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Mining and Impacts to Environment and Farmers - August 2011

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Dr. Emelina G. Regis

Puerto Princesa, Palawan

Institute for Environmental Conservation and Research (INECAR)
Ateneo de Naga University
Naga City

August 5, 2011

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Mining and Impacts to Environment and Farmers - August 2011

  1. 1. Mining Impacts to the Environment  Dr. Emelina G. Regis August 5, 2011 August 5 2011 Puerto Pinsesa, PalawanInstitute for Environmental  Conservation and Research (INECAR) Ateneo de Naga University Naga City Naga City
  2. 2. The Island Ecosystem A. Mangrove D.  Cropland D. Cropland G. Seagrass beds G. Seagrass beds B. Forest E. Human Settlement C. Coral F. River/CreekThe mining area with open pit is letter H.  B2 represents denuded forest.  The darker tint of the coral reef at the left side represents dead corals.
  3. 3. raindrops force of falling raindrops reduced by  leaves of treeswater droplets gently fall on dried leaves Water table Water table groundwater Watershed Effect
  4. 4. MiningMining is the physical removal of soil and rocks Mining is the physical removal of soil and rocks from the earth’s crust for various purposes. To facilitate processing, these rocks are crushed  into smaller fragments Metals are released through heap leaching  process using acid and/or cyanide The acid and/or cyanide are released into a  treatment plant and/or the disposal sites treatment plant and/or the disposal sites
  5. 5. Stages of mining1. Exploration – clearing of vegetation and construction of roads causing disturbance to wildlife g2. Site development- road building continue, infrastructures (offices, processing plants) are built3. Extraction (processing)- addition of chemicals such as mercury and cyanide to extract the target metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc) or sulfuric acid in nickel mining in laterite soil4. Mine Closure – when ores are exhausted and socialproblems arise creating financial liability to the company
  6. 6. Ores in the ecosystem12
  7. 7. Effect of mining, topsoil is  removed
  8. 8. Quezon, Palawan Operation of BNC over Natural Forest
  9. 9. Brgy. Berong, QuezonQuezon, PalawanQuezon Palawan Discoloration of Iba’t Ong River due to operation of Berong Nickel Corp. (BNC) Exploration Photo by ELAC
  10. 10. CITINICKEL, NARRA
  11. 11. Laterite‐affected ricefield
  12. 12. Metals in Laterite soil and impacts Metals in Laterite soil and impacts Laterite is a residual ore deposit resulting  Laterite is a residual ore deposit resulting from the weathering of rocks and soil.Metals found with nickel (Ni) are Cobalt (Co),  ( ) ( ),Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr),  Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc  Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn)
  13. 13. Metals Toxic Effects on plants at elevated levels or if values exceeded standards Nickel Ni k l Reduced roots & shoots biomass; R d d t h t bi Blocks cell division inhibiting root branching; Chromium III Alteration of the germination process, & chromium VI root, stem & leaf growth; destroys (Hexavalent) photosynthetic ability to produce food; Manganese Chlorosis; stunting of growth; reduced grain yield; reduced root elongation, i i ld d d t l ti eventual death; decreased in size and opening of stomata resulting in reduced entry of carbon dioxide, thus affecting photosynthesisSources:  Shanker et al. 2005;Ahmad et al. 2010; Seregin and Kozhevnikova 2005; Dobermann and Fairhurst 2000; Lidon 2000; Ward et al. 2008 
  14. 14. Metals Toxic Effects on plants at elevated levels or if values exceeded standards Nickel Ni k l Reduced roots & shoots biomass; R d d t h t bi Blocks cell division inhibiting root branching; Chromium III Alteration of the germination process, & chromium VI root, stem & leaf growth; destroys (Hexavalent) photosynthetic ability to produce food; Manganese Chlorosis; stunting of growth; reduced grain yield; reduced root elongation, i i ld d d t l ti eventual death; decreased in size and opening of stomata resulting in reduced entry of carbon dioxide, thus affecting photosynthesisSources:  Shanker et al. 2005;Ahmad et al. 2010; Seregin and Kozhevnikova 2005; Dobermann and Fairhurst 2000; Lidon 2000; Ward et al. 2008 
  15. 15. Whitish blades of rice Whitish blades of riceplant from San Isidro ricefield : San Isidro ricefield :example of posssibly affected by heavy affected by heavymetals 
  16. 16. Metal Other Toxic Effects Iron Inhibition of primary root growth; death.  Toxic to fishes Chromium Damage gills of fishes causing death Nickel Human carcinogen especially of the lungs As, Cr, Mn, Ni Reduced plant growth and inability to  produce food by 46% Ni, Co, Mn Reduced harvest on beans by 23% Cd, Cu, Zn,  Decreased in plant growth by 85% Mn, Co, Ni M C NiSources: US EPA, 2001; Munthas et al. 2010; William and Wilkins 1985; Shanker et al. 2005; Ahmad et al. 2010; Lidon 2000; Ward et al. 2008; 
  17. 17. Effects on plants Normal  pollen  grains abortedStachytarpheta jamaicensis
  18. 18. Mature coconut trees in Sitio Sta. Barbara  b i f it ( d bearing fruits (see red arrows) )
  19. 19. Mature coconuts that do not bear fruits in the mining  area of Sitio Ultra Barangay Luklukan Sur area of Sitio Ultra, Barangay Luklukan Sur
  20. 20. Effects on plants  (Cyperus kyllingia) (Cyperus kyllingia) Loss of starch in leaves of  grass plants grass plantsControlContaminatedC i d
  21. 21. Impacts on the seagrass Halodule pinifolia p f Right: Normal cells Right: Normal cells Left : structural destruction of  cells.
  22. 22. A simplified food chain
  23. 23. Impacts of heavy metals on human healthRespiratory problems; cadmium pneumonitisCancer (all kinds)Brain dysfunction; mental retardation; permanentbrain damageMalfunctions of organ systems: nervous, kidney nervousLoss of vision; deafness; Loss of musclecoordinationBone abnormalitiesLiver poisoning; blood poisoningProblems on reproduction development and birth reproduction,defectsStomach irritation; vomiting; diarrheaComa and death
  24. 24. Left: Pagcolbon River, Rapu-Rapu within the p p mining site at higher elevation (Dec 11, 2005) pH is 2.8. The 28 weather was humidThe Coral Reef atthe E tth Eastern coast t of Rapu-Rapuwhere Pagcolbon River and Ungay i dCreek empty their contaminated acidic water and waste cyanide
  25. 25. Effects of mining on aquatic animals g qCyanide residues in tailings pond – cause death to fishes, wildlife and domestic animalsElevated levels of cyanide that reaches the Elevated levels of cyanide that reaches thesea causes fishkillsTailings choke, smothers and kill animals in the coral reefcoral reef
  26. 26. Fish Killing in Rapu‐Rapu (2005, 2007)
  27. 27. Live Corals of Rapu‐Rapu
  28. 28. Dead corals near mining site of Rapu‐Rapu Pictures taken March 2009
  29. 29. Dead corals near mining site of Rapu‐Rapu Pictures taken March 2009
  30. 30. The Coral Triangle Center of  fish  diversity
  31. 31. Save God’s wonderful creation!
  32. 32. Tao, Tulungan mo kami!

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