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VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT
(22/06/2015 – 21/07/2015)
Third Undergraduate Student
Department of Civil Engineering
Shri Dadaji Institute of Technology and Science
Iam very thankful to LARSEN AND TOUBRO POWER
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION INDEPENDET
COMPANY (L&T CONSTRUCTION PT& DIC) for having given
me the opportunity to undertake my Vocational Training in their
prestigious 765kV GIS Project, Varanasi. It was a very good learning
experience for me to have worked at this site as this project involved
many unique construction practices and challenges. I would like to
convey my heartiest thanks to Mr. Sameer Kumar Das, Project
Manager who accepted me for the Vocational Training. I would also like
to give heart-felt thanks to Mr. Girish Chandra Tripathi, Construction
Manager who guided and encouraged me all through the Vocational
Training and imparted in-depth knowledge of the project. I would like to
thank all the department heads of L&T Construction, PT&D IC, for
giving their precious time and valuable guidance during my Vocational
Last but not the least; I would like to thank to all the staff at L&T
Construction, PT& D IC, for being so helpful during this Vocational
Name: Nishant Pandey
Date: 21st July2016
ABOUT THE ORGANISATION:
Larsen & Toubro is the biggest legacy of two Danish Engineers, who
built a world-class organization that is professionally managed and a
leader in India`s engineering and construction industry. It was the
business of cement that brought the young Henning Holck-Larsen and
S.K Toubro into India. They arrived on Indian shores as representatives
of the Danish engineering firm F L Smith & Co in connection with the
merger of cement companies that later grouped into the Associated
Together, Holck-Larsen and Toubro founded the partnership firm of
L&T in 1938, which was converted into a limited company on February
7, 1946. Today, this has metamorphosed into one of India`s biggest
success stories. The company has grown from humble origins to a large
conglomerate spanning engineering and construction.
Larsen and Toubro Construction is India`s largest construction
organization. Many of the country`s prized landmarks – its exquisite
buildings, tallest structures, largest industrial projects, longest flyover,
and highest viaducts – have been built by it. Leading-edge capabilities
cover every discipline of construction: civil, mechanical, electrical and
L&T Construction has the resources to execute projects of large
magnitude and technological complexity in any part of the world. The
business of L&T Construction is organized in six business sectors which
will primarily be responsible for Technology Development, Business
Development, International Tendering and work as Investment Centers.
Headquarters in Chennai, India. In India, 7 Regional Offices and over
250 project sites. In overseas it has offices in Gulf and other overseas
At L&T, Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) is given the highest
priority. The EHS policy enunciated by the Corporate Management lays
emphasis on Environment, Health and Safety through a structures
approach and well defined practices. Systems and procedures have been
established for implementing the requisites at all stages of construction
and they are accredited to the International standards of ISO 9001:2008,
ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007.
THE PROJECT DETAILS
PROJECT: 765 kV GIS
CLIENT: POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA
CONTRACTOR: L&T POWER TRANSMISSION
AND DISTRIBUTION INDEPENDENT COMPANY
TYPE OF CONTRACT: LUMPSUM CONTRACT
400Kv GIS BUILDING
765Kv GIS BUILDING
PROJECT LOCATION AND AREA: VARANASI,
Construction planning is a fundamental and challenging activity in the
management and execution of construction projects. It involves the
choice of technology, the definition of work tasks, the estimation of the
required resources and durations for individual tasks, and the
identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. A good
construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule
for work. Developing the construction plan is critical task in the
management of construction, even if the plan is not written or otherwise
formally recorded. In addition to these technical aspects of construction
planning, it may also be necessary to make organizational decisions
about the relationships between project participants and even which
organizations to include in a project.
Essential aspects of construction planning include the generation of
required activities, analysis of the implications of these activities, and
choice among the various alternative means of performing activities.
In developing a construction plan, it is common to adopt a primary
emphasis on either cost control or on schedule control. Some projects
are primarily divided into expense categories with associated costs. In
these cases, construction planning is cost or expense oriented. Within the
categories of expenditure, a distinction is made between costs incurred
directly in the performance of an activity and indirectly for the
accomplishment of the project. For example, borrowing expenses for
project financing and overhead items are commonly treated as indirect
costs. For other projects, scheduling of work activities over time is
critical and is emphasized in the planning process. In this case, the
planner insures that the proper precedence’s among activities are
maintained and that efficient scheduling of the available resources
prevails. Traditional scheduling procedures emphasize the maintenance
of task precedence’s (resulting in critical path scheduling procedures) or
efficient use of resources over time (resulting in job shop scheduling
procedures). Finally, most complex projects require consideration of
cost and scheduling over time, so that planning, monitoring and record
keeping must consider both dimensions. In these cases, the integration of
schedule and budget information is a major concern.
A parallel step in the planning process is to define the various work tasks
that must be accomplished. These work tasks represent the necessary
framework to permit scheduling of construction activities, along with
estimating the resources required by the individual work tasks, and any
necessary precedence’s or required sequence among the tasks. The terms
work "tasks" or "activities" are often used interchangeably in
construction plans to refer to specific, defined items of work.
Planning department in L&T uses Microsoft Project as a powering tool
for reducing risk. Microsoft Project gives efficiency to plan a project,
identify the resources required and identify the tasks required in a
sequence, increasing probability of delivery of the project to the time,
cost and quality objectives. Microsoft Project gives you a powerful,
visually enhanced way to effectively manage a wide range of projects
and programs. From meeting crucial deadlines, to selecting the right
resources, Microsoft project empowering your teams.
The initial schedule of major construction activities S0 is prepared
according to the Clients preference. S0 is the basis for all types of
scheduling. Preliminary schedules representing the monthly work
estimates are prepared based on experience considering local climate
conditions, environment, learning curve, pace of work, mobilization, etc
in Microsoft Project. Productivities of different activities are estimated
and validated during the course of execution. Man power requirement is
calculated based on these productivities. Drawings released by the
Client. Revisions and change orders are issued as and when there is a
change and distributed to all the units. The planning system is updated in
the first week of every month. Two progress schedules are maintained –
original schedule prepared in the starting of the project, planned
schedule which is modified according to the requirements and
conditions. Actual progress is compared with the planned schedule and
in case any delay in progress is then a Catch up schedule is prepared and
executed accordingly to overcome the delay.
1.METHOD STATEMENT FOR SURVEY WORKS
OBJECTIVE: To formulate guidelines for Setting out and routine
2. Technical Specifications for Civil Works
3. Inspection and test plan
4. Survey layout showing control stations
MAJOR EQUIPMENTS: Calibrated Auto-Level, Theodolite (LC-1),
Total Station and other measuring instruments
The main instrument for surveyors on site today is the “total station”. A
total station is a combination of an electronic theodolite, an electronic
distance measuring device (EDM) and a micro processor with memory
unit. This combination makes possible to determine the coordinates of a
reflector aligning the instruments cross hairs on the reflector and
simultaneously measuring the vertical and horizontal angles and slope
distances. A micro processor in the instrument takes care of recording,
readings and the necessary computation.
Above Picture showing use of Total Station for finding out the
coordinates outside of the 765kV GIS Building.
Automatic level is an optical instrument used to establish or check
points in the same horizontal plane. It is used in surveying and building
with a vertical staff to measure height differences and so transfer,
measure and set heights.
Auto Level Setup
1. Setup your tripod as level as possible, step on tripod legs to drive into
2. Attach auto level to the tripod.
3. Adjust level so bubble is centered in vial.
4. Adjust recital until crosshairs are clear.
5. Adjust the objective lens until object you are sighting on is clear.
Care of Auto Levels
If the instrument becomes wet leave it unpacked. Wipe down
instrument, clean and dry transport case. Pack up instrument only when
it is perfectly dry. Never touch the glass with fingers, use soft clean lint-
free cloth to clean lens.
Checking Auto Level Accuracy
1. Set up instrument in an area that is as level as possible and which is
about 220 feet long. Place two matching level rods or two pieces of
strapping in the ground about 200 feet apart with the faces toward each
other. Position and level the instrument so that the distance from the
instrument to each rod is the same measure.
2. Take a reading on each rod with the instrument (or mark each piece of
strapping where the crosshair is sighted).
3. Move transit to another spot on the line and take readings and mark
both rods again.
4. The difference between the marks on the rod will be the error of the
instrument. The error needs to be corrected by a competent repair
Above picture showing an Auto-Level instrument used for taking level
of R.C.C Road.
2. METHOD STATEMENT FOR REINFORCEMENT WORK
OBJECTIVE: This procedure covers method for cutting, bending and
Tying of reinforcement and inspection of works.
REFERENCE: Reinforcement placing and handling shall be as
MAJOR EQUIPMENTS: Bar cutting & bending machines, rebar
3. METHOD STATEMENT FOR FORMWORK
OBJECTIVE: This Procedure covers fixing and removal of formwork
and Checking of formwork.
1. Approved Drawings 48
2. IS 456 & IS 6461(Part 5)
3. Tender Document
4. METHOD STATEMENT FOR BOLTS PROCUREMENT &
OBJECTIVE: This Procedure covers procuring and fixing of bolts.
1. Tender Specification
2. Approved Drawings
5. METHOD STATEMENT FOR CONCRETING WORKS
OBJECTIVE: This Procedure covers fixing and removal of formwork
and checking of formwork.
1. Tender Specification
2. Approved Drawings
3. IS 10262, IS 3370 & IS 456
4. IS 383
6. METHOD STATEMENT FOR BACKFILLING
OBJECTIVE: The scope of back-filling covers the filling in plinths,
pits, trends, depressions in layers 200mm thick including watering and
compaction by Roller / plate compactor.
2. Bill of Quantities
METHOD FOR REINFORCEMENT WORK
1. All reinforcement shall be placed above the ground by using wooden
sleepers or concrete blocks.
2. For reinforcement, care shall be taken to protect the reinforcement
from exposure to saline atmosphere during storage, fabrication and use.
3. Against requirement from site, bars shall be cut and bent to shape and
dimension as shown in bar bending schedule based on Good for
Construction (GFC) drawings
4. Reinforcement shall be tied as per the latest GFC drawing and any
extra bars provided at site shall be recorded in the pour card/ lap register.
5. Unusable cut rods and scrap reinforcement shall be properly placed at
Bar Bending Schedule:
1. Prepare bar bending schedule based on the latest GFC drawings and to
be submitted to Engineer for review
2. Bar bending schedule shall clearly specify the following:
a) Bar dia.
3. Bar bending schedule shall take into account the following field/
a) Desirable lap locations and staggering of laps.
b) Lap lengths.
c) Development length/ Anchorage length.
Cutting, Bending and Placing:
1. All reinforcement shall be free from loose mill scales, loose rust
and coats of paints, oil, mud or any other substances which may
destroy or reduce bond. Use wire brush to clean the
2. Cutting and bending shall conform to the details given in the
approved bar bending schedule. Cutting of Rebar by heat is not
permitted, only cutting by grinding or shearing is permitted. No
heating is allowed to facilitate bending of Rebar.
3. Place the reinforcement as per GFC drawings ensuring the
following aspects properly.
a) Type & size of bar. b) Number of bars.
c) Location and lengths of laps, splices.
d) Curtailment of bars.
e) In two way reinforcement, check the direction of reinforcement in
f) Adequate number of chairs, spacer bars and cover blocks.
g) Size of cover blocks.
h) All the bars shall be tied with double fold 18g soft GI annealed
4. Reinforcement may be placed within the following tolerance
a) For effective depth 200mm or less ±10mm.
b) For effective depth more than 200mm ±15mm.
c) The cover shall in no case be reduced by more than one third of the
specified cover or 0 /+ 10mm.
d) The cover should suit various cover requirements as per Drawing
5. The sequence of reinforcement shall be correlated with fixing of
inserts, sleeves, conduits, anchors and formworks.
6. In walls, place accurately bent spacer bars wired to vertical or
horizontal bars between successive rows.
7. No steel parts of spacers sure allowed inside the concrete cover.
Spacer blocks made from cement, sand and small aggregate shall match
the mix proportion of the surrounding concrete. Alternatively PVC cover
blocks of approved make can be used.
8. Spacers, cover blocks should be of concrete of same strength or PVC
9. Spacers, chairs and other supports detailed on drawings, together with
such other supports as may be necessary, should be used to maintain the
specified nominal cover to the steel reinforcement.
10. Spacers or chairs should be placed at a maximum spacing of 1.0mtr
and closer spacing may sometimes be necessary.
11. All reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in the positions
shown in the drawing by providing proper cover blocks, spacers,
12. Rough handling, shock loading (Prior to embedment) and the
dropping of reinforcement from a height should be avoided.
Reinforcement should be secured against displacement.
METHOD FOR FORMWORK
1. Check if the shutters are properly cleaned by removing the concrete/
mortar and protruding nails.
2. Formwork shall be made to the exact dimensions within the
permissible tolerances as mentioned below.
3. Required thickness and quality of plywood conforming to IS 6461
shall be used to meet the requirements of design and surface finish.
4. For beam bottom & sides, proper size of timber at required spacing
shall be provided to take the design loads/ pressure considering sleeves,
conduit anchors & inserts.
Erection of formwork
5. Sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent the loss of grout or mortar from
6. Capable of providing concrete of the correct shape and surface finish
within the specified tolerance limits.
7. Soffits forms capable of imparting a camber if required.
8. The formwork may be of timber, plywood, steel, plastic or concrete
depending upon the type of finish specified.
9. Erect staging/shuttering as per drawing/sketches in such a way that
deshuttering can be done easily including provision for repropping, if
10. Check the location, line, level, plumb and dimensions of the
formwork to ensure that the deviations are within the permissible limits.
11. Provide bracing at proper places & intervals as specified by the
manufacturer or as per formwork scheme to take care of lateral loads.
12. Apply mould oil/other coatings as release agents before
reinforcement steel is placed.
13. Wire ties passing through beams, columns and walls shall not be
allowed .In their place bolts passing through sleeves shall be used. For
liquid retaining structures, sleeves shall not be provided for through
14. Check all the shutters are properly aligned and fixed firmly with
required lateral supports and ties.
15. Check all the spanning members have proper bearing at the supports.
16. Wedges or jacks shall be secured in position after the final check of
17. Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt, mortar and other
matters such as metals, blocks, saw dust and foreign materials before
concreting if required through clean-out openings.
18. Check all the gaps/openings are properly closed to avoid leakages.
19. Check all the inserts/embedments and openings are exactly placed
as per the drawings.
20. In case of leakages, bulging and sagging immediate actions shall be
taken by tightening wedges or adjusting by jacks which must be done
before the concrete takes its initial set.
Removal of Forms
21. Formwork components shall not be dropped but shall be lowered
without damage to the components and structures. All the removed
formwork materials shall be thoroughly scarped, cleaned immediately
and stacked properly for reuse.
22. All forms shall be removed after the minimum period stipulated
mentioned below without damage to the concrete including removal
without shock as per IS 456
METHOD FOR BACKFILLING
1. Backfilling area shall be free from foreign matters (i.e. wooden
scraps, plywood pieces rebar bits etc) and tie rods recesses shall be
rendered with polymer based non shrink compound with a subsequent
application of curing compound on them.
2. Filling around foundation or other places indicated shall be done with
approved material obtained from excavation or approved materials
brought from outside.
3. The material shall be good quality soft or hard murrum or Panna sand
or other approved back filling material. Back filling soil shall be free
from black cotton soil.
4. Filling shall be done in layers not exceeding 20cms thick and each
layer shall be watered adequately and consolidated properly by rollers or
pneumatic rammers 8 to 10 tonnes wherever conditions permit. If it is
not possible, the consolidation shall be done by hand rollers/ heavy
pneumatic/ hand rammers/ plate compactor.
5. The surface of the filling shall be finished to lines and levels as
6. The approved materials shall be placed in layers, not exceeding
200mm in depth before compaction and shall be compacted to minimum
95% dry density. Layers placed in the top 300mm of the fill shall be
compacted to 98% of maximum dry density.
No of Samples:
(I) For foundation filling - one for every 10 foundation for each
(II) For area filling one for every 1000sqm area for each
METHOD FOR CONCRETING
1. Concrete mix design for Different Structure should be as per Notes in
the specific approved drawing.
2. For Design Mix Concrete, the mix shall be designed to provide the
grade of concrete having the required strength, workability & durability
requirements given in IS: 456 for each grade of concrete taking into
account the type of cement, minimum cement content and maximum
W/C ratio conforming to exposure conditions as per tender
3. Mix design and preliminary tests are not necessary for Nominal Mix
concrete (M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20 as Specified in IS 456 - Table 9).
However works tests shall be carried out as per IS: 456
4. No concreting shall be done without the approval of engineer. Prior
notice shall be given before start of concreting.
5. Cement shall be measured by weight in weigh batching machines of
an approved type; aggregate shall be measured by volume / weight. The
machines shall be kept clean and in good condition and shall be checked
adjusted for accuracy at regular intervals when required by the engineer.
Material shall be weighed within 2.5% tolerances, inclusive of scale and
6. Concrete shall be mixed in mechanical mixers of an approved type. In
no case shall the mixing of each batch of concrete continue for less than
2 minutes. The water to be added in concrete 3.6 shall be adjusted based
on moisture contents in fine and coarse aggregates. During hot and cold
weather, suitable methods to reduce the loss of water by evaporation in
hot weather and heat loss in cold weather will be adopted as per
procedure set out in IS: 7861.
7. The compaction of concrete will be done by immersion type needle
vibrator which shall be inserted into concrete in vertical position not
more than 450 mm apart. Vibration will be 3.7 applied systematically to
cover all areas immediately after placing concrete and will be stopped
when the concrete flattens and takes up a glistening appearance or rise of
entrapped air ceases or coarse aggregate blends into the surface but does
not completely disappear. The vibrator shall be slowly withdrawn to
ensure closing of the whole resulting from insertion.
8. Unless otherwise approved, continuous concreting shall be done to the
full thickness of 3.8 foundation rafts, slabs, beams & similar members.
For placing on slope, concreting will be started at the bottom and moved
upwards. Concrete shall not fall from a height of more than 1m to avoid
9. Special care shall be taken to guarantee the finish and Water-
Tightness of concrete for liquid retaining structures, underghround
structures and those if specifically mentioned. The minimum 3.9 level of
surface finish for liquid retaining structures shall be Type F-2 and it
shall be Hydro tested to approve procedure. Any leakage during hydro
test or subsequently during defect liability period, if occurred shall be
effectively stopped either by cement /epoxy pressure grouting or any
other approved method.
10. Curing of concrete with approved water shall start after completion
of Initial setting time of concrete and in hot weather after 3 hours.
Concrete will be cured for a minimum period of seven days when OPC
with high water cement ratio is used, curing for minimum 10 days in hot
weather or low water cement ratio is used and where mineral admixture
used minimum curing period is 14 days. Freshly laid concrete shall be
protected from rain by suitable covering. Curing shall be done by
continuous sprays or pounded water or continuously saturated coverings
of sacking canvas, hessian or other absorbent material for the period of
complete hydration with a minimum of 7 days. Curing shall also be done
by covering the surface with an impermeable material such as
Polyethylene, which shall be well sealed and fastened. Alternatively
Curing compound of approved make can be applied immediately after
stripping of formwork.
11. The workability of concrete shall be checked by the site engineer.
The prepared surface shall be inspected and certified in pour card.
12. Staining or discoloration shall be washed out. If surface is not upto
the acceptable standard, as 3.13 per IS 456, cement wash is to be
provided on exposed concrete surface of foundation, beam, column, wall
13. All blemishes and defect if any shall be rectified immediately after
the removal of formwork.
14. For each sample of concrete pour 150mm cubes shall be prepared
and cured 3nos shall be crushed at 7days and other 3nos at 28 days.
Record shall be made for each Test in enclosedormats as per ITP.
15. PVC water stoppers shall be provided in construction joints as per
AFC drawing confirming to IS-12200. Prior approval shall be taken for
location & material. Alternatively G.I.sheet of 200mm wide and 18mm
gauge thick shall also be used for the same with the approval of
It was a wonderful learning experience at L&T
Construction PT & D IC`s site of L&T Project for
one month in Varanasi. I gained a lot of insight
regarding almost every aspect of site. I was given
exposure in almost all the departments at the site.
The friendly welcome from all the employees is
appreciating, sharing their experience and giving
their peace of wisdom which they have gained in
long journey of work. I am very much thankful for
the wonderful accommodation facility from L&T. I
hope this experience will surely help me in my
future and also in shaping my career.