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MATTER <ul><li>Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume. In practice however there is no single correct scientific meaning of "matter," as different fields use the term in different and sometimes incompatible ways. Matter has mass, which can be measured in weight. Matter has volume. </li></ul>
STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. States of matter are the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on. Solid, liquid and gas are the most common states of matter on Earth. However, much of the baryonic matter of universe is in the form of hot plasma, both as rarefied interstellar medium and as dense stars. States of matter may also be defined in terms of phase transitions </li></ul>
DIFFERENT STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Bose-Einstein condensate </li></ul>
SOLID <ul><li>Solid is one of the major states of matter. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other Solids are usually hard because their molecules have been packed together. Solids also can hold their own shape. </li></ul>
LIQUID <ul><li>Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena. The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, and much higher than in a gas </li></ul>
GAS The gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states, the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases At a low temperature gas molecules travel, on the average, at slower speeds than they travel at a high temperature. So, at a low temperature the molecules have, on the average, less kinetic energy than they do at a high temperature. Lower speeds, lower kinetic energies. Gases are random groups of atoms
PLASMA Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. The basic premise is that heating a gas dissociates its molecular bonds, rendering it into its constituent atoms. Further heating leads to ionization , turning it into a plasma: containing charged particles, positive ions and negative electrons. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields
BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale. This state of matter was first predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein in 1924–25
PROPERTIES OF SOLID <ul><li>There is a little space between the particles of solid </li></ul><ul><li>It has definite shape and volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles of solids are incompressible. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles attract each other very strongly. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles of solid cannot move freely. </li></ul>
PROPERTIES OF LIQUID <ul><li>The particles have a greater space between them. </li></ul><ul><li>It has no definite shape. Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>attain the shape of vessel in which </li></ul><ul><li>they are kept. </li></ul><ul><li>Their particles are compressible to small extent. </li></ul><ul><li>The force of attraction in liquid particles are less than solid particles. </li></ul><ul><li>These particles move freely. </li></ul>
PROPERTIES OF GAS <ul><li>The space between gas particles is greatest. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas has neither a definite shape nor </li></ul><ul><li>a definite volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Their particles are highly compressible. </li></ul><ul><li>The force of attraction is least between the gaseous particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous particles are in continuous random motion. </li></ul>
CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLES OF MATTER <ul><li>1. Particles of matter move continuously 2. Particles of matter attract each other 3. Particles of matter have space between them </li></ul>