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Public Private Partnership Model in Disaster Mitigation of Padang City. A winning scientific
research of Most Outstanding Student Competition in Universitas Indonesia 2013.
An attestation to analytical and strategic thinking in public policy.
Program Impact Analysis
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN DISASTER MITIGATION
AS ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION OF EFFECTIVE DISASTER
MANAGEMENT IN PADANG CITY
The earthquake in Padang, West Sumatra in 2009 had greatly devastated the
lives of many citizens. With magnitude of 7.9, the earthquake has brought losses up to
21.6 trillions rupiah and 1195 casualties. The Institute of Science and Research
Indonesia (LIPI) revealed that the quake has actually made the subduction segments
becoming even more prone to greater earthquakes within the next five years, which
magnitude is predicted to be bigger than the one in 2009. Moreover, National
Geographic magazine claimed Padang as the tsunami most-prone city in the world.
Communities are the main victims when a disaster occurs. The impacts can be
either a physical impact, health, economic, social to psychological effects. During the
early days after the earthquake, various broadcast media aired the catastrophic
damages and government`s slow response to the disaster. Evacuation of victims
trapped in the rubble of the building until the second day was still done manually
using a crowbar, hammer and a hoe. The other problems that afflicted society is
unequal distribution of aid and some isolated areas were untouched. Post-disaster also
brought deep trauma that caused not a few people who want to leave the city. These
facts on the ground show that the government -as a major responsibility in the disaster
management system- is not able to fully respond to disaster swiftly and create a sense
of security to its people. Therefore, we need an alternative system that can support
Government disaster mitigation policy is only intended to directly form
community preparedness. The Problems of government capacity in creating effective
response system and disaster recovery with the right solution is yet to be created. The
main barriers to the government in recovery lies in the funding, lack of expert and
Human Resources (HR) quality, and data collection of casualties and damage.
Through the theory of disaster management by Nick Carter and Alexander, the
concept of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in disaster mitigation, the paper analyzes
the pattern of non-public actor`s involvement in government disaster mitigation
policies. The study found that private sector involvement is limited to post-disaster
donations from the business sector which are reactive and, more often than not, poorly
coordinated. Then, through an analysis of the success pattern of cooperation between
the government and the private sector in Japan, the author underlines the importance
of a paradigm change by Padang Government to transform their sole focus to
community preparedness into a comprehensive policy involving private partnerships
as a reciprocal collaboration.
There is clear interdependence of interests between government and private.
Government requires the private sector with particular expertise through collaboration
and emergency response agreements. On the other hand, the private have invested
interest to the government in terms of disaster preparedness knowledge transfer and
coordination for a business swift recovery after the disaster. By this logic, the
involvement of the private sector, a sector that has a great contribution in the
economy of Padang, can create a more effective disaster management system of the
government, resolving the issue of funding and slow disaster response and recovery.
By considering this potential of private actors in supporting disaster
management system and examining the pattern of government and private sector
involvement in disaster management of Japan, the study in this paper produces a
policy recommendation that will be given to the government of Padang and related
stakeholders. The recommendation is a model of public private partnership with
Reciprocal advantage in this context refers to the government that benefits
private parties and private parties that benefit the government. The government that
benefits private sector means the government establishing an incentive program to
attract private sector involvement (e.g. reduction of corporate tax, licensing) and
accompanied by disaster preparedness knowledge to the private sector. While private
parties that benefit government means the private sector (1) collaborating with the
government (e.g. building shelter and emergency response agreement for construction
equipment and logistics) and (2) conducting CSR programs for disaster mitigation or
community empowerment. The partnership is expected to reduce the risk of disaster
for the community, supports the performance of disaster management by the
government and create a sense of security for the disaster.