Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.
-2-
‫ﻤ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ا‬ُ ُ‫ﻨ‬
َ
‫ﻮ‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ق‬
ِ‫ﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ِ
ْ َ
ِ
ْ
ِ
‫ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ‬ُ‫اﻟﺸ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻴ‬ْ‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺦ‬َ‫ﻼ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣ‬َ‫ﺔ‬
‫أﰊ‬‫ز‬...
-3-
$#" !
‫اﳊﻤــﺪ‬ُ ْ َ‫ﻟﻠـــﻪ‬ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬‫أﺧﺮﺟــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻗــﺪ‬ ‫اﻟــﺬي‬َ ْ َْ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜـــﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋــــﺞ‬َ ِ ْ َِ ِ
َ‫اﳊﺠــــ...
-4-
‫ــﺼﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺧﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻳﻜــﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أرﺟــﻮ‬ ‫واﻟﻠـــﻪ‬َ ُ َ َ
ِ َ َ ُْ َ َْ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻬــــﻪ‬ْ ِ ِِ ْ َ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻟـــﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻜﺮﻳ...
-5-
‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ِ ِ ِ
‫ﱠ‬ ْ َ ُ ََ َ ‫ﱠ‬
‫دﻻ‬َ َ‫ﻟــ‬َ‫واﻓﻘـــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـــﺎ‬ ‫ﻋــﲆ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻔـــﻆ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ْ ََ َُ َ
ِ ْ ...
-6-
‫ﻓ‬َ‫ﺼ‬ْ‫ﻞ‬ٌ
‫اﻷ‬ ‫وﻧــــﺴﺒـﺔ‬َ ْ ُ َ َْ
ِ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌــــــﺎﲏ‬ ‫ﻟﻔـــــﺎظ‬َ ْ ِْ ِ‫ـــﺴـﺎم‬‫ـ‬‫أﻗ‬ ‫ـــﺴﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲬ‬ٍ َ َْ ُ ََ ...
-7-
‫ﻓﻘـــﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺻـــﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳــﻢ‬ ‫وﻧــﺎﻗﺺ‬ْ َ َ ٍ ِ
َ ُ ََ ِ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫ارﺗﺒـــﻂ‬ ‫ﻗــﺪ‬ ‫أﺑﻌـــﺪ‬ ‫ﺟــﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﻣــﻊ‬ ‫أو‬ْ َ َ ...
-8-
‫اﻟــ‬ ‫واﻷول‬ْ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ْ ُ ُْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺤﻤﻠﻴــــ‬‫ﱠ‬
ِ
َ‫ﺔ‬ْ‫واﻵ‬ْ َ‫اﻟـــ‬ ‫ﺧـــﺮ‬ْ ُ
ِ‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟـــﺴﻮﻳـــ...
-9-
‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ِ ْ َ ِْ ٌ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻮي‬ِ َ ْ ُ
‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺟــﺰأي‬ ‫ﻗـــﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜــﺲ‬ْ ِْ ََ ْ ُ ُ ُ َْ‫ﻘــﻀﻴـﻪ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬
ِ...
-10-
‫ﺻـــﻐﺮاﳘﺎ‬ ‫أﺻﻐــــﺮ‬ ‫ﺣــــﺪ‬ ‫وذات‬َ ُ ْ َُ ْ َ ٍَ َ ‫ﱟ‬ ُ‫وذ‬َ َ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﱪاﳘ‬ ‫ـــــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫أﻛـﺒ‬ ‫ــــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫...
-11-
‫اﳋـــﺴﺘﻴــﻦ‬ ‫ﲨــــﻊ‬ ‫ﻋـــﺪم‬ ‫وراﺑـــﻊ‬ْ ْ َ ٌ َْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ََ َِ ِ َ ِ‫ﻓﻔﻴﻬــــ‬ ‫ﺑــــﺼـﻮرة‬ ‫إﻻ‬َ
ِ ٍَ َ ُ ِ ّ ِ‫ــ...
-12-
‫ذ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺿـــــﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔـــﺼﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﻜـــﻦ‬ ‫وإن‬َ ُ َ ْ َْ َ ً ِ َ ْ ُ َُ ْ ِ‫ا‬‫ــﺬ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟﻌﻜ‬ ‫ذاك‬ ‫ــﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫ر...
-13-
‫اﳊﺠﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﺴﺎم‬ِ
‫ﱠ‬ ُ ُ َ ْ َ
‫ﻋـﻘـﻠـﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﺠـــــﺔ‬ْ ْ ٌ ْ ٌ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬
ِ ِ
َ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ََ‫ــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟـﻠ...
-14-
‫ﻛﺎﻟــ‬ ‫واﻟﺜــﺎن‬ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫أﺷﻜﺎﻟـــﻪ‬ ‫ﻋــﻦ‬ ‫ﺨﺮوج‬ِ ِ َ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ُ ُ‫اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﴍط‬ ‫وﺗـــﺮك‬‫ﱠ‬ َِ ِ
ْ َ ْ َ‫إﻛﲈﻟ...
-15-
‫ﺳــﻨــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ٍ َِ َ ْ‫وأرﺑﻌـــﲔ‬ ‫إﺣـــﺪى‬ْ ْ ْ
ِ
َ َ َْ َ ِ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫ﺗــﺴﻌــﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌــﺪ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬َ َ ْ َ ْ
ِ ٍ ...
السلم المنورق
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×
Próximo SlideShare
عقيدة الفلاح ومنهج الصلاح
Siguiente
Descargar para leer sin conexión y ver en pantalla completa.

5

Compartir

السلم المنورق

Descargar para leer sin conexión

سلم

Libros relacionados

Gratis con una prueba de 30 días de Scribd

Ver todo

Audiolibros relacionados

Gratis con una prueba de 30 días de Scribd

Ver todo

السلم المنورق

  1. 1. -2- ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ا‬ُ ُ‫ﻨ‬ َ ‫ﻮ‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ق‬ ِ‫ﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ِ ْ َ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ‬ُ‫اﻟﺸ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻴ‬ْ‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺦ‬َ‫ﻼ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣ‬َ‫ﺔ‬ ‫أﰊ‬‫ز‬َ‫ﻳ‬ْ‫ﺪ‬ٍ‫ﻋ‬َ‫ﺒ‬ْ‫ﺪ‬ِ‫اﻟﺮ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﲪ‬َ ْ‫ﻦ‬ِ‫اﻷ‬َ‫ﺧ‬ْ‫ﴬ‬ِ َ‫ي‬‫ﱢ‬ )918‫ـ‬983‫ﻫـ‬( ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻧ‬ِ‫ﲪ‬ ‫ﺰار‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺎدي‬
  2. 2. -3- $#" ! ‫اﳊﻤــﺪ‬ُ ْ َ‫ﻟﻠـــﻪ‬ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬‫أﺧﺮﺟــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻗــﺪ‬ ‫اﻟــﺬي‬َ ْ َْ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜـــﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋــــﺞ‬َ ِ ْ َِ ِ َ‫اﳊﺠــــﺎ‬ ‫رﺑـــﺎب‬َ ِ ِ ْ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺳــﲈء‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫ﻋــﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫وﺣــﻂ‬ْ ِ ِ َ َ ْْ َ َ َُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻌﻘــــﻞ‬ِ ْ َ‫ـﺤ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺳ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـﺎب‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣﺠ‬ ‫ـﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬َ ْ ََ ِ ٍِ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺎب‬ْ ِ‫ـ‬‫ــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺠﻬ‬ِ ْ َ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺑﺪت‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬َ ْ َ َ َ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺷـﻤﻮس‬ ‫ﻬﻢ‬ْ ُ ُ ُْ ُ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻌﺮﻓــ‬ِ ْ َ‫ﺔ‬ْ‫ﻣﻨﻜـــــــﺸﻔــ‬ ‫ﳐـﺪراﺗــــــــﻬﺎ‬ ‫رأوا‬َ ِ َِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ُ ََ َ ُ ْ َ‫ﺔ‬ْ ‫اﻹ‬ ‫ﻋـــﲆ‬ ‫ﺟـــﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻤـــﺪه‬ِ ْ َ َ ُ ْ‫ﱠ‬ ُ َ َ‫ﻧﻌــــــﺎم‬ِ ْ‫اﻹ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻌﻤــــﺔ‬ِ ْ ِ ِ َ ْ ِ‫ﻳﻤـــــﺎن‬ِ‫واﻹ‬ِ ْ َ‫ﺳـــــــﻼم‬ِ ْ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬َ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫أرﺳ‬ ‫ـﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـﲑ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺨ‬ ‫ـﺼﻨﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ِ ْ َ ُْ ْ َ ََ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ِْ ِ‫ـﻼ‬َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺣــﺎز‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫ـﲑ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺧ‬ْ َ ََ ْ ََ ِْ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻣـــﺎت‬ْ ِ َ َ‫ﻌــﲆ‬َ ُ ‫ــــﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻘﺘـﻔ‬ ‫ــــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ــــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺳﻴ‬ ‫ـــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳏﻤ‬َ َ ُْ ُ ‫ﱢ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﱢ‬ ِ ٍ َ ُ‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﳍﺎﺷــــﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌـــﺮﰊ‬ْ ‫ﱢ‬ َ ِ ِ َ ‫ﱢ‬ ِ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤـــﺼﻄﻔــﻰ‬َ ْ ُ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـــﻪ‬ ‫ﺻـــﲆ‬ِ ْ َ ‫ﱠ‬َ َُ‫ﷲ‬‫ا‬‫ﻣـــ‬َ‫اﳊﺠـــ‬ ‫دام‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ ِ َ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺤ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـﻮض‬‫ـ‬‫ﳜ‬ْ َ ْ ِ ُ ُ َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ْ ِ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ــﺎﲏ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ُ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺠﺠ‬َ َ‫ﺎ‬ ‫وﺻﺤﺒــــﻪ‬ ‫وآﻟـــﻪ‬ِ ِ ِِ ْ َ َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ذوي‬ْ ِ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻬـــــﺪى‬َ ُ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑـــﺄﻧﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺷـــﺒﻬﻮا‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ٍ ُْ َ ‫ﱢ‬ َْ ُ ُ َ‫اﻻ‬ِ‫ﻫﺘـــﺪا‬َ ِ ْ ‫ﻓﺎﻟ‬ ‫وﺑﻌــــﺪ‬ْ َ ُ ْ َ َ‫ـ‬‫ــــﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻠﺠـﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻄـــــﻖ‬ِ َ َْ ْ ِ ُِ َ‫ﻟﻠـــــﺴــﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻨــــــﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻧـــــﺴـﺒﺘـﻪ‬ِ ‫ﱢ‬ ِ ِِ ْ ُ َ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ ْ ‫اﻷ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻌﺼﻢ‬َ ُ َ ِ ْ َ‫ﻓ‬ْ‫ﻜـ‬َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻏـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺎر‬ْ ‫ﱢ‬ ََ ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺨﻄـ‬َ َ‫ـﺎ‬‫ا‬ ‫ـﻖ‬‫ـ‬‫دﻗﻴ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻋ‬ِ َ ْ َ َ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـﺸﻒ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳﻜ‬ ‫ﻔﻬﻢ‬ْ ُ ِ ْ َِ ْ َ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻐﻄ‬َ ِ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋـــــﺪ‬ ‫أﺻﻮﻟــــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬـــﺎك‬َ ِ ِ ِ َِ ُ ُْ َ َ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻮاﺋـــــﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻮﻧــــــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣــــﻦ‬ ‫ﲡﻤـــــﻊ‬َ ُِ ِ ِ َِ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َ‫ا‬ ‫اﳌﻨـــــﻮرق‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟــــﺴﻠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻴـﺘـــــﻪ‬ِ َ ‫ﱡ‬ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ َْ َُ ُُ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـــﻢ‬ ‫ﺳــﲈء‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻗــﻰ‬ْ ِْ ِ ِ ُ َ ْ ُِ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻨﻄـــﻖ‬ِ ِ ْ َ
  3. 3. -4- ‫ــﺼﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺧﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻳﻜــﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أرﺟــﻮ‬ ‫واﻟﻠـــﻪ‬َ ُ َ َ ِ َ َ ُْ َ َْ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻬــــﻪ‬ْ ِ ِِ ْ َ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻟـــﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻜﺮﻳــــﻢ‬َ َ ْ َ ِ َ‫ﺎﻟـــﺼـﺎ‬َ ِ ‫ﻧﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﻳﻜــــﻮن‬ ‫وأن‬ِ َ َْ َ َ‫ﻌــــ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺘــــ‬َ ْ ُ ْ ِ‫ـﺪ‬ِ‫ي‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫إﱃ‬ ‫ــــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ْ ِ ِ ِ‫ـ‬‫َــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳞﺘ‬ ‫ﻤﻄـــــﻮﻻت‬ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ‫ـﺪ‬ِ‫ي‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎل‬ ‫ﺟﻮاز‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ِ ِ َ ِ ْ َِ َ ٌْ‫ﻪ‬ِ ‫واﻟ‬ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ــﺘﻐﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫اﻻﺷ‬ ‫ـــﻮاز‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ـــﻒ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺨﻠ‬ِ ِ ْ ِ َ ُ ْ ُ‫ﻋـــــﲆ‬ ‫ﺑـــــﻪ‬َ َ ِ ِ‫أﻗــــــﻮال‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛـــــﺔ‬ِ ْ َ ََ ٍ ‫واﻟﻨــﻮاو‬ ‫اﻟــﺼﻼح‬ ‫ﻓــﺎﺑﻦ‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ِْ َ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ي‬َ‫ﺮﻣــ‬َ ‫ﱠ‬‫ـﺎ‬‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐـــ‬ ‫ﻗـــﻮم‬ ‫وﻗـــﺎل‬ِ َ ْ َْ َ ٌ َ َ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ـﻲ‬َ َُ ْ ْ َ‫ـــــﺎ‬ ‫واﻟ‬ْ َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻘﻮﻟــﺔ‬ْ َُ َْ‫ـ‬‫اﻟــﺼﺤﻴﺤــ‬ ‫ﻤــﺸﻬﻮرة‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ َ َُ ْ‫ﺔ‬ْ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬َ‫ـــــ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮﻳـﺤـ‬ ‫ـــــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﻣ‬ ‫ﻮازه‬َ ُ ََ ِ ِ ِ ُ‫ﺔ‬ْ ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ُ‫ـ‬‫واﻟ‬ ‫ـــﺴﻨــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﲈرس‬ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱡ‬ ِ ِ َ‫ــــﺎب‬‫ـ‬‫ﻜﺘـ‬ِ ِ‫ـــــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻴﻬﺘ‬ِ َِ ْ َ‫اﻟـــــﺼـﻮاب‬ ‫إﱃ‬ ‫ـــــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ي‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫اﳊﺎدث‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ِ ِ َِ ِ ْْ ُ َ َ ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻔ‬ ‫إدراك‬ْ ُ ُ ْ ِ‫ﺮد‬ٍ َ‫ــــﺼﻮرا‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗ‬ً ‫ﱡ‬ َ َ‫ـــــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ْ ِ ُ‫وﺳــــﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺘــــﺼﺪﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﻧــــﺴﺒــﺔ‬ ‫ودرك‬ْ ْ ْ ِ ٍ ِ ُ ْ َ َ ٍَ َ ِ ُ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﻨـــــﺪ‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫وﻗــــﺪم‬ْ َ ْ ‫ﱢ‬ِ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ ََ ِ َ‫ﻮﺿــــــﻊ‬ِ ْ َ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄــﺒـــــــﻊ‬ ‫ــــــﺪم‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻘـ‬ ‫ــــــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻷﻧ‬ِ ْ ُ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ٌ ُ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ‫ـــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟﻨﻈ‬ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ي‬َ ْ‫ـــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘـﺄﻣ‬ ‫ــﺎج‬‫ـ‬‫اﺣﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ِ ‫ﱡ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ْ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـﴬوري‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ـﺴـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻋﻜ‬ْ ‫ﱡ‬ َ ُ ُ َ َ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ْ‫ـ‬‫ﺠ‬َ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ـﻠ‬ِ‫ـ‬‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺗـــﺼـ‬ ‫إﱃ‬ ‫ﺑــــﻪ‬ ‫وﻣـــﺎ‬َ ََ ِ ِ ِ‫وﺻـــــﻞ‬ ‫ﻮر‬ْ ِ ُ ‫ﱡ‬ٍ‫ﻓﻠﺘﺒﺘﻬــــﻞ‬ ‫ﺷــــﺎرح‬ ‫ﺑﻘـــﻮل‬ ‫ﻳـــﺪﻋﻰ‬ْ ِْ َ َ ْْ ْ ََ ٍَ ِ ٍ َ ِ ُ ‫ﻟﺘـــﺼﺪﻳـﻖ‬ ‫وﻣـــﺎ‬ٍ ِ ِ ْ ََ َ‫ﺗــــﻮﺻﻼ‬ ‫ﺑــــﻪ‬َ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ُ ِ ِ‫اﻟﻌﻘـــﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻨــــﺪ‬ ‫ﻳــــﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺠــــﺔ‬َ َ ُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ َُ ْ ُِ ٍ َ ُ ِ
  4. 4. -5- ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ِ ِ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ َ ُ ََ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫دﻻ‬َ َ‫ﻟــ‬َ‫واﻓﻘـــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـــﺎ‬ ‫ﻋــﲆ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻔـــﻆ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ْ ََ َُ َ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫دﻻﻟـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻮﳖـــــﺎ‬ْ ََ َ َ ُ ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤ‬ُ‫ﻄﺎﺑﻘــــــﺔ‬ْ َ َ ‫و‬َ‫ـــﻀﻤﻨ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗـ‬ ‫ــــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟﺰﺋـ‬ً َ ْ‫ﱡ‬ َ ِ ِ ُ‫ﺎ‬‫ـــﺰم‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻣ‬ْ ِ َ َ‫إ‬ ‫ــــﺰام‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫ـــﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻬ‬ِ ٌ َ ِ ْ َ ْ َ‫ﺑﻌ‬ ‫ن‬َ ِ ْ‫ـــﺰ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫ــــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻘ‬ِ ُ ْ ٍ ْ‫م‬ْ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬َ ٌ ْ َ‫اﻷﻟ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ْ َ ِ ِ‫ـ‬‫ﻔﺎظ‬ِ ‫اﻷ‬ ‫ﻣــﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬َ ْ ُ َ ْ ُْ َ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻟﻔــﺎظ‬َ ِ ْ‫ﻴــ‬ْ‫ﻳﻮﺟـــﺪ‬ ‫ﺚ‬ُ َ ُ ُ‫وإﻣــــ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛـــــﺐ‬ ‫إﻣـــــﺎ‬‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ِ َِ ٌ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣﻔـــــﺮد‬ ‫ﺎ‬ُ َ ُْ ‫ــــﲆ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ــــﺰؤه‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ــــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﺄول‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬َ َ ُ ُ َ ‫ﱠ‬ُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ٌ َ َ‫ﻣﻌ‬ ‫ــﺰء‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬ْ َُ ِ ُ‫ـــﻼ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﻌﻜ‬ ‫ـــﺎه‬‫ـ‬‫ﻨ‬َ َ َ ِ ْ َ ُِ ‫أﻋﻨـ‬ ‫ﻗـﺴﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻋــﲆ‬ ‫وﻫـﻮ‬ِ ِ ْ َ َ ْ ََ ِ ْ َ ْ‫اﻟـ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻔﺮد‬َ َ ُْ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻛﻠــــﻲ‬َ ‫ﱞ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫وﺟــــﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴـــﺚ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺋـــﻲ‬ ‫و‬َ ِْ ُ َ ُ ُْ ْ ‫ﱡ‬ ِ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﺷﺘـــــﺮاك‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻔﻬـــــﻢ‬ْ ٍ ِ ْ َُ ُِ ْ‫ﻜـﻠـــــﻲ‬‫ﱡ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫اﻟ‬ ‫وﻋﻜــــﺴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻛـﺄﺳـــــﺪ‬ْ ُ َ َُ َْ ٍ َ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺠﺰﺋـــــﻲ‬‫ﱡ‬ ِ ْ ُ ‫وأول‬ٌ ‫ﱠ‬ ََ‫ﻓ‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻟﻠـــﺬات‬ِ ِ ِْ ِ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬َ‫اﻧـــﺪرج‬ ‫ـــــﺎ‬ْ َ َ ْ‫أ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧــــﺴﺒـﻪ‬َ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ‫و‬ْ‫ﻟﻌــــﺮ‬َ َ ِ‫ض‬ٍ‫إذ‬َ ِ‫ﺧــــﺮج‬ ‫ا‬ْ َ َ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟﻜﻠﻴ‬َ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ َ‫ـــﺎص‬‫ـ‬‫اﻧﺘﻘ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ــﺴﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲬ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ْ ُ ِ ْ َ ٌ ََ ْ ُ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺧ‬ ‫ـﻮع‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫ـﺮض‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ـﺼﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻓ‬ ‫ـﻨﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬َ َْ ٌ ْ َ ْ َ ٌَ ٌ َ ٌ َ ِ‫ﺎص‬ْ ‫ــــﻼ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺛﻼﺛـ‬ ‫وأول‬َ ِ ٌ َ َ ٌ ‫ﱠ‬ ََ‫ـــــﻂ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺷﻄـ‬ْ َ َ‫ﻗﺮ‬ ‫ــﻨﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬ِ َ ٌ ْ ِ‫ا‬ ‫ــﺐ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬َ ٌ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﻌﻴ‬ ‫و‬ٌ َ ْ‫ا‬َ‫ـــﻂ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺳ‬ ‫و‬ْ َ َ ْ
  5. 5. -6- ‫ﻓ‬َ‫ﺼ‬ْ‫ﻞ‬ٌ ‫اﻷ‬ ‫وﻧــــﺴﺒـﺔ‬َ ْ ُ َ َْ ِ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌــــــﺎﲏ‬ ‫ﻟﻔـــــﺎظ‬َ ْ ِْ ِ‫ـــﺴـﺎم‬‫ـ‬‫أﻗ‬ ‫ـــﺴﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲬ‬ٍ َ َْ ُ ََ ْ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ِ‫ﻼ‬َ‫ـــﺼــﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﻘ‬ِ ْ ُ ‫ﲣﺎﻟــــــﻒ‬ ‫ﺗــــﺸﺎﻛـﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻃـــــﺆ‬ُ ُ َ ٌَ ُ َ ََ ٌ ُ‫واﻻ‬ِ َ‫اﻟــــﱰادف‬ ‫ﻋﻜــــﺴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺘـــــﺮاك‬ُ ُ ُ َ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ْ ُ ِ ْ ‫ﺧﺒـــــﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻃﻠــــﺐ‬ ‫إﻣـــﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﻠﻔـــﻆ‬ُ ‫ﱠ‬َ ْ ٌ ََ َ َ ‫ﱠ‬َ ُِ ْ‫ﺛﻼ‬ ‫وأول‬َ َ ٌ ‫ﱠ‬ ََ‫ﺳـﺘﺬﻛــــــــــﺮ‬ ‫ﺛــــــــــﺔ‬ُ ََ ُْ ٌ َ ‫اﺳﺘﻌـــﻼ‬ ‫ﻣــﻊ‬ ‫أﻣـــﺮ‬َ ْ َ ِ ْ َ ٌ ْ َ‫دﻋــ‬ ‫وﻋﻜــﺴﻪ‬َ ُ ُ َ َُ ْ‫ﺎ‬‫وﰲ‬ِ َ‫وﻗﻌــــ‬ ‫ﻓــــﺎﻟﺘﲈس‬ ‫اﻟﺘــــﺴـﺎوي‬َ َ ٌَ ِ ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬‫ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‬َ‫ﺼ‬ْ‫ﻞ‬ٌ‫ﰲ‬ِ‫ﺑ‬َ‫ﻴ‬َ‫ﺎن‬ِ‫اﻟﻜ‬ُ‫ﻞ‬‫ﱢ‬‫و‬َ‫اﻟﻜ‬ُ‫ﻠ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺔ‬ِ‫و‬َ‫اﳉ‬ُ‫ﺰ‬ْ‫ء‬ِ‫و‬َ‫اﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﺠ‬ُ‫ﺰ‬ْ‫ﺋ‬ِ‫ﻴ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺔ‬ِ ‫ﺣﻜﻤﻨــ‬ ‫اﻟﻜــﻞ‬َ ُ ْ ُُ ‫ﱡ‬‫ﻋــﲆ‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ َ‫اﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤـــﻮع‬ِ ُ َْ‫ـــــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﻜ‬‫ﱡ‬ ُ َ‫ذ‬ ‫ـــــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻴ‬ ‫ذاك‬َ َ ْ َ َ‫ـــــﻮع‬‫ـ‬‫وﻗ‬ ‫ا‬ِ ُ ُ ‫ﺣﻜﻤـــ‬ ‫ﻓـــﺮد‬ ‫ﻟﻜـــﻞ‬ ‫وﺣﻴـﺜﻤــــﺎ‬َ ْ ْ ِ ٍ ِ ُ َ ََ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ُ‫ـﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻗـــــﺪ‬ ‫ﻛـﻠـﻴـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧــــﻪ‬َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ُ ُْ َُ ٌ ‫ﱢ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ‫ــــــﺎ‬ ‫واﻟــ‬ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺤﻜﻢ‬ُ ْ ُ‫ﻫــ‬ ‫ﻟﻠــﺒﻌﺾ‬ُ ْ َِ ْ ِ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺠﺰﺋﻴـــ‬‫ﱠ‬ ِ ْ ُ‫ﺔ‬ْ‫ـــــ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟ‬ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺠ‬ُ‫ـــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘ‬ ‫ﺰء‬ُ َْ ِ ْ َ ُ‫ـ‬‫ﻪ‬ُ‫ــــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟﻠﻴ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻓ‬َ‫ﺼ‬ْ‫ﻞ‬ٌ‫ﰲ‬ِ‫اﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤ‬ُ‫ﻌ‬َ‫ﺮ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﻓ‬َ‫ﺎت‬ِ ‫ﻋـــ‬ ‫ﻣﻌـــﺮف‬َ ٌَ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫ﲆ‬َ‫ﻗـــﺴــﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛـــــﺔ‬ْ ِ ٍُ َ َ‫ﻋﻠـــﻢ‬ ‫وﻟﻔﻈــــﻲ‬ ‫ورﺳﻤــــﻲ‬ ‫ﺣــــﺪ‬ْ ‫ﱞ‬ ‫ﱞ‬ ْ َ ِ ِ ِ ُ َ َ َْ َ ‫ﱞ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﺎﻟ‬ْ َ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺤﺪ‬ْ ِ ‫ﱡ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫وﻗﻌ‬ ‫ـﺼﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻓ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﺲ‬َ َ ْ ََ ٍ َِ ْ ِ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟــ‬ ‫واﻟﺮﺳــﻢ‬ْ ِ ُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺠ‬ِ‫وﺧ‬ ‫ﻨﺲ‬َ َْ ِ‫ﻣﻌــ‬ ‫ﺎﺻـــﺔ‬َ ََ ٍ‫ـﺎ‬ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻧ‬َ‫ﺎ‬‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻗﺺ‬ْ ُ ِ‫ـ‬‫ــﺼﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﻔ‬ ‫ﺤﺪ‬ٍ ْ ََ ِ ‫ﱢ‬‫ا‬َ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻌ‬ ‫و‬َ َْ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴــــﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻨــــﺲ‬َ ٍ َ ٍ ْ ِ‫وﻗﻌـــ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳـــﺐ‬َ ََ ٍَ‫ـﺎ‬
  6. 6. -7- ‫ﻓﻘـــﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺻـــﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳــﻢ‬ ‫وﻧــﺎﻗﺺ‬ْ َ َ ٍ ِ َ ُ ََ ِ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫ارﺗﺒـــﻂ‬ ‫ﻗــﺪ‬ ‫أﺑﻌـــﺪ‬ ‫ﺟــﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﻣــﻊ‬ ‫أو‬ْ َ َ ْ َ َْ ْْ َ ِ ٍَ َ ٍَ ِ ‫ﻟـــﺪﳞﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻈــــﻲ‬ ‫وﻣــــﺎ‬ْ ‫ﱟ‬ َِ ْ َ َ َِ ْ ِ َ‫ﺷﻬــــﺮ‬َ ِ ُ‫ا‬‫ﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻟﻔـــﻆ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳــــﻞ‬ِ ٍ َ ِ ْ َ ُ ْ َ‫أﺷـــﻬ‬ ‫ﻳــــﻒ‬َ ْ َ ٍ‫ﺮ‬َ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ـــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫وﴍط‬َ ‫ﱟ‬ ُ ُ ْ َ َ‫ـــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ن‬َ ُ ْ‫ــــﺮدا‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻄـ‬ ‫ى‬َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ًُ‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻨﻌﻜــــﺴ‬ِ َ ْ ُ‫ﺎ‬‫أﺑﻌـــــﺪا‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫وﻇﺎﻫـــــﺮا‬َ َ ْ ََ ً ِ ‫ــــــــﺴﺎوﻳ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ً ُِ َ‫ﺎ‬‫ــــــــﻮزا‬‫ـ‬‫ﲡ‬ ‫وﻻ‬َ ‫ﱡ‬ ََ َ‫ــــﻼ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬َ ِ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲠ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗﺮﻳـﻨ‬َ ِْ ٍ َ ِ َ‫ـــــﺮز‬‫ـ‬‫ﲢـ‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ُ‫ا‬ ‫ـــﲈ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫وﻻ‬َ ِ َ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ــــﺪود‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﻤﺤـ‬ ‫ـــﺪرى‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬َ َ ْ ٍ ُ َْ َ ُِ‫ﻣــــﺸﺘ‬َ ْ ُ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻣــــﻦ‬ ‫ـﺮك‬ْ َ ِ ٍ َ‫ﺧــــﻼ‬ ‫ﻘﺮﻳﻨــــﺔ‬َ َ َِ َ ‫ــﺪﻫﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻋﻨ‬ْ ُ ََ ْ ِ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲨـﻠ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ْ َِ ِ ْ ُْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺮدود‬ِ ْ َ‫اﻷ‬ ‫ﺗــــﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫أن‬َ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ْ َ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻜـــﺎم‬ِ ُ ْ‫اﻟـــ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﺤﺪود‬ِ ُ ُ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ـــﺠﻮز‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ْ ُ ُ ََ‫ـ‬‫ﺤ‬ُ‫أو‬ ‫ــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ذﻛ‬ ‫ﺪود‬ْ َ ُ ْ ُِ ِ‫رووا‬ ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ــﺎدر‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ـــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﺮﺳ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ــﺎﺋﺰ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺟ‬ْ َ ْ َ ََ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ِ َ ِ ٌ ِ ‫وأﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎب‬ِ ْ َ ٌ ََ َ ‫ﺟــﺮ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﺬاﺗ‬ ‫ـﺼﺪق‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﺘﻤﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﺣ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬َ ََ ‫ﱢ‬ ْ ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ََ‫ى‬‫ــــــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺧـﺒ‬ ‫ـــــﻀﻴــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ــــــﻨﻬﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﻴ‬َ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ َْ َ ََ ًَ َِ ُ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺛ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫ــﻀﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻘ‬َ َ‫ــﺴﻤـﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ــﺪﻫﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ِ ْ ِ ِ ُ َ ْ‫واﻟﺜــــــﺎﲏ‬ ‫ﱠـــــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲪﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﴍﻃﻴــــــﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬ ٌ ٌ ََ ْ ِ ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ ‫واﻷ‬ ‫ﺷﺨــــــﺼﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛـﻠـﻴـــــــﺔ‬َ ْ َ ٌ ٌ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ْ َُ ‫ﱢ‬‫ول‬ُ ‫ﱠ‬‫ــــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻬﻤــ‬ ‫ــــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫وإﻣ‬ ‫ـــﺴـﻮر‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫إﻣ‬ُ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ ٌ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ْ ِ َِ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ــﺴﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟ‬‫ﱡ‬ َ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺟﺰﺋﻴ‬ ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﻠـﻴ‬ ‫ر‬ُ ِ ْ ُُ َ ‫ﱢ‬‫ـــﺮى‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬َ ُ‫أﻗـــﺴﺎﻣـﻪ‬ُ ُ َ ْ َ‫أرﺑﻌـــﺔ‬ٌ َ َ ْ َ‫ﺟـــــﺮى‬ ‫ﺣﻴـــﺚ‬َ َُ ْ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﻜـــﻞ‬ ‫إﻣـــﺎ‬َ ‫ﱟ‬ ُ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ‫و‬ْ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌــــﺾ‬َ ٍ ْ َ ِ‫ﺑ‬ ‫و‬ِ ْ‫ـــــﻼ‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ﺑﻌــﺾ‬ ‫وﻟــﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﳾء‬َ ُ ْ َ َ َْ َ َ ْ َ‫ﺟــﻼ‬ ‫ﺷﺒـــﻪ‬ ‫و‬َ َ ْ ْ ٍ ِ
  7. 7. -8- ‫اﻟــ‬ ‫واﻷول‬ْ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ْ ُ ُْ َ‫ـ‬‫ﺤﻤﻠﻴــــ‬‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ‫ﺔ‬ْ‫واﻵ‬ْ َ‫اﻟـــ‬ ‫ﺧـــﺮ‬ْ ُ ِ‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟـــﺴﻮﻳــــ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻮل‬‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ َِ ُ ْ‫ﺔ‬ْ ‫ﻋــﲆ‬ ‫وإن‬َ َ َْ ِ‫ﺣﻜــﻢ‬ ‫ﻗــﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬــﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴــﻖ‬ْ ِ ُ ْْ ‫ﱠ‬َ ِ‫ﺗــﻨـﻘـــــﺴـﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﴍﻃﻴـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﳖـــــﺎ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َِ ٌ َْ َ َ ‫ﱠ‬ْ ِ َ ‫ﴍ‬ ‫إﱃ‬ ‫ـــﻀﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫أﻳ‬ْ َ ًِ ْ َ‫ﱠــــﺼﻠـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﺘـ‬ ‫ﻃﻴـــــﺔ‬َ ِ ٍ ِ ُ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﺔ‬ْ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻣﺜﻠﻬ‬َ ُ ْ ِ َ‫ــــﺼﻠ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣـﻨـﻔ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﴍﻃﻴ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬َ ِ َِ ْ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ٌ َْ‫ﺔ‬ْ ‫ﺟﺰ‬ْ ُ‫ء‬َ‫اﳘــــ‬َ ُ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻘــــــﺪم‬ ‫ـﺎ‬َ ٌ ُ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ﺗ‬َ‫ﺎﻟــــــﻲ‬ِ‫اﻻﺗـــــﺼ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ﺑﻴــــــﺎن‬ ‫أﻣــــــﺎ‬َ َ‫ﱢ‬ ِ ُ َ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ــﺎل‬ِ ‫ﺗـــﻼ‬ ‫أوﺟﺒــﺖ‬ ‫ﻣــﺎ‬َ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫زم‬ْ َ ُ‫ـ‬‫ﺠ‬ُ‫ﺰأﻳــــﻦ‬ِ ْ َ ْ‫وذ‬َ َ‫ات‬ُ‫اﻻﻧ‬ْ‫ـــــﺼ‬‫ـ‬‫ـﻔ‬َ ِ‫ــــــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻴـ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﺎل‬ِ ْ َ َ ُ ِ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻣـــﺎ‬َ‫ﺑﻴـﻨﻬـــ‬ ‫ﺗــــﻨﺎﻓﺮا‬ ‫وﺟﺒـــﺖ‬ُ َ َ َ ْْ َ َ َ ًْ ُ‫ـ‬‫ﲈ‬َ‫ــــﺴﺎﻣﻬ‬‫ـ‬‫أﻗ‬َ ُ ْ َ‫ﻓﻠﺘـﻌـﻠﻤ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺛﻼﺛ‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ َ ْْ ُ َ ٌ َ َ‫ـــــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ـــﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲨ‬ ‫ﺎﻧﻊ‬َ ٍ ْ َُ ِ‫ا‬ ‫ـــﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺧﻠ‬ ‫و‬َ ‫ﱟ‬ ُْ ُ‫ــــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳘـ‬ ‫و‬َ ُ ْ‫اﻟــ‬ ‫وﻫــﻮ‬ْ َ ْ َ‫ـ‬‫اﻷ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬َ ْ ‫ﱡ‬ ِ ِ َ‫ﻓﺎﻋـﻠـــﲈ‬ ‫ﺧــﺺ‬َ َ ْ ‫ﱡ‬َ َ ‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬‫ﱠ‬ ٌ ْ َ‫ﱠﻨﺎﻗﺾ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬ِ ُ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺧﻠــــﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻨـــﺎﻗﺾ‬ْ ُْ ٌُ َ َُ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻘـــﻀﻴﺘـﲔ‬ِ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬َ ِ َ‫ﻗـــﻔﻲ‬ ‫أﻣــﺮ‬ ‫واﺣــﺪ‬ ‫وﺻــﺪق‬ ‫ﻛﻴــﻒ‬ْ ٌ ْ ْ ِ ٍ ِ ِ ٍُ َُ ْ ََ ‫ﺗﻜــ‬ ‫ﻓــﺈن‬ُ َ ْ ِ َ‫ﺷﺨـــ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ْ َ ْ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻠـــ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺔ‬َ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ْ ْ َ ً ِ‫ﻪ‬ْ‫ﻓﻨـﻘــــﻀﻬ‬َ ُ ْ َ َ‫ﺗـﺒﺪﻟـــــ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑــــﺎﻟﻜﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ ْ‫ﱢ‬ َُ ْ َ ِ ْ َ ِ‫ﻪ‬ْ ‫ـــﺴﻮر‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑـﺎﻟ‬ ‫ـــﺼﻮرة‬‫ـ‬‫ﳏ‬ ‫ــــﻜﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫وإن‬ِ ‫ﱡ‬ َِ ً ُ ْ َْ َ ُ َ ْ ِ‫ﺳــﻮرﻫ‬ ‫ﺑـــﻀﺪ‬ ‫ﻓــﺎﻧﻘﺾ‬َ ِ ُ ‫ﱢ‬ ِ ِ ْ ُ ْ َ‫اﻟــ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺬﻛﻮر‬ِ ُ ْ َ ‫ﻛﻠﻴـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜــــﻦ‬ ‫ﻓــــﺈن‬ْ ً‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ََ ِْ ُ ْ ِ َ‫ﻧﻘﻴـــــﻀـﻬ‬َ ُ ِ َ‫ﺟﺰﺋـﻴــــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺳـــــﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ْ ٌ‫ﱠ‬ َ ِ ِْ ُ َ ‫ﺳــــﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜــــﻦ‬ ‫وإن‬ً ِ َ ْ َُ َ ْ ِ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛــﻠــﻴ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫ــــﻀﻬ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﻘﻴ‬َ ُ َ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴــ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒـ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ْ ٌ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ْ ُ َ ِ
  8. 8. -9- ‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ِ ْ َ ِْ ٌ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻮي‬ِ َ ْ ُ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺟــﺰأي‬ ‫ﻗـــﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜــﺲ‬ْ ِْ ََ ْ ُ ُ ُ َْ‫ﻘــﻀﻴـﻪ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ‫ﻣـــﻊ‬ْ َ‫واﻟﻜﻴﻔــــﻴﻪ‬ ‫اﻟـــﺼﺪق‬ ‫ﺑـــــﻘﺎء‬ْ َ ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫ﱠ‬ ْ ِ َِ ِ ْ َ ‫واﻟ‬ْ َ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻜ‬ْ ّ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬ْ َ ِ ُ‫ـــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻜـﻠـﻴ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫ﻓﻌﻮ‬‫ﱠ‬ َ َ‫ﺿــ‬ُ‫ﻮ‬‫ﻫ‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟــ‬ْ‫ـﻤ‬ُ‫ﻮﺟﺐ‬َ ِ‫اﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﺠﺰﺋﻴ‬‫ﱠ‬ ِ ْ ُ‫ـــــﻪ‬ْ ‫واﻟ‬ْ َ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻌﻜ‬َ ُ َْ‫ﻟ‬ ‫زم‬ِ ٌ ِ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺟ‬ ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﲑ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻐ‬ْ ِ ُ َ ِْ َ‫ا‬ ‫ــﺘﲈع‬‫ـ‬‫اﺟ‬ ‫ــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ُ َْ ِ ِ ِ‫ﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ــﺼﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﺎﻗـﺘـ‬ ‫ــﺴﺘﲔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺨ‬ْ َ َِ ِْ َ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫وﻣ‬ِ َ‫ﺜ‬ْ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻠﻬ‬َ ُ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤ‬ُ‫ـــﺴـﻠ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻬﻤﻠ‬ْ َ‫ﱠ‬ َُ ْ‫ﺒ‬ِ‫ﻴــﻪ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻷ‬َ ِ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ـــــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧـﻬ‬ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـــــﻮة‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ْ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫ـ‬‫ـــــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺠﺰﺋﻴـ‬ْ ُ‫ﱠ‬ ‫واﻟ‬ْ َ‫ﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ــــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻌﻜ‬َ ُ ُ َْ‫ــــﺒ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄ‬ ‫ـــﺐ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ٍ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻊ‬ِ‫و‬َ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟـــﻴﺲ‬ِ َ ْ َ‫ﺑـﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺗـــﺐ‬ ‫ﻣـــﺮ‬ْ ِ ٍ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ‫ﻮﺿـــــﻊ‬ِ ْ َ ‫اﻟﻘ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎب‬ِ ٌ‫ﻴﺎس‬ِ َ ‫ﻗــﻀ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴــﺎس‬ ‫إن‬َ َ ْ َ ِ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ‫ﺎﻳ‬َ‫ﺻــــﻮر‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫ا‬‫ﻣـــﺴـﺘﻠﺰﻣ‬ً ْ ُِ ْ َ‫ﺎ‬‫آﺧــــﺮ‬ ‫ﻗـــﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟـــﺬات‬َ َ ً ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ‫ا‬ ‫ــﺴﻤـﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ــﺪﻫﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ــﺎس‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻘﻴ‬ ‫ـــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺛـ‬ِ َ ْ ْ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ِ ِ ُ َُ ْ ُ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳﺪﻋ‬ ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻤﻨ‬ْ ُْ ُْ َ ِ َ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘـ‬ ‫ـﻰ‬ِ ْ ِ‫ﺮ‬َ‫اﲏ‬ِ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ــﺬي‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻫ‬َ َ َ ْ َ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﲆ‬َ‫اﻟﻨ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺘ‬ِ‫ـــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻴﺠـ‬ِ َ‫ﺑ‬ِ‫ﻘــــﻮة‬ٍ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫ﺑﺎﻟ‬ ‫واﺧــــﺘﺺ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ََ ْ‫ـ‬‫ﺤ‬َ‫ﻤــﻠـﻴـــــﺔ‬ِ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ﻓﺮﻛﺒــــﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒـــــﻪ‬ ‫ﺗــــﺮد‬ ‫ﻓــــﺈن‬َ ُ َ ْ‫ﱢ‬ َُ َْ َِ ْ ِ‫ﻋــــﲆ‬ ‫ﻣـﻘـــــﺪﻣﺎﺗﻪ‬َ َ ِ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َ ُ‫ﻣــــ‬َ‫وﺟﺒــــــﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ َ َ ‫اﻟـــ‬ ‫ورﺗــــﺐ‬ْ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َ َ‫ـ‬‫واﻧـﻈــــﺮا‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺪﻣﺎت‬َ ُُ ْ َ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﺎﺳ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ــﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺻ‬ُ ٍ ِ ِ َِ ْ َ ََ‫ـ‬‫ـــﺮا‬‫ـ‬‫ﺨﺘـﺒ‬َ ِ َ ْ ‫ﻓــــــ‬َ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺈن‬َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ‫اﻟ‬ ‫زم‬ْ َ ِ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻘــﺪﻣ‬َ ُ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫ـــــــــﺎت‬ِ‫ﺑﺤــــــﺴـﺐ‬ِ َ َ ِ‫اﻟ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻘﺪﻣ‬َ ُ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫آت‬ ‫ـــــــــﺎت‬ِ ِ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫وﻣــﺎ‬ْ َ َ ِ‫ـ‬‫ﺻﻐـــﺮى‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺪﻣــــﺎت‬َ ُْ ُ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫ــــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻜـﺒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ـــﺪراﺟﻬﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻧ‬ ‫ـــﺐ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻴﺠ‬َ َْ ُ ُُ ْْ ِ ِ ِ َ‫ى‬
  9. 9. -10- ‫ﺻـــﻐﺮاﳘﺎ‬ ‫أﺻﻐــــﺮ‬ ‫ﺣــــﺪ‬ ‫وذات‬َ ُ ْ َُ ْ َ ٍَ َ ‫ﱟ‬ ُ‫وذ‬َ َ‫ــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﱪاﳘ‬ ‫ـــــﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫أﻛـﺒ‬ ‫ــــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ات‬َ ُ ْ َ َُ ْ ‫ﱟ‬ ٍُ َ‫ـﺎ‬ ‫اﻧــــــﺪراج‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫ﻓـــــﺬاك‬ ‫وأﺻــــﻐﺮ‬ِ ِ ْ َُ ََ َ ٌ ْ ََ‫اﻹ‬ ‫ﻟـــﺪى‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻐـــﻰ‬ ‫ووﺳـــﻂ‬ِ ْ َ َ َْ ُ ٌَ َ َ‫ﻧـﺘـــــﺎج‬ِ ْ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ٌ ْ َ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ــﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬َ َ ْ ِ ُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫ـــﺎس‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨــ‬ ‫ﺆﻻء‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ُ‫ﻗﻴــــﺎس‬ ‫ﻗـــﻀﻴـﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـــﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻄـﻠــــﻖ‬ِ َ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ِ َِ َ ْ َ ُ َ ْ ‫اﻷ‬ ‫ـــﱪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗﻌـﺘ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ــﲑ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬َ ِْ َ َ ْ َْ ُ ْ َ ْ َ ِ‫ﺳــــﻮار‬ُ ْ‫ﻳــــﺸــﺎر‬ ‫ﻟـــــﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟــــﴬب‬ ‫ذاك‬ ‫إذ‬ُ َُ ُ َ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ َ ْ ِ ‫و‬َ‫ﻟ‬ِ‫ﻠ‬ْ‫ــــﻂ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻘـ‬ ‫ــــﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫أﺷﻜ‬ ‫ـــﺪﻣﺎت‬‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻘ‬ْ َ َ ٌْ َ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﺴـﺐ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺤ‬ ‫ــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫أرﺑﻌ‬ْ ِ َ َْ َ َِ ٌ َ‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ـــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺤ‬ْ ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫ــﻂ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻮﺳ‬ْ َ َ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲪ‬ْ َ‫ـــﺮى‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﻜﺒ‬ ‫ــﻌﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺿ‬ ‫ــﺼﻐﺮى‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻞ‬َ َْ ُ ُ َ ُُ ِْ ِْ ٌ‫وﻳـــــﺪرى‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ﺑــــﺸﻜـﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋـــــﻰ‬َ ُ ُْ َْ ‫ﱠ‬ ٍَ َ ٍ ْ َ ِ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴـــ‬ ‫اﻟﻜـــﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫وﲪﻠـــﻪ‬ً ِ َ ‫ﱢ‬ ْ ُُ ِ ُ ْ ََ‫ـ‬‫ﻋــــﺮف‬ ‫ﺎ‬ْ ِ ُ‫و‬َ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜـــ‬ ‫اﻟﻜـــﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫وﺿﻌــــﻪ‬ً َِ ‫ﱢ‬ ُْ ِ ُ ُ َْ‫ﺎ‬‫أﻟـــﻒ‬ْ ِ ُ ‫اﻷ‬ ‫ﻋﻜــــﺲ‬ ‫اﻷﺷـــﻜﺎل‬ ‫وراﺑـــﻊ‬َ َْ ُ َ ُ َْ َِ ْ ِ َ‫ول‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬‫ــﲆ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ــﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻫ‬َ َ ْ ََ‫ـــﻜﻤﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ــﺐ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﱰﺗﻴ‬ِ ‫ﱡ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ِ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﺤ‬َ َ‫ﻫــ‬ ‫ﻋــﻦ‬ ‫ﻴــﺚ‬َ ْ َ ُ ْ‫ﺬ‬َ‫ﻳﻌــــﺪل‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈــﺎم‬ ‫ا‬ُ َ ‫ﱢ‬ْ ُ ِ َ‫اﻷول‬ ‫أﻣــــــﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈــــــﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻔﺎﺳــــﺪ‬ُ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ِ َ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ِ َ َ ‫اﻹ‬ ‫ـــﴩﻃﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬ِ ْ ُ ُ ْ َ َ‫ــــﺮاه‬‫ـ‬‫ﺻﻐـ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ـــﺎب‬‫ـ‬‫ﳚ‬ُ ُ َُ ْ ِ َ ْ‫ﻛـــــﱪاه‬ ‫ﻛـﻠـﻴــــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـــــﺮى‬ ‫وأن‬ُ ْ ََ ُ ُ ًُ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ﱢ‬ ْ َ ‫ﻣــﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴــﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳜﺘﻠﻔــﺎ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫واﻟﺜــﺎن‬ْ ََ ْ ِ َِ ْ ِ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬‫و‬ ‫ﴍط‬ ‫ﻟـــﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜـــﱪى‬ ‫ﻛـﻠــــﻴﺔ‬َ ُ ٌْ ْ َ َ ْ ‫ﱢ‬َ ُ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫ﻗـــﻊ‬ْ َ ‫ﺻـــﻐﺮاﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫اﻹﳚـــﺎب‬ ‫واﻟﺜﺎﻟـــﺚ‬َ َُ ْ ُ ُ َِ َ ْ ِ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ِ‫إﺣـــــﺪاﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـﻠـﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـــــﺮى‬ ‫وأن‬َ ‫ﱠ‬ َُ َ ُ ُْ َِ ً ‫ﱢ‬ ْ َ
  10. 10. -11- ‫اﳋـــﺴﺘﻴــﻦ‬ ‫ﲨــــﻊ‬ ‫ﻋـــﺪم‬ ‫وراﺑـــﻊ‬ْ ْ َ ٌ َْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ََ َِ ِ َ ِ‫ﻓﻔﻴﻬــــ‬ ‫ﺑــــﺼـﻮرة‬ ‫إﻻ‬َ ِ ٍَ َ ُ ِ ّ ِ‫ــــﺴﺘﺒﻴـﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬ْ َ َْ ‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺻــــﻐﺮاﳘﺎ‬ْ ٌ‫ﱠ‬ ُ َ َ ِ ْ ُ َ ُِ ُ ْ‫ـــــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛـﻠـﻴـ‬ ‫ــــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫ـــــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﱪاﳘ‬‫ﱠ‬ َ َ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ٌُ َ ْ ِ ُ َ‫ـﺔ‬ْ ‫ـــــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫أرﺑـﻌـ‬ ‫ﻷول‬ ‫ـــــــﺞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻤـﻨـﺘ‬ُ َ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ٌْ َُ ٍ َ ِ ِ ْ َ‫ﺛﺎﻟــــﺚ‬ ‫ﺛــــﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺜـــــﺎن‬ٌ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ‫ﻓــــﺴـﺘــﺔ‬ُ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ‫أﻧـﺘﺠـــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻗـــﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻤـــﺴﺔ‬ ‫وراﺑـــﻊ‬َ ٌ ََ ْ َْ َ َ ٍ َ ْ َِ ِ‫ﻳـﻨـــــﺘﺠ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ذﻛﺮﺗــــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـــــﺎ‬ ‫وﻏــــﲑ‬َ ُ َ ِ ْ ُ َُ ْ َ ْْ َ َ ُ َ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻷﺧ‬ ‫ـــﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ـــﺒﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺗـﺘ‬ْ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ َ َ ِ َِ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ ََ ُ‫ﻫﻜــــﺬ‬ ‫اﳌﻘﺪﻣــــﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠـــﻚ‬َ َ ِ ِ‫ﱢ‬ َ ُ َ ْ‫زﻛـــﻦ‬ ‫ا‬ْ ِ ُ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﻤــــــﲇ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻜـــــﺎل‬ ‫وﻫــــﺬه‬‫ﱢ‬ ِ ْ َ ِ ُ ْ َ ِ ِ َ‫ــــﴩﻃﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟ‬ ‫ــــﻴﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻟ‬ ‫ــــﺼــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳐـﺘ‬‫ﱢ‬ ْ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ٌِ َ َ ‫ﱠ‬َ َْ ُ ‫اﳌﻘﺪﻣـــــﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌـــﺾ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫واﳊـــﺬف‬ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َُ ُ ِ َْ َ َْ‫آت‬ ‫ــــــــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻌﻠـ‬ ‫ــــــــﺠﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨـﺘـﻴ‬ ‫أو‬ِ ِ ِ ٍِ ْ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﴐورة‬ ‫إﱃ‬ ‫وﺗـﻨــــــﺘﻬﻲ‬ِ ٍ َ ُ َ ِ َ ْ َ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤـــــــﺎ‬َ‫ﻣـــ‬ِ‫دور‬ ‫ﻦ‬ٍ ْ َ ْ‫ا‬َ‫ﻟﺰﻣـــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻗـــﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠـــﺴﻞ‬ ‫و‬َ ُ َِ َ ْْ ََ ٍ ْ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ِ ٌ ْ َ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﱢ‬ ْ ِ َِ ْ ‫ــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻣﻨ‬ُ َْ ِ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘـﺜـﻨ‬ ‫ــﺪﻋﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ْ ِ ْ ُ َِ َ ْ‫ﺋﻲ‬ِ‫ﺑﺎﻟـــﺸـﺮﻃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌـــﺮف‬ِ ْ َ ُ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ُ ْ‫ﻲ‬‫اﻣﺘـــــﺮاء‬ ‫ﺑـــﻼ‬ِ ِ َ ْ ِ ‫ـــﻴﺠﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨـﺘ‬ ‫ــﲆ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ــﺬي‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻫ‬ِ ِ ِ َ َ َ َ ْ َْ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘــــــﻮة‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌــــﻞ‬ ‫ﺿــــﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ِ ِ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ ُْ ِ ِِ ‫ﱢ‬ َ ‫ــﺼــﺎل‬‫ـ‬‫اﺗ‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫ــﴩﻃﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﻚ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ــﺈن‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬ِ َ ‫ﱢ‬ َ ‫ﱡ‬ َ ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ْ ِ َ‫وﺿـــﻊ‬ ‫أﻧﺘــــﺞ‬ُ َ َْ َ ْ َ‫اﻟﺘــــﺎﱄ‬ ‫وﺿـــﻊ‬ ‫ذاك‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ َْ َ َ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫أول‬ ‫رﻓــــــﻊ‬ ‫ﺗــــــﺎل‬ ‫ورﻓــــﻊ‬َ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ ٍَ ٍَ ْ َْ ََ‫ﻟـــ‬ ‫ﻋﻜـــﺴﻬﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻠـــﺰم‬ِ ِ َ ُ َِ ْ َ ِ َ ْ‫ـ‬‫اﻧﺠـــﲆ‬ ‫ﲈ‬َ َ ْ َ
  11. 11. -12- ‫ذ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺿـــــﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔـــﺼﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﻜـــﻦ‬ ‫وإن‬َ ُ َ ْ َْ َ ً ِ َ ْ ُ َُ ْ ِ‫ا‬‫ــﺬ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟﻌﻜ‬ ‫ذاك‬ ‫ــﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫رﻓ‬ ‫ـــﺞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳﻨـﺘ‬َ ََ ُْ َ َ َ ُْ َ ْ َ ُ ِ‫ا‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫وذاك‬ِ َ َ َ‫اﻷ‬َ ْ‫ﻳﻜــــﻦ‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﺛـــﻢ‬ ‫ﺧـــﺺ‬ْ ‫ﱢ‬ُ َ ‫ﱠ‬ْ ِ ُ َ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲨ‬ ‫ـــﺎﻧﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ْ ََ ِ َ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﺒﻮﺿ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ْ ٍَ ِ َ‫ﻊ‬ٍ‫ـــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫زﻛ‬ ‫ذا‬ْ ِ ُ َ ‫وإذا‬ ‫ــــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻜ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ــــﺬاك‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ـــﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫رﻓ‬َ َِ َ َ ُ ٌٍ ْ َ َ ِ ْ َ‫ذا‬ ‫ــﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻜ‬ ‫ــﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻬ‬ ‫ــﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ــﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫رﻓ‬ ‫ـــﻊ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﺎﻧ‬َ ُ َ َ َْ ْ َ َْ َ ٍ َ َ ِ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻟـﻮاﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬َ ِ ِِ َ َْ ٌ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒــــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻧــــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـــﺎ‬ ‫وﻣﻨـــﻪ‬َ ُ ُ ُ َ‫ﱠ‬ ْ َْ ُ َ ََ ِ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫رﻛـﺒ‬ ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ــﺞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣﺠ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻜﻮﻧ‬َ َ ُ ْ ْ‫ﱢ‬ ُْ َ ٍ ِ ِ ِ َِ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺗــــﺮد‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻛﺒﻨــــﻪ‬َ ْ ُ َِ ُ ْ ‫ﱢ‬ْ ِ َ َ‫ﺗﻌـﻠـﻤـــــﻪ‬ ‫ن‬ْ َْ َ َ ْ‫ـــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣ‬ ‫ـــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ــــﻴﺠﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧـﺘ‬ ‫ــــﺐ‬‫ـ‬‫واﻗـﻠ‬ْ َ ً َْ ُ ْ‫ﱢ‬ ِ ِ ِِ َ ْ ََ ‫ﺑﺄﺧــــﺮى‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒــــﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻠـــﺰم‬َ ْ ْ ُ َْ َ َُ ِ َ ِ ِ ِ ْ ْ‫ـــــﺮا‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟ‬ ‫ــــــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻫـﻠ‬ ‫إﱃ‬ ‫ــــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﺘـﻴـﺠ‬‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ َْ َ َُ َ ِ ٌ ِ َ ‫ــﻮى‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ــﺬي‬‫ـ‬‫ِاﻟ‬ ‫ـــﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨـﺘ‬ ‫ــﺼﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﺘ‬َ َ ِ ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬ ََ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ‫ﺳــــﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـــﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔـــﺼﻮﻟـﻬﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻳﻜـــﻮن‬َ ُ َْ َ َ‫ﱞ‬ َُ ْ َ ُ ُ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ــﲆ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ــﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺠﺰﺋ‬ ‫وإن‬ُ َْ َ ُ َ‫ﱟ‬ ِ ِ ْ ِ‫ــﺘﺪل‬‫ـ‬‫اﺳ‬ ‫ـﲇ‬ْ ِ ُ ْ ْ ‫ﱢ‬‫ـــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻘـ‬ ‫ــﺪﻫﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ــﺘﻘﺮاء‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳ‬ ‫ــﺬا‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬ْ ِ ِ ِ ِ ُ ُْ َ َْ ْ ْ ِ َ َ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴـﺎس‬ ‫ﻳـﺪﻋﻰ‬ ‫وﻋﻜﺴﻪ‬ْ َ َ ُ َ ََ ُ ُ ِ ْ ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻨﻄﻘــﻲ‬ِ ِ ْ َ‫ﻓﺤـﻘــــﻖ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻣـﺘــــﻪ‬ ‫اﻟـــﺬي‬ ‫وﻫـــﻮ‬ِ ‫ﱢ‬ ََ ُ ْ َ ْ ََ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ْ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﲪــﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺋــﻲ‬ ‫ﻋــﲆ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺋــﻲ‬ ‫وﺣﻴــﺚ‬ْ َِ ِ ِ ُ ْ ‫ﱞ‬ ْْ ُْ َ ُ َ َُ‫ﻟ‬ِ‫ـ‬‫ﺟﻌــــﻞ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻴــــﻞ‬ ‫ﻓـــﺬاك‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻣــــﻊ‬ْ ٌِ ِ ِ ُ َْ ْ َ َ َ َ ٍ ‫ﻳﻔﻴـــــﺪ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ُ ْ ُ ِ َ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴــــــﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄـــــﻊ‬ِ ْ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ْ َ‫واﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴـــــﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘـــــﺮاء‬ ‫ﻗﻴـــــﺎس‬ِ ْ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ِ ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُْ
  12. 12. -13- ‫اﳊﺠﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﺴﺎم‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ُ َ ْ َ ‫ﻋـﻘـﻠـﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﻴــــــﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﺠـــــﺔ‬ْ ْ ٌ ْ ٌ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ََ‫ــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟـﻠـﻴ‬ ‫ـــﺴﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲬ‬ ‫ـــﺬي‬‫ـ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ـــﺴﺎم‬‫ـ‬‫أﻗ‬ْ ٌ َ ْ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ َ ِ ِ َ َْ َ ‫ﺧ‬َ‫ـــﺪل‬‫ـ‬‫ﺟـ‬ ‫ــﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫وﺑﺮﻫ‬ ‫ــﻌﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺷ‬ ‫ــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻄﺎﺑ‬ْ َ َ َ ُ َ ْ ٌَ ْ ٌ ِ ٌ َ‫ــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻷﻣ‬ ‫ــﺖ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﻠ‬ ‫ــﺴﻄــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺳﻔ‬ ‫ــﺎﻣﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺧ‬ْ َْ َ ََ َ َِ ٌِ َ ْ ٌ َ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫أﻟــﻒ‬ ‫ﻣــﺎ‬ ‫اﻟـــﱪﻫﺎن‬ ‫أﺟﻠـــﻬﺎ‬ْ َ ُ َ ِ َ ‫ﱢ‬ ْ ‫ﱡ‬ُ ََ ُ ْ َ‫ـــــﱰن‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗـﻘ‬ ‫ـــــﲔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻘ‬ ‫ـــــﺎت‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣ‬ْ ِ َ ْ ََ ‫ﱢ‬ِ ْ َ َ ُ ِ ٍِ ‫ﻣــــﺸﺎﻫـــﺪات‬ ‫أوﻟﻴـــــﺎت‬ ‫ﻣــــﻦ‬ِ ٍ ِ َِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ َْ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ـــــــــﺮات‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﺘﻮاﺗـ‬ ‫ﳎﺮﺑـــــــــــﺎت‬ِ ِ ٍ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬َ ََ َ ُ ‫وﺣﺪ‬َ َ َ‫وﳏـــــﺴﻮﺳـﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﻴـــــــﺎت‬ِ ٍ ِ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ْ َ َ‫اﻟﻴﻘـﻴـﻨـﻴــــــﺎت‬ ‫ﲨﻠــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻠـــــﻚ‬ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ َ ُ َ ْْ ُ َ َ ‫وﰲ‬ِ َ‫دﻻ‬َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟــــــــﺔ‬ِ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤ‬ُ‫ﻘﺪﻣـــــــــﺎت‬ِ َ ‫ﱢ‬ َ‫آت‬ ‫ــــﻼف‬‫ـ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨـﺘـﻴﺠ‬ ‫ــــﲆ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ِ ِ ِ ٌِ ‫ﱠ‬َ َْ َ ‫ا‬ ‫ــــﲇ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻘ‬َ ْ‫ﱞ‬ ِ َ‫ا‬ ‫ــــﺎدي‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫و‬َ ‫ﱞ‬ َ ْ ِ‫ـــــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫َﻮﻟ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗـ‬ ‫و‬ُ َ‫ﱡ‬ ْ‫أ‬َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫واﻷول‬ ‫واﺟـــــﺐ‬ ‫و‬ُ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ٌ َ َْ ِ‫ـ‬‫ﻤــﺆ‬َ ُ‫ﻳــــــ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺪ‬ُ ‫ﺧ‬َ‫ﺎﲤ‬َ ِ‫ﺔ‬ٌ ‫ـــﺪا‬‫ـ‬‫وﺟ‬ ‫ــﺚ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣﻴ‬ ‫ـــﱪﻫﺎن‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﺄ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺧﻄ‬َ َِ ِ ُُ َ َ ُ َُ ْ ْ ْ َ‫ﰲ‬ِ‫ﻓﺎﻟ‬ ‫ـــﻮرة‬‫ـ‬‫ﺻ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ــــﺎدة‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ْ َ ٍ ٍ َ َُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬َ‫ـ‬‫ــــﺪا‬‫ـ‬‫ﻤﺒـﺘ‬َ َ ْ ُ ‫ﰲ‬ِ‫ــﱰاك‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﺎﺷ‬ ‫ــﻆ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻠﻔ‬ٍ ِ َ ِ ْ َ ْ ‫ﱠ‬‫ا‬َ‫ذا‬ ‫ــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﺠﻌ‬ ‫و‬َ ِ ْ َ َْ‫ﻣﺄﺧــــــﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺮدﻳـــﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺜـــﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺒـــﺎﻳﻦ‬َ َ َْ َ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ِ ِ َِ ْ ٍ َ ‫وﰲ‬ِ َ‫اﻟـــ‬ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﲏ‬ِ َ َ‫ﻻ‬ِ‫اﻟﻜﺎذﺑــــ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺒـــﺎس‬َ َ ِ َِ ِ ْ‫ﺔ‬ْ‫ــﺬات‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ِ َ ِ‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬‫اﳌﺨﺎﻃﺒ‬ ‫ــﺎﻓﻬﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ـــﺪق‬‫ـ‬‫ﺻ‬َ َ َ ُْ ِ َ ْ َ ٍ ِ‫ﺔ‬ْ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺬاﺗـــﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺮﴈ‬ ‫ﺟﻌــﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺜــﻞ‬ْ َ ِ ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬ َ َْ َ ْ َِ ِ ْ‫ﻧــــﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫أو‬ٍ ْ َ‫اﳌﻘﺪﻣــــــ‬ ‫إﺣــــﺪى‬َ ‫ﱢ‬ ََ ُ ْ ِ‫ـﺎت‬ِ ‫اﻟﻨـــﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻜــﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠــﻨﺲ‬ ‫واﳊﻜــﻢ‬ِ ْ ُ َ‫ﱠ‬ ِْ ْ ِ ِْ ِ ُِ ْ ِ‫ــﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻘﻄﻌ‬ ‫ــﲑ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ـــﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻄﻌ‬ ‫ــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺟﻌ‬ْ ْ ‫ﱢ‬ ِ ِْ َْ َِ َ َ ِ ْ َ َ
  13. 13. -14- ‫ﻛﺎﻟــ‬ ‫واﻟﺜــﺎن‬ْ َ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ‫ـ‬‫أﺷﻜﺎﻟـــﻪ‬ ‫ﻋــﻦ‬ ‫ﺨﺮوج‬ِ ِ َ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ُ ُ‫اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﴍط‬ ‫وﺗـــﺮك‬‫ﱠ‬ َِ ِ ْ َ ْ َ‫إﻛﲈﻟـــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ ‫ـﺘــــﺞ‬ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ِْ ْ ِ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﲤــﺎم‬ ‫ﻫــﺬا‬ْ ُ َ َ َ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻐــﺮض‬ْ ِ َ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻘــﺼـــﻮد‬ِ ُ ْ َ‫اﳌﻨ‬ ‫أﻣﻬـــــﺎت‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ْ َ ِ ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ْ‫اﳌﺤﻤــــﻮد‬ ‫ﻄـــﻖ‬ِ ِ ُ ْ َ ِ ‫ـــﻖ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻔـﻠ‬ ‫رب‬ ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺤﻤ‬ ‫ــﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻧﺘﻬ‬ ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗ‬ِ َ َ ‫ﱢ‬ ََ ْ ِ ِِ َ َ ْ َ‫اﳌﻨﻄــﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠــﻢ‬ ‫ﻓــﻦ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫رﻣـﺘـــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣــﺎ‬ِ ِ ِ ِْ َُ ِ ْ ‫ﱢ‬ ْ َُ ْ ُ َ ‫ـــﻘﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫اﳌـﻔـﺘ‬ ‫ــﺬﻟﻴﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻌﺒ‬ ‫ــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﻈﻤ‬ْ ْ َ ِ َِ ُْ ُ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ َ ُ َ َ‫اﳌﻘـﺘــــﺪر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻈـــﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﳌـــﻮﱃ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﲪـــﺔ‬ْ ْ َ ِ ِ ِ َِ ْ ُ َِ َ ْ ََ ْ ‫اﻟﺮﲪــــــﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑـــــﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﺧــــﴬي‬ِ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ُ ِْ َ ‫ﱡ‬ ِ َ َ‫اﳌﺮﲡــــ‬ِ َ ْ ُ‫اﳌـﻨـــــﺎن‬ ‫رﺑـــــﻪ‬ ‫ﻣــــﻦ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ِ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َْ ْ ‫ـــــﻮب‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻧـ‬ ‫ـــــﻂ‬‫ـ‬‫ﲢﻴـ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻔــــﺮة‬ِ ُ ْ‫ﱡ‬ ِ ِ ُِ ْ َ َُ ً‫اﻟﻘـﻠــــﻮب‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻐﻄ‬ ‫ــﺸﻒ‬‫ـ‬‫وﺗﻜ‬ِ ُ ُ ِ َ ََ ِ ُِ ْ َ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫وأن‬ُ ْ َ َ‫ـــــﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻌـﻠ‬ ‫ـــــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑﺠﻨ‬ ‫ـــــﻴﺒﻨﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺜ‬َ ُ َ َ ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬ َِ ْ‫ﺗﻔــــﻀــﻼ‬ ‫ﻣــــﻦ‬ ‫أﻛــــــﺮم‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧـــــﻪ‬َ ‫ﱠ‬ َ َ ْْ َُ ُ َ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ‫ــﺴﺎﳏﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـــﺘﺪي‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺒ‬ ‫ــﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫أﺧ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻛ‬َِ ِ ِ ِ َ ُ ُ ْْ ْ ْ ََ ُْ َ‫ـــﻼ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻹﺻ‬ ‫ــﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻛ‬ْ ْ َِ ُ‫ــﺤﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﺎﺻ‬ ‫ــﺴﺎد‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻔ‬ ‫ح‬َ ِ َِ َ َ ِ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘـﺄﻣــــــﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔــــﺴـﺎد‬ ‫وأﺻــــﻠﺢ‬ِ ‫ﱡ‬ ََ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ ْ ََ ِ ِ َ‫ــــــﻼ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﳞـــــﺔ‬ ‫وإن‬َ َ ً َ ْ ِ َ َْ ِ‫ــــــﺪل‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗـﺒــ‬ِ ‫ﱢ‬ َُ ‫ـــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤـ‬ ‫ــﻒ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﺰﻳ‬ ‫ــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗﻴ‬ ‫إذ‬َ َْ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ ْ ْ ِ ٍ َِ َ َ ْ ِ‫ﻗﺒﻴﺤــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤــــﻪ‬ ‫ﻛــــﻮن‬ ‫ﻷﺟــــﻞ‬َ ْ ْْ ِ َ ِ ِ ْ َ ِ َ ِ َ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ـﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻗ‬ِ ْ ُ َ‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ـﺼﻒ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻳﻨﺘ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﻤﻦ‬ِ ِْ َ ْ َ َْ َ ْ‫ـ‬‫ـﺼﺪي‬‫ـ‬‫ﻤﻘ‬ْ ِ ِ ْ َ‫وا‬ ‫ﺣـــﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻌـــﺬر‬َ َ ُ‫ﱞ‬ ُ ْ‫ﻟﻠﻤـﺒــــﺘﺪي‬ ‫ﺟـــﺐ‬ْ ْ ٌ ِ َِ ُ ْ ِ ‫ــ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻟﺒﻨ‬ِ ِ َ َ‫ﻲ‬‫ـــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺳـﻨ‬ ‫ــﴩﻳﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫وﻋ‬ ‫ــﺪى‬‫ـ‬‫إﺣ‬ْ َْ ََ َْ َ ِْ ِ ِ‫ﻣﺴﺘـﺤــــﺴـﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌــــﺬرة‬ْ ٌ َْ ََ ْ ُ َ َ َْ ُ َْ ٌ ِ ‫اﻟﻘــــــﺮون‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺷـــــﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳــــﻴﲈ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ِ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ُ ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ِ َ‫ــــﻮن‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟﻔـﺘ‬ ‫ـــﺴﺎد‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟﻔ‬ ‫ـــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫اﳉﻬ‬ ‫ذي‬ِ ُ ُ ََ َ ْ ِ ِ َ ِ َْ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫وﻛــــﺎن‬ِ َ َ َ‫اﳌﺤــــــﺮم‬ ‫أواﺋــــــﻞ‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ َُ ِ ِ َ‫اﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﻫـــﺬا‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻟﻴــــﻒ‬‫ﱠ‬ َْ ُ ِ ْ َ‫اﳌـﻨـﻈــــﻢ‬ ‫ﺟـــﺰ‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬ َ ُ ِ َ
  14. 14. -15- ‫ﺳــﻨــــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـــﻦ‬ٍ َِ َ ْ‫وأرﺑﻌـــﲔ‬ ‫إﺣـــﺪى‬ْ ْ ْ ِ َ َ َْ َ ِ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫ﺗــﺴﻌــﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌــﺪ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬َ َ ْ َ ْ ِ ٍ ِ ِ ِ ْ‫ـ‬‫ﻤ‬ِ‫ـ‬‫ﺌــ‬ِ‫ـ‬‫ﲔ‬ْ ‫ـــﺪا‬‫ـ‬‫ﴎﻣـ‬ ‫ــﺴﻼم‬‫ـ‬‫واﻟ‬ ‫ــﺼﻼة‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ــﻢ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺛ‬َ َ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ْ َ ‫ﱠ‬ُ ُ‫ــﻮل‬‫ـ‬‫رﺳ‬ ‫ـﲆ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋ‬ِ ُ َ َ َ‫ــﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻠ‬ِ ‫ﱠ‬‫ـﺪى‬‫ـ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـﲑ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺧ‬َ ََ ْ َ ِْ ‫اﻟﺜـﻘـــــــﺎت‬ ‫وﺻﺤﺒـــــﻪ‬ ‫وآﻟــــﻪ‬ِ ِ ِ َِ ‫ﱢ‬ ِ ْ َ َ َ‫ا‬ ‫ﺳﺒـــــــﻞ‬ ‫اﻟـــــﺴﺎﻟﻜﲔ‬َ ُ ُ ْ ‫ﱠ‬َ ِ ِ‫ﻟﻨﺠـــــــﺎة‬ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ــﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫أﺑﺮﺟ‬ ‫ـﺎر‬‫ـ‬‫اﻟﻨﻬ‬ ‫ـﻤﺲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺷ‬ ‫ـﺖ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻗﻄﻌ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬َ ْ ُ َُ ْ ََ ِ َ ‫ﱠ‬ َْ َ َ‫اﻟـــﺪﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫اﳌﻨـﻴــــﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒـــﺪر‬ ‫وﻃﻠـــﻊ‬َ َ َ َ‫ﱡ‬ ْْ ِ ُ ْ ُ ِ ُ َ َ ‫ﺗـﻢ‬‫ﱠ‬ َ‫اﻟﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻤﺪ‬ِ ِ‫ﱠ‬ ْ َ ِ
  • ilyesilyes5

    Feb. 16, 2020
  • Tarekabc

    Nov. 10, 2015
  • MoezAyari1

    Nov. 9, 2015
  • TheManager1986

    Oct. 10, 2014
  • sami_1988

    Oct. 9, 2014

سلم

Vistas

Total de vistas

1.649

En Slideshare

0

De embebidos

0

Número de embebidos

3

Acciones

Descargas

132

Compartidos

0

Comentarios

0

Me gusta

5

×