowledges that people may tend not to work as hard in groups as they would individually. This is because their contribution is less noticeable & because they like to see others carry the work load.
  18. PITFALLS OF GROUPS • Status differentials • Group norms • Groupthink - refers to the tendency of members in a highly cohesive group to lose their critical, evaluative capabilities.
  19. DETERMINANTS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR • They influence group performance & satisfaction • EXTERNAL CONDITIONS a) Organisational strategy b) Authority structure c) Formal regulations d) Organisational Resources e) Procurement of Personnel f) Performance Appraisal & Reward System g) Organisational Culture h) Physical Work Setting
  20. • GROUP MEMBERS RESOURCES a) Abilities of members b) Personality Characteristics • GROUP STRUCTURE
  21. GROUP STRUCTURE • Work groups are organised systems. • They have a structure that shapes the behaviour of members & makes it possible to explain & predict a large portion of individual behaviour within the group as well as the performance of the group itself.
  22. • It includes – a) Leadership b) Roles c) Group Size d) Group norms e) Group Task
  23. f) Status Congruence g) Group Cohesiveness – Cohesiveness is extent of liking each member has towards others & how far everyone wants to remain as a member of the group. h) Decision Making
  24. APPROACHES TO GROUP DECISION MAKING • Autocratic decision making- Leader makes a decision by himself / herself • Expert member soliciting – Advice of an individual who is expert in the concerned area, is obtained & decision is then made. • Consultative Decision Making – Obtaining inputs from those responsible for & affected by the decision & then making a decision independently.
  25. • Minority Control – Allowing a small number of people in the group to make a decision. • Majority Control – Majority of members involve themselves in decision making. • Consensus – Finding a proposal acceptable to all members. This is a ‘win – win’ situation.
  26. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING
  27. CONSIDERATIONS IN GROUP DECISION MAKING • Time • Member Competence • Autonomy & Self direction • Availability of information • Group Size • Degree of participation
  28. Introduction to team
  29. TEAM • It is a small number of people with complimentary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals & an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
  30. Distinction between Groups and Teams • A work group is a number of persons, usually reporting to common superiors and having some face-to-face interaction, who have some degree of interdependence in carrying out tasks for the purpose of achieving organizational goals. • A team is a small number of people with complimentary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. • A team has some characteristics in greater degree than ordinary groups, including a higher commitment to common goals and a higher degree of interdependency and interaction.
  31. BENEFITS FROM TEAMS • Enhanced Performance • Reduced stress • Quality decisions • Improved processes • Organisational enhancements which include increased innovation, creativity & flexibility
  32. TYPES OF TEAMS • Work teams – Concerned with the work done by the organisation such as developing & manufacturing new products, providing services for customers. • Problem solving teams – Temporary teams established to attack specific problems in workplace. After solving problems, the team is usually disbanded allowing members to return too their normal work.
  33. • Management Teams – Consists of managers from various areas & coordinate work teams. They are relatively permanent. Primary job is to coach & counsel other teams. • Virtual teams – Activities take place on computer & other electronic information systems. They may never actually meet.
  34. IMPLEMENTING TEAMS IN ORGANISATIONS • Planning the change • Making the decision • Implementing the decision Phase 1 - Management must create performance conditions for the teams. This means providing to the teams all the needed materials & equipments to do the job. Phase 2 – Establish boundaries that is who is & who is not in the team, arrive at an agreement regarding the tasks to be performed, Clarify the behaviours expected of each team member.
  35. TEAM ISSUES • Performance • Norms • Roles • Cohesiveness • TQM – Total Quality Management, An organisational strategy to improving customer satisfaction by developing techniques to carefully manage output quality.
  36. EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK • Cooperation • Trust • Training • Rewards
  37. Teams in organisations • Quality Circles • Self Managed Teams
  38. POWER & POLITICS
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