5. MARPOL (Annex VI)
Limits the sulphur content of marine fuels on a global basis to
4.5%. (May 2005)
That limit was then lowered to 3.5% sulphur from January
Annex VI also imposed a 1.5% sulphur limit on marine fuels in
Emission Control Areas (ECAs) effective May 2006.
That limit was reduced to 1.0% sulphur effective 1 July 2010,
and will be further reduced to 0.1% sulphur beginning
7. Benefits Of LNG as Fuel
LNG is expected to be less costly than marine gas oil
9. Benefits Of LNG as Fuel
use of LNG as ship fuel will reduce
sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions by 90-95%.
lower carbon content of LNG
compared to traditional ship fuels
enables a 20-25% reduction of carbon
dioxide (CO2) emissions.
10. LNG as fuel Till date:
fuel in converted ships.
13. LNG as Fuel for Container Ships
Payback time is shorter for the smaller container vessels
(900 TEU and 1,250 TEU) since the capital investment
needed for their LNG systems is smaller than for larger
14. Storage of LNG as Fuel:
• Highly Pressurised
• Low Temperature
• Insulation: Thermal & Chemical.
• Use of special valves for bunkering &
release of fuel
15. Stowage Of LNG fuel in a
Very difficult to stow in double bottom
Using ISO type ‘C’ tanks installed at stern.
• Using ISO LNG Containers 20/40 TEU.
20. Features of this system
Flexible: Containers can be added as per the
requirements of the route (distance).
Easy loading of fuel.
Use of special valves and pipe connections
required on the deck to supply fuel to engine
Low cost of the setup.
22. No. of LNG containers required:
65.45 gm/kW h
8400 kW h
No. of days at 19.5 knots:
Mass of LNG needed: 52 t
60 t of LNG = 133.3 m3.
Capacity of 1 LNG TEU = 20 m3
No. of container needed = 7
No. of Container carried on ship: 8 or (4 FEU).
1880 nm (Fueling at origin, Low cost)
ship on this concept to be
launched in mid this year.
ships have been ordered by TOTE
Maritime (US) to a Norwegian Shipyard.
bunkering facilities are being
developed at several shipyards in
owners from European countries
have also shown their interest.