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Biology Form 4 Chapter 8 :Dynamic Ecosystem Part 1

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Biology Form 4 Chapter 8 :Dynamic Ecosystem Part 1

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Biology Form 4 Chapter 8 :Dynamic Ecosystem Part 1

  1. 1. DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM PART 1
  2. 2.  organisms in relation to their environment  this includes the relationship of organisms with: organisms  each other  non-living components of their environment
  3. 3.  is the particular locality in an environment in which an organism lives FOOD SPACE WATER
  4. 4. rock pools (limpets, barnacles, top shells) soil burrows (earthworms)
  5. 5.  is the role or job of an organism within the community
  6. 6. Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms
  7. 7.  is the group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
  8. 8.  includes all the populations of all the species within an ecosystem
  9. 9.  is a natural unit composed of living and non-living components whose interactions result in a stable self-perpetuating system
  10. 10.  is a community of organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system
  11. 11. ponds an oak tree a field a rockpool the sea
  12. 12. Levels of Ecological Investigation
  13. 13. Recap : Ecological Levels Same species, living in same area All various populations interacting in one location Community of populations, plus the abiotic factors in the environment. Community of populations, plus the abiotic factors in the environment.
  14. 14. Biotic factor living organisms e.g. predators, competitors, parasites Abiotic factor non-living factors which influence organisms e.g. light, temperature, soil, rainfall
  15. 15.  Nonliving factors in an environment  Examples: – pH level- most prefer neutral conditions – Temperature –poikilothermic, homoiothermic – Humidity – Light intensity- photosynthesis, animal behavior – Topography-altitude, slope, aspect – Microclimate- small habitat climate
  16. 16.  Polar  Temperate  Tropic Polar Tropic Temperate
  17. 17.  Mountains have a significant effect on – The amount of sunlight reaching an area – Local temperature – Rainfall Farther inland, precipitation increases again as the air moves up and over higher mountains. Some of the world’s deepest snow packs occur here. On the eastern side of the 3 Sierra Nevada, there is little precipitation. As a result of this rain shadow, much of central Nevada is desert. As moist air moves in off the Pacific Ocean and encounters 1 the westernmost mountains, it flows upward, cools at higher altitudes, and drops a large amount of water. The world’s tallest trees, the coastal redwoods, thrive here. 2 East Pacific Ocean Wind direction Coast Range Sierra Nevada
  18. 18. Topography also affects climate.
  19. 19.  Climate has a great impact on the distribution of organisms, Figure 50.18 Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest Temperate broadleaf forest Coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annual mean precipitation (cm) Annual mean temperature (ºC) 100 200 300 400 30 15 0 15
  20. 20.  Sunlight intensity – Plays a major part in determining the Earth’s climate patterns Figure 50.10 Low angle of incoming sunlight Sunlight directly overhead Low angle of incoming sunlight North Pole 60N 30N Tropic of Cancer 0 (equator) 30S 60S Atmosphere LALITUDINAL VARIATION IN SUNLIGHT INTENSITY Tropic of Capricorn South pole
  21. 21. a) PRODUCERS b) CONSUMERS – autotrophic plants – heterotrophic organisms, mainly animals c) DECOMPOSERS – saprophytic bacteria & fungi – break down dead matter to return nutrients to the soil
  22. 22.  Producers: harness energy from the sun – e.g. plants, algae
  23. 23.  Consumers: organisms that eat something else – e.g. animals
  24. 24. Consumers  Four types  Herbivore: eats only plants  E.g. Cows, horses  Carnivore: eats only meat  E.g. Polar bear  Omnivore: eats plants and animals  E.g. Humans, bears  Scavenger: carnivore that feeds on bodies of dead organisms  e.g. Vultures Vultures
  25. 25.  Organisms that feed on the producers.  Ex: Herbivores
  26. 26.  Organisms that feed on the Primary Consumers.  Ex: Carnivores
  27. 27.  Decomposers: return energy to the environment – e.g. fungus, bacteria
  28. 28. Decomposers: 1. secrete enzymes to digest organic matter 2. then absorb the ensuing molecules  The decomposers  break the organic compounds in inorganic form and then  absorb whatever they need for nutrition
  29. 29. CONSUMERS PRIMARY PRODUCERS DECOMPOSERS NUTRIENTS CO2 Death C6H12O6
  30. 30. Distinguish between a community of plants and a population of plants. (2) Distinguish between producers and consumers. (4)
  31. 31. Food Chains & Food Webs
  32. 32. A Food Chain is the: energy flow from one trophic level to the other One organism at each trophic level.
  33. 33. What does an arrow show? The direction of the energy transfer, NOT “what ate what” Rose Aphid Ladybird
  34. 34.  the movement of food energy from one organism to the next PRODUCER PRIMARY CONSUMER SECONDARY CONSUMER TERTIARY CONSUMER 1st Trophic level 2nd Trophic level 3rd Trophic level 4th Trophic level Trophic level = feeding level Top carnivore
  35. 35. Trophic Levels [Feeding Levels] heterotrophs autotrophs
  36. 36. Organisms in one trophic level feed in the same way 4th Trophic Level 3rd Trophic Level 2nd Trophic Level 1st Trophic Level Terrestrial food chain Aquatic food chain
  37. 37.  Ecosystem: Field grass aphid ladybird leaves caterpillar sparrow hawk  Ecosystem: Oak tree oak tree insect larvae thrush  Ecosystem: Freshwater pool algae tadpole waterbeetle
  38. 38.  are made up of many food chains linked together  give a more complex picture of how animals feed  are more stable than food chains
  39. 39. 5 1. There are …… primary consumers. 2. The top carnivore is the ……… owl .
  40. 40. 3. Suppose all the woodmice died from a poison, i) the acorn would (increase / decrease).
  41. 41. 3. Suppose all the woodmice died from a poison, i) the acorn would (increase / decrease).
  42. 42. 3. Suppose all the woodmice died from a poison, i) the acorn would (increase / decrease). ii) the weasel would (increase / decrease).
  43. 43. 3. Suppose all the woodmice died from a poison, i) the acorn would (increase / decrease). ii) the weasel would (increase / decrease).
  44. 44. 4. Draw a food chain with 5 links from this food web. oak leaf greenfly ladybird shrew owl 5. In this food web, the shrew can be either a ………………. secondary or a ……………….. tertiary consumer.
  45. 45. The following organisms can be found in the same habitat: weasel, rabbit, greenfly, green plant, caterpillar, small bird and ladybird. Construct a food web to include all the organisms found in the list above.
  46. 46. weasel, rabbit, greenfly, green plant, caterpillar, small bird and ladybird weasel ladybird small bird rabbit greenfly caterpillar green plant Weasel eats small mammals & birds.
  47. 47.  diagramatic representations of feeding relationships and energy transfer through the biotic component of ecosystems
  48. 48. a) Pyramid of Numbers b) Pyramid of Biomass c) Pyramid of Energy Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers
  49. 49. 4th Trophic Level 3rd Trophic Level 2nd Trophic Level 1st Trophic Level Tertiary Consumer 1 eagle Secondary Consumer 8 frogs Primary Consumer 29 grasshoppers Producers 1500 blades of grass
  50. 50. 4th Trophic Level 3rd Trophic Level 2nd Trophic Level 1st Trophic Level Tertiary Consumer 1 eagle Secondary Consumer 8 frogs Primary Consumer 29 grasshoppers Producers 1500 blades of grass Decreases
  51. 51.  indicates the weight of all individuals at each trophic level  biomass is the weight of living material
  52. 52. c) Pyramid of Energy  This loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain  Can be represented by a pyramid of net production Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers 10 J 100 J 1,000 J 10,000 J 1,000,000 J of sunlight
  53. 53. Pyramid of Numbers Pyramid of Biomass Ladybird Aphid Rosebush Rosebush Aphid Ladybird
  54. 54. Energy Losses in Ecosystem
  55. 55. Why does a food chain rarely have more than 5 trophic levels? Substantial losses in energy at every trophic level
  56. 56. Energy Losses in Ecosystem  Only about 10% of energy passes through each step of a food chain  90% of energy is lost at each step
  57. 57. If the pea plant contains 100 units of energy, how much energy would be present in the hawk? 100 10 1 0.1 0.01
  58. 58. Energy is lost at each trophic level. What could cause the energy to be lost?  Heat  Movement  Waste e.g. faeces, urine  Respiration  Uneaten parts e.g. bones, fur, shells, wood
  59. 59. Why are energy losses greater in homeotherms (birds & mammals) than in poikilotherms (fish, reptiles)? Homeotherms use a great proportion of food eaten to keep a constantly warm body temperature. Heat Heat
  60. 60. Pyramid of Energy
  61. 61. Give a reason why the number of trophic levels seldom exceeds 5. (1) Great (90%) losses in energy at every trophic level.
  62. 62. Approximately what percentage of all the energy present at one trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level? (1) Only 10% of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level.
  63. 63. Why is energy not recycled in ecosystems? (1) Lost as heat to the surrounding environment.
  64. 64. ENERGY FLOW nutrients Flow of ENERGY is LINEAR but flow of NUTRIENTS is CYCLIC. SUN Light energy Biotic component Heat energy Abiotic component
  65. 65.  the shorter the food chain, the more people can be fed REASON: the 90% ‘wastage’ of energy that occurs between each trophic level is cut down
  66. 66. Green light is reflected by the leaf.
  67. 67. Only 1% of the light falling on a leaf is used in photosynthesis. What happens to the rest? 30% evaporates water from plant 20% is reflected from plant 40% warms up soil, air and vegetation [transmitted]
  68. 68.  respiration : is not available for the next trophic level  growth: is passed on the next trophic level
  69. 69.  over half of the energy in the grass the cow eats, is passed out of the body in faeces

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